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Full text of "The Labour gazette July-December 1961"

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Published Monthly by the 

PARTMENT OF LABOUR 

CANADA 



Vol. LXI 



JULY 31, 



No. 7-1 
1961 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister George V. Haythorne, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 

Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 

Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Meriis 

Circulation Manager 



J. E. Abbey 



IV.D 
8io| 

A3 
m. 6.1 
W 1- 15. 



Cover 






Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 




ftll549 



Vol. LXI, No. 7 CONTENTS July 31, 1961 

Employment Review 613 

Collective Bargaining Review 627 

Notes ot Current Interest 633 

House of Commons Debates of Labour Interest: A Guide . . 636 

90th Annual Meeting, Canadian Manufacturers' Association 640 

McGill University's 13th Annual Industrial Relations Conference 647 

NES Counselling and Placement in the 1960's 656 

U.S. Area Redevelopment Act 658 

Industrial Fatalities during the First Quarter of 1961 660 

Course for Occupational Therapists 663 

Employment, Retirement of Older Workers 664 

U.N. Commission on the Status of Women 665 

50 Years Ago This Month 666 

International Labour Organization: 

7th Session, Inland Transport Committee 667 

Cost of Social Security in 41 Countries 669 

Teamwork in Industry 671 

Industrial Relations: 

Certification Proceedings 672 

Conciliation Proceedings 674 

Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 682 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 685 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 691 

United States Fair Labor Standards Act 698 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operation 703 

Decisions of the Umpire 704 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 707 

Prices and the Cost of Living 713 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library 715 

Labour Statistics 718 



Correspondence — Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing with 
subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. Subscriptions — Canada: $2 per year, single copies 
25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per year, single copies 50 cents each. Send remittance by 
cheque or post office money order, payable to the Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queen's 
Printer, c /o Superintendent of Government Publications, Ottawa. All subscriptions payable in 
advance. Special Group Subscription Offer — Five or more annual subscriptions, $1 per 
subscription (Canada only). Send remittance, payable to the Receiver-General of Canada, to the 
Circulation Manager. Bound Volumes — $5 per copy delivered in Canada, $7 per copy to other 
countries. Change of Address — Please attach label showing previous address. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



EMPLOYMENT REVIEW 



ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



Manpower Situation, Second Quarter, 1961 

Current Trends 

The pace of economic activity quickened during the second quarter. After 
showing evidence of firming earlier in the year, employment and output 
registered substantial increases. Income derived from current production moved 
up sharply in April and helped to bolster purchasing power. Retail sales, 
seasonal variations taken into account, also turned up in April and showed a 
further increase in May after a somewhat disappointing first quarter. 

Non-farm employment registered a better-than-seasonal advance during 
the second quarter with sizable gains in service and manufacturing. In June, 
total non-farm employment stood at 5,517,000, an increase of 60,000 from 
a year earlier. As might be expected in the initial stages of recovery, there was 
a substantial drop in the number of persons working part time. The number 
of persons at work less than 35 hours a week, due to economic reasons, declined 
from an estimated 86,000 in March to 59,000 in June. Economic reasons for 
not working 35 hours or more include short-time, lay-offs for part of the week 
and termination or start of employment during the week. 

The most notable development during the second quarter was improve- 
ment in the durable goods sector of manufacturing. This group of industries 
had been in the forefront of the previous decline. Activity in the non-durable 
goods sector also increased during the second quarter after remaining firm 
for several months. The service industry, which exerted a strong sustaining 
influence on output and employment during the first quarter, continued to 
expand, and housebuilding, another source of strength during the early part of 
the year, exhibited continuing strength although there was some evidence of a 
slowing down in the rate of housing starts. Non-residential construction, which 
experienced a larger-than-seasonal reduction in activity during the first quarter, 
has shown little improvement in recent months. 

The improvement in manufacturing, together with a modest upturn in 
forestry activity, resulted in a larger-than-seasonal employment expansion in the 
goods-producing industries. Employment in this group had been declining fairly 
steadily since the middle of last year. The service industry, which had shown 
a remarkable growth rate during 1960 and the opening quarter of 1961, 
continued to expand. 

After allowing for seasonal factors, manufacturing employment showed a 
slow but steady rise throughout the second quarter, reaching a somewhat higher 
level than last year. Some recovery was underway in both durables and non- 
durables. Iron and steel plants were reported to have rehired a considerable 
number of persons during the second quarter, and the most recent detailed 
industrial employment statistics seem to confirm this. Except for fabricated and 
structural steel and iron castings, all of the iron and steel products industries 
expanded somewhat between March and April. The decline in the former 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 613 

97053-3—1 



, , — 

LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - CANADA 
JULY 1958 TO DATE 

-Original dato ~ — " _ '~ Seasonally adjusted 



Labour Force 



6, 700,000 
6,600,000 




can be attributed to the slowdown in 
industrial construction. Other durable 

Origina.doto Seasonally adjusted gOOdS indUStrieS Whkh ShOWed CmplOy- 

SMIS! ™ K ^ ment strengthening during the second 
quarter were shipbuilding, heavy elec- 
trical apparatus and building materials. 

The automotive and parts industries 
experienced a further small decline from 
the reduced level which was in evidence 
during the first quarter. Prospects for the 
remainder of the year are a little brighter 
as elimination of the excise tax on auto- 
mobiles is expected to bolster sales- In 
the first half of 1961, automobile sales 
were running at a lower level than in 
most recent years. Aircraft manufac- 
turing showed continuing employment 
stability. This industry was maintained 
at a fairly high level throughout the 
recent downturn. The railway rolling 
stock industry showed little employment 
change during the second quarter, but 
prospects were somewhat brighter follow- 
ing an increase in new orders; employ- 
ment drifted downwards throughout 1959 
and 1960. 

Employment gains in the second quarter in non-durable goods were rela- 
tively small but fairly widespread. The largest increase, allowing for seasonal 
variations, were in rubber and paper products. Employment either held firm 
or advanced slightly in leather goods, clothing and textiles. The employment 
rise in food and beverages was about normal for the season. 

Hours of work in manufacturing, which generally lead changes in employ- 
ment and output, have been increasing since the beginning of the year. The 
average work week in April (the most recent data available) was a little 
longer than a year earlier but still considerably shorter than in the summer of 
1959. The largest advance since the beginning of the year was in durables 
which showed an increase of a little better than half-an-hour. 

Activity in forestry picked up in the second quarter after showing a slight 
decline early in the year. The stepup reflected stronger demands for lumber 
and newsprint. Pulp cutting quotas were reported to be somewhat larger this 
year, but it seems unlikely that employment will expand as much as output, 
as the logging industry has become increasingly mechanized during the past 
few years and most of the evidence points to a continuation of this trend. 
Most reports indicate strengthening in demand for pulpwood. Inventories of 
pulpwood at the end of May were a little higher than a year earlier but con- 
sumption of pulpwood has been rising moderately. 

Construction employment (seasonally adjusted) showed virtually no 
change between the first and second quarter. Outlays by institutions and govern- 
ments, and expenditures on new housing were maintained at a fairly high level, 
but weaknesses persisted in the business, industrial and engineering sector. 



614 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 196 J 



Contract awards in the first five months of 1961 were 15 per cent lower 
than last year for business structures. A similar comparison for industrial and 
commercial construction shows somewhat smaller decreases. 

In the service-producing industries, the only significant employment change 
was in the service industry proper. With substantial gains in both the first and 
second quarters, service employment in June was estimated to be 114,000 
higher than in June 1960. 

On balance, developments in the second quarter were fairly encouraging. 
Manufacturing, which contributed largely to the recent slowdown in economic 
activity, showed increasing signs of strength. Forestry, another source of 
weakness during the recent recession, showed definite signs of improvement. 
In other goods-producing industries, employment remained fairly steady. The 
service industry which had been a strong sustaining force earlier in the year 
continued to expand. 

Comparison with Last Year 

Employment in the second quarter was about 103,000 higher, on average, 
than in the corresponding quarter last year. All of the increase was in women's 
employment. The number of employed men was virtually the same as in the 
second quarter of 1960; the first quarter comparison showed a decline of 
49,000. 

The sustained growth of the service industry was mainly responsible for 
the increase in the number of employed women. In the service industry proper, 
employment averaged about 97,000 higher than in the second quarter of 1960, 
women accounting for about four-fifths of the increase. Employment changes 
were relatively small for both sexes in trade, transportation, finance, insurance 
and real estate. In the goods-producing industries, women's employment 
increased by an estimated 24,000, while the number of men employed snowed 
a corresponding decline. A little better than half of this increase was in 
agriculture, mainly in the number of unpaid family workers. 

In the second quarter of 1961, employment in the goods-producing indus- 
tries was virtually the same as a year earlier. Manufacturing and agriculture 
registered sizable gains which made up for the losses in mining, construction 
and transportation. Employment in forestry was maintained at much the same 
level as last year. 

Manufacturing employment in the second quarter was slightly higher 
than a year earlier, although considerably below the pre-recession peak. Indus- 
tries showing improvement over the year were aircraft and aircraft parts, ship- 
building, paper products, clothing and textiles. 

Iron and steel products, which were particularly hard hit by the recession, 
have shown increasing signs of strength during the past few months, but 
employment levels in these industries were still considerably lower than last 
year. Activity in the motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts industries was 
sharply lower than last year. It will be remembered, however, that the auto- 
motive industry was operating at a high level during the second quarter of 
1960. 

The year-to-year drop in mining employment took place in fuels and in 
metal mining. Non-metal mining showed continuing strength, reflecting the 
strong demand for asbestos products. Metal mining showed the most marked 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 196 1 615 

97053-3— 1J 



decline with losses in uranium, iron ore and gold. Oil and natural gas accounted 
for most of the year-to-year employment contraction in fuels; activity in coal 
mining declined slightly. 

Unemployment 

Unemployment showed a slightly larger-than-seasonal decline between 
the first and second quarter but continued to be higher than last year. In 
June, an estimated 370,000 persons were unemployed, representing 5.6 per 
cent of the labour force. A year before, the figure was 315,000, representing 
4.9 per cent of the labour force. The unemployment rate was higher than last 
year in the Atlantic, Quebec and Ontario regions. In the two western regions, 
it was about the same as last year. 

Of the 370,000 unemployed in June, 310,000 were men and 60,000 were 
women. Almost all of the increase over the year was among the male unem- 
ployed, and all age groups shared in the rise. About four-fifths of the unem- 
ployed were over 19 years old, a slightly larger proportion than a year earlier. 

In the second quarter of 1961, unemployment rates were higher than in 
the second quarter of 1960 in all industry groups and in all occupations except 
primary industries where there was no change. On average, there were 483,000 
unemployed in the second quarter of 1961. Of this number, about half were 
labourers and manufacturing and construction workers. Office and professional 
workers accounted for a significant portion of the remainder. 

Unemployment rates for labourers and construction workers in the second 
quarter were more than double the national average. The rate for office and 
professional workers, on the other hand, was less than half the national average. 



LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONS 





Labour Surplus 


Approximate Balance 




1 


2 


3 


Labour Market Areas 


June 
1961 


June 
1960 


June 

1961 


June 
1960 


June 
1961 


June 
1960 




2 
2 


1 
1 

1 


10 
19 
4 
31 


9 
22 

5 
32 


2 

5 

10 

25 


2 




3 




9 




25 






Total 


4 


3 


64 


68 


42 


39 







616 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS-JUNE 





SUBSTANTIAL 


MODERATE 


APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 




LABOUR SURPLUS 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 








— >»EDMONTON 








Calgary 
Halifax 
Hamilton 


— ^OTTAWA-HULL 












METROPOLITAN AREAS 
(labour force 75,000 or more) 




Montreal 
— KIUEBEC-LEVIS 
— >>ST. JOHN'S 

Toronto 
— ►VANCOUVER- 


















NEW WESTMINSTER 










— »-WINDSOR 










Winnipeg 








Lac St. Jean 


Brantford 


— >>GUELPH 






Sydney 


— ^CORNWALL 

— KORNER BROOK 

Farnham-Granby 

Ft. William- 

Pt. Arthur 

— WOLIETTE 


— ^KINGSTON 
— ^KITCHENER 
— ^LONDON 
— ^SUDBURY 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL 




— »-MONCTON 

— >-NEW GLASGOW 






AREAS 




Niagara Peninsula 






(labour force 25.000-75.000: 




Oshawa 






60 per cent or more in non- 




Peterborough 






agricultural activity) 




— H*OUYN-VAL DOR 

Saint John 

Sarnia 
— »-SHAWINIGAN 

Sherbrooke 

Timmins- 

Kirkland Lake 
— >>TROIS RIVIERES 

Victoria 










Chatham 


— >>BARRIE 








— ^RIVIERE DU LOUP 


Brandon 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 
AREAS 




— KTHETFORD-MEGANTIC- 
ST. GEORGES 


— -KHARLOTTETOWN 
— >-LETHBRIDGE 




(labour force 25.000-75.000: 




Yorkton 


Moose Jaw 
North Battleford 




40 per cent or more 
agricultural) 






— >-PRINCE ALBERT 
— >*RED DEER 

Regina 
— »-SASKATOON 






Campbellton 


— >-BATHURST 


— »-BRACEBRIDGE 






KTTFMAT d 












Beauharnois 
Belleville-Trenton 


Brampton 
— yCRANBROOK 
— >-DRUMHELLER 








— >-BRIDGEWATER 










VFnivn TNr>9TnM 








^CL»lVlUl>(L»o 1 \JV* 








Central Vancouver 


Goderich 








Island 


-VHRANin FA1 I c; 








p OIx/\l>J U r nLLo 








Chilliwack 


— >-KAMLOOPS 








Dauphin 


— >-KENTVILLE 








Dawson Creek 


— >-LACHUTE- 








Drummondville 


ST. THERESE 








— >-FREDERICTON 


Listowel 








Gait 


— >>NORTH BAY 








— >-GASPE 


— »>OWEN SOUND 








Lindsay 


— HPORTAGE LA 




MINOR AREAS 




MEDICINE HAT -< — 


PRAIRIE 




(labour force 10.000-25.000) 




— >MONTMAGNY 

— >-NEWCASTLE 

— K>KANAGAN VALLEY 


— >-PRINCE RUPERT 
— >-ST. HYACINTHE 








— >-ST. THOMAS 








Pembroke 


Simcoe 








— >-PRINCE GEORGE- 


Stratford 








QUESNEL 
— >QUEBEC NORTH SHORE 


Swift Current 








— >-TRAIL-NELSON 








— »>RIMOUSKI 


Walkerton 








Ste. Agathe- 
St. Jerome 


Weyburn 








— >>WOODSTOCK- 








St. Jean 


TILLSONBURG 

WYiRMfll ITU 








^ I Ar\ivnju 1 n 








— >-ST. STEPHEN 










Sault Ste. Marie 










Sorel 










— »»SUMMERSIDE 










Truro 










Valleyfield 










Victoria ville 










— »-WOODSTOCK. N.B. 







VThe areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicate the group from which they 
moved. For an explanation of the classification used, see page 424, April issue. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



617 



Employment Situation in Local Areas 

ATLANTIC 



— 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - ATLANTIC 
JULY 1958 TO DATE 




Employment in the Atlantic region 
increased more than seasonally between 
the first and second quarter of 1961. An 
important factor in this increase was the 
firming of activity in manufacturing. In 
the opening quarter, manufacturing em- 
ployment showed a larger-than-seasonal 
decrease. 

Activity in iron and steel plants 
showed a moderate rise during the second 
quarter after having declined noticeably 
during the first three months. Pulp and 
paper plants also showed evidence of 
employment expansion during the second 
quarter after having remained fairly 
stable during the earlier part of the year. 
Railway rolling stock, which was a major 
source of weakness in the first quarter, 
continued to operate at a very low level although prospects for this summer 
were considerably improved; the plant in New Glasgow was scheduled to start 
work on an order of 300 box cars in July. In the aircraft and parts industry, 
employment showed steady improvement during May and June after declining 
in April. Shipbuilding activity was curtailed during the second quarter as a 
result of industrial disputes at the yards in Halifax and Saint John. However, 
some rehiring was reported to have taken place following strike settlements in 
June, and the outlook for the remainder of the year is reported to be very 
bright. 

Employment in coal mining showed a further decline during the second 
quarter, reaching a level which was substantially lower than last year. At the 
same time, the expected upturn in forestry was delayed as a result of an 
unusually late spring. Construction activity was also hampered by bad weather 
during much of the second quarter. Housebuilding was fairly active but 
employment in non-residential construction was somewhat lower than last 
year. 

Total employment in the second quarter averaged about 21,000 higher 
than a year earlier. The main improvement was in service. Manufacturing 
employment was slightly higher than last year. Significant employment gains 
occurred in shipbuilding, aircraft and pulp and paper products. Employment 
was somewhat lower than a year ago in iron and steel products and in railway 
stock. Unemployment in the second quarter remains somewhat higher than last 
year. In June, the classification of the 21 areas in the region, (last years figures 
in brackets) was as follows: In substantial surplus, 2 (0); in moderate surplus, 
14 (13); in balance, 5 (8). 

Local Area Developments 

St. John's (metropolitan): Construction employment showed a substantial 
year-to-year decrease, but activity in most other industries compared favourably 
with a year ago. 



618 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



Halifax (metropolitan): Group 2. Total employment in June was somewhat 
higher than a year earlier as a result of increased activity in most parts of 
manufacturing. Construction employment was a little lower than last year. 



u 



_ 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - QUEBEC 
JULY 1958 TO DATE 




QUEBEC 

Employment in Quebec increased 
somewhat more than seasonally during 
the second quarter of this year and was, 
on average, fractionally higher than last 
year. The rate of increase was 6.6 per 
cent, higher than in any corresponding 
period during the past five years. At the 
same time, however, the decline in unem- 
ployment was smaller than usual for this 
time of year, and the average unemploy- 
ment level continued higher than a year 
earlier. 

The low level of forestry employ- 
ment which prevailed in the first quarter 
continued during the first half of the 
second quarter. Later in the second quar- 
ter, however, forestry employment picked 
up rapidly and, by the end of June, was 
higher than in the previous three years. This was attributable in part to the 
late start of the river drive and in part to a changed pattern of operation and 
employment in this industry. Employment in mining increased seasonally 
and remained higher than last year. 

Construction employment increased seasonally during the quarter, but 
remained lower than last year, reflecting the relatively lower level of capital 
investment- The decline in industrial construction over the year was spread over 
a wide range of industries, affecting primary industries, most manufacturing 
industries, as well as the utilities group. This was partly offset by greater activity 
in residential construction due to a substantial increase in houses under construc- 
tion during the second quarter as well as over the year. The number of new 
houses started in the second quarter of this year dropped off considerably from 
the previous quarter but remained well above the second quarter level of 1960. 

Manufacturing employment showed some improvement from first to 
second quarter, after allowing for seasonal movement. The gains were con- 
centrated mainly in industries supplying the building trade with such materials 
as wood products, non-metallic mineral products, and certain types of iron and 
steel products, especially structural steel. A noticeable employment increase 
in the pulp and paper industry was also reported during the second quarter. 
The non-durable consumer goods industries, in general, experienced the usual 
seasonal increases in production and employment. Employment in the textile 
industry continued at the higher level of the previous quarter, maintaining 
its improved year-to-year position for the third consecutive year. The consumer 
durable goods industries, however, showed little change from the low level of 
the first quarter. Compared with the second quarter of last year, only consumer 
non-durables registered year-to-year increases in employment and, as a result, 
total manufacturing employment experienced a decline over the year. 

Of the industries producing transportation equipment, railway car produc- 
tion and employment rose considerably in June as well as over the year, due 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



619 



to a substantial new order for railway cars. The aircraft industry, which had 
been steadily operating at a high level for several years, showed some weakening 
early in the second quarter. Towards the end of the quarter, however, expecta- 
tions of new orders, as a result of the proposed aircraft exchange arrangement 
with the United States, had the effect of arresting the downward employment 
trend. In the shipbuilding industry, there was no immediate evidence of in- 
creased employment following the announcement of a plan to subsidize Canadian 
shipbuilding. 

Employment in the service-producing industries increased over the quarter 
and was higher than a year earlier. The increase was particularly noticeable 
in trade and finance. 

In June, the labour market area classification was the same as the year 
before: in substantial surplus, 1; in moderate surplus, 21; in balance, 2. 

Local Area Developments 

Montreal (metropolitan). Group 2. Unemployment was about the same as last 
year. The main weakness lay in the continuously low level of activity in 
iron and steel products, with the exception of structural steel. On the other 
hand, employment in wood products, building materials, house furnishings and 
most consumer non-durables, increased considerably over the quarter as well as 
over the year. 

Quebec (metropolitan). Group 2. Unemployment was lower than last year. 
Improvements were reported in a number of industries, particularly in residen- 
tial construction, transportation, woods products, pulp and paper, and the 
shoe industry. 

ONTARIO 

The employment expansion in Ontario between the first and second quarters 
was in line with seasonal movements. In the second quarter, employment 
averaged 2,260,000, which was about 4 per cent higher than the average for 
the first three months of the year. Non-farm industries accounted for most 
of the rise in employment; farm employment accounted for about 20 per cent 
of the gain. 

Manufacturing employment streng- 
thened during the second quarter with 
gains in a fairly wide range of industries. 
A notable exception was the automotive 
industry which showed little improve- 
ment from the reduced level at which it 
was operating earlier in the year. The 
1961 production runs were completed 
earlier than usual and some plants began 
releasing workers in June. Some of the 
larger employment gains were in durable 
goods, particularly aircraft, heavy mach- 
inery and primary iron and steel. New 
orders gave renewed life to shipyards 
and to the heavy electrical apparatus 
industry, where, in the latter part of the 
second quarter, the downward trend in 
employment was arrested and some em- 




LAB0UR FORCE TRENDS - ONTARIO 
JULY 1958 TO DATE 



Labour Force 




620 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



ployment increases occurred. Employment in agricultural implements was nrm 
early in the second quarter but layoffs took place during May and June, 
somewhat earlier than usual. Employment in the food processing industry 
showed a large seasonal rise during the second quarter. 

Construction employment showed a substantial rise during the second 
quarter, largely reflecting the revival in housebuilding. Government, institutional 
and commercial building showed increasing signs of strength but industrial and 
engineering construction continued at reduced levels. 

Farm activity was resumed and though work in some areas was ham- 
pered by cold and wet weather, employment was generally at normal levels. 
Forestry operations were at a virtual standstill in April but picked up sharply 
later in the second quarter when hauling conditions improved and river drives 
commenced. 

Total employment in the second quarter was slightly higher than a year 
earlier. The sustained growth of the service industry offset losses in mining, agri- 
culture and manufacturing. While total manufacturing employment was slightly 
lower than a year earlier substantial gains were in evidence in certain industries. 
The main developments in manufacturing were centered in the durable goods 
sector. Employment increases in the aircraft and parts industry were more 
than outweighed by lower levels in automobile and parts plants. Employment 
was lower in the iron and steel industry which had been particularly busy a 
year earlier. The gradual shutdown and employment reductions in uranium 
mines contributed largely to decreased mining employment. 

The number of employed women was estimated to be 29,000 higher in 
June 1961 than in the corresponding month last year but the number of 
employed men showed no change. Reductions in durable goods manufacturing 
were the main factors in the contraction of male employment over the year. 
The expansion of service industries, having a high female content, accounted 
for most of the large rise in the number of women employed. 

Unemployment declined somewhat more than seasonally between the first 
two quarters of the year. Most of the improvement was seasonal, with the 
spring pickup in agriculture, food processing and construction being the big 
factors. Unemployment in the second quarter averaged 131,000, higher than 
the 117,000 unemployed in the same period a year earlier. In June, the 
classification of the 34 labour market areas in the region (last year's estimates 
in brackets) was as follows: in moderate surplus, 16 (20); in balance, 18 (14). 

Local Area Developments 

Toronto (metropolitan): Group 2. There was considerable improvement in 
employment conditions in the Toronto area between the first and second quarter. 
Demands for construction workers increased sharply although the large indus- 
trial dispute, which began in May, had a restraining influence on employment 
in construction and related industries. A considerable increase took place in 
the number employed in transportation occupations. Despite weaknesses in 
the automobile industry, manufacturing in general remained firm. 
Hamilton (metropolitan) : Group 2. A large part of the increase in employment 
occurred in manufacturing, especially among iron and steel products. Farm 
implement and auto production were high for most of the second quarter but 
weakened in June as plants neared completion of this year's production run. 
With the opening up of lake shipping, employment in the transport industry 
increased. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 621 

97053-3—2 



PRAIRIE 




Employment rose substantially more 
than usual in the second quarter in the 
Prairie region, from 1,003,000 to 1,095,- 
000 (9.1 per cent), and average employ- 
ment was 3.9 per cent higher than a year 
earlier. Non-agricultural employment 
averaged 786,000 in the second quarter, 
up 4.4 per cent from the first quarter 
and 2.5 per cent from the same period 
of 1960. 

Farm employment, which has shown 
regular year-to-year declines in recent 
years, exhibited marked strength in most 
of the second quarter of this year. There 
was a larger than usual seasonal rise of 
23.1 per cent from the first quarter and 
the average was up 7.8 per cent from the 
same period of 1960. 
After an early spring and favourable conditions, drought conditions 
developed which damaged both grain and forage crops in all parts of the region 
except in the Peace River area. Further damage was occasioned by outbreaks 
of grasshoppers, and cutworm infestations — the heaviest for many years — 
also occurred in south-central areas of the region. These developments were 
accompanied by some decline in farm employment late in the second quarter 
of the year. Anticipated shortages of feed prompted livestock farmers to reduce 
their cattle herds to some extent, and special programs to transport fodder 
into affected areas were initiated. Marketing conditions for grain remained 
favourable in the second quarter; exports of wheat from Canada during the 
crop year totalled 276.4 million bushels to June 21, up 28.5 per cent from last 
year. 

Employment in manufacturing expanded seasonally from the first to the 
second quarter; particularly large increases occurred in packing plants. Receipts 
of cattle were up 27.8 per cent in the first three weeks of June from the 
same period a year earlier, as farmers, troubled by possible feed shortages, 
trimmed their herds. Most other manufacturing industries operated at near last 
year's levels or slightly lower. Two pipe manufacturing plants laid off personnel 
on completion of orders for pipelines to be built this summer, and most 
other iron and steel plants in the region operated considerably below capacity. 

Construction employment moved toward summer levels with large num- 
bers of men hired for pipeline and hydro projects. Business building was down 
from year-earlier levels but 3 per cent more housing units were under construc- 
tion at the end of May than a year earlier. Petroleum was down somewhat 
from a year ago, where production increases were not reflected in increased 
employment; similar conditions existed in coal mining but these were largely 
offset by continued hiring for base metal developments in northern Manitoba. 
Non-goods producing industries showed substantial gains both from the first 
quarter and a year earlier. 

Unemployment decreased from 7.2 per cent of the labour force in the 
first quarter to 4.3 per cent in the second quarter; in the second quarter of 
1960 unemployment represented 3.9 per cent of the labour force. In June, 



622 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



six of the Prairie region's 19 labour market areas were classified in the moderate 
labour surplus category and in 13 the demand and supply of labour were in 
balance; this was the same as a year earlier. 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - PACIFIC 
JULY 1958 TO DATE 



Local Area Developments 

Fort William-Port Arthur (major industrial): Group 2. Railway and water trans- 
portation activity increased more than seasonally in the Lakehead area after 
navigation opened on April 9, in spite of some weakness in demand for iron 
ore. Requirements of men for grain handling by terminal elevators were strong, 
total shipments of grains by mid-May being 20 per cent higher than at the 
same date last year. 

PACIFIC 

A slightly greater than seasonal expansion in employment occurred in the 
Pacific region between the first quarter and the second quarter of 1961. Average 
employment rose to 536,000, up 2.9 per cent from the corresponding quarter 
of 1960. Women's employment rose very strongly above that of the second 
quarter of 1960, (9.4 per cent), while 
male employment showed a much more 
modest increase (0.9 per cent). Women 
accounted for 26.0 per cent of total em- 
ployment in the second quarter, up from 
24.5 per cent a year earlier. 

The usual increase in agricultural 
employment occurred in the second quar- 
ter. Spring work raised farmers' require- 
ments for men at mid-quarter, and sum- 
mer work and fruit picking commenced 
late in June. The employment of fisher- 
men also increased during the second 
quarter as salmon and herring fishing got 
underway and halibut fishing continued. 
Salmon catches were reported somewhat 
lighter than usual. 

Forestry operations, down seasonally 
at the beginning of the second quarter due to the spring breakup, moved steadily 
upward during the second quarter until the latter part of June, when fire hazards 
in drier areas and some flooding on the Columbia River caused some shutdowns. 
These affected chiefly logging; most sawmills and planer mills operated at higher 
levels than in the first four months of 1961 when the volume of lumber cut was 
about 15 per cent smaller than a year earlier. At the beginning of the second 
quarter, logging employment was about 20 per cent less than at the same time 
in 1960. At this time the total employed in pulp and paper mills was up 6 per 
cent from the same time last year, and the demand for pulp and paper continued 
to be strong. Shingle mills worked at full capacity. 

In manufacturing other than forestry products, the number working in 
smelting moved up during the quarter and was ahead of the year-earlier figure 
until repairs to hydro installations necessitated shutting down the Kitimat 
aluminum plant at mid-summer. In beverages, canned products, and food process- 
ing plants, employment increased seasonally during the quarter but some plants 
remained below year-earlier levels. Employment in garment plants moved up 

( Continued on page 628) 




THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3— 2J 



• JULY 7961 



623 



Explanatory Note to "Manpower Situation in Local Areas" 



The system of classifying the labour market 
situation in individual areas is an analytical 
device whose purpose is to give a clear and 
brief picture of local market conditions based 
on an appraisal of the situation in each area. 
In considering each category, it is necessary 
to keep in mind the market seasonal fluctua- 
tions in labour requirements in Canada. Labour 
surpluses are consistently highest in each year 
from December to March and lowest from 
July to October. 

The criteria on which this classification 
system is based are as follows: — 

Group 1: Labour Surplus. Areas in which 
current or immediately prospective labour sup- 
ply exceeds demand in almost all of the major 
occupations. This situation usually exists when 
the ratio of applications for employment on 
file with NES to paid workers, including those 
looking for jobs, is more than 9.9, 11.9 or 13.9 
per cent, depending on the size and character 
of the area. 

Group 2: Labour Surplus. Areas in which 
current or immediately prospective labour sup- 
ply exceeds demand in about half of the major 
occupations. The situation usually exists when 
the ratio of applications for employment on file 
with NES to paid workers, including those 
looking for jobs, is more than 5.9 or 6.9 per 
cent, but less than 10.0; 12.0 or 14.0 per cent, 
depending on the size and character of the area. 

Group 3: Balanced Labour Supply. Areas 
in which current or immediately prospective 
labour demand and supply are approximately 
in balance for most of the major occupations. 
The situation usually exists when the ratio of 
applications for employment on file with NES 
to paid workers, including those looking for 
jobs, is more than 1.9 or 2.4 per cent, but less 
than 6.0 or 7.0 per cent, depending on the size 
and character of the area. 

Group 4: Labour Shortage. Areas in which 
current or immediately prospective labour 
demand exceeds supply in most of the major 
occupations. This situation usually exists when 
the ratio of applications for employment on file 
with NES to paid workers, including those 
looking for jobs, is less than 2.0 or 2.5 per cent, 
depending on the size and character of the 
area. 

The classification of areas does not depend 
solely on the ratio of job applications to paid 
workers. All areas, and particularly those in 
which the ratio is close to the limits of the 
above-mentioned ranges, are examined closely 
in the light of other kinds of information to 
see whether they should or should not be 
reclassified. Information on labour market con- 
ditions at local areas is obtained mainly from 
monthly reports submitted by each of the local 



offices of the National Employment Service. 
This information is supplemented by reports 
from field representatives of the Department 
of Labour who regularly interview businessmen 
about employment prospects in their companies, 
statistical reports from the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics and relevant reports from other 
federal government departments, from provin- 
cial and municipal governments and from non- 
governmental sources. 

The term "labour market" as used in this 
section refers to a geographical area in which 
there is a concentration of industry to which 
most of the workers living in the area com- 
mute daily. The term is not meant to imply 
that labour is a commodity and subject to the 
same kind of demand and supply factors oper- 
tive in other markets. 

To facilitate analysis, all labour market areas 
considered in this review have been grouped 
into four different categories (metropolitan, 
major industrial, major agricultural, and minor) 
on the basis of the size of the labour force in 
each and the proportion of the labour force 
engaged in agriculture. This grouping is not 
meant to indicate the importance of an area 
to the national economy. The key to this 
grouping is shown in the classification of labour 
market areas on page 317. 

The geographical boundaries of the labour 
market areas dealt with in this section do not 
coincide with those of the municipalities for 
which they are named. In general the boun- 
daries of these areas coincide with the district 
serviced by the respective local office or offices 
of the National Employment Service. In a 
number of cases, local office areas have been 
amalgamated and the names used include 
several other local office areas, as follows: 
Farnham-Granby includes Cowansville; Mont- 
real includes Ste. Anne de Bellevue; Lac St. 
Jean includes Chicoutimi, Dolbeau, Jonquiere, 
Port Alfred, Roberval and Alma; Gaspe in- 
cludes Causapscal, Chandler, Matane and New 
Richmond; Quebec North Shore includes La 
Malbaie, Forestville, Sept lies and Baie Co- 
meau; Sherbrooke includes Magog; Trois 
Rivieres includes Louiseville; Toronto includes 
Long Branch, Oakville, Weston and Newmar- 
ket; Sudbury includes Elliot Lake; Niagara 
Peninsula includes Welland, Niagara Falls, St. 
Catharines, Fort Erie and Port Colborne; Van- 
couver-New Westminster includes Mission City; 
Central Vancouver Island includes Courtenay, 
Duncan, Nanaimo and Port Alberni; and 
Okanagan Valley includes Kelowna, Penticton 
and Vernon. 

The 110 labour market areas covered in this 
analysis include 90 to 95 per cent of all paid 
workers in Canada. 



Explanatory Notes to "Current Labour Statistics" 

(a) These figures are the result of a monthly survey conducted by the Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics for the purpose of providing estimates of the employment characteristics of the civilian 
non-institutional population of working age. (About 30,000 households chosen by area sampling 
methods in approximately 110 different areas in Canada are visited each month). The civilian 
labour force is that portion of the civilian non-institutional population 14 years of age and over 
that had jobs or that did not have jobs and was seeking work during the survey week. 

(b) Total application on file at NES offices exclude registrations from persons known to 
have a job while applying for another one. Means are also taken to exclude, as far as possible, 
persons who have secured work on their own since registration. Nevertheless, the figures 
inevitably include a number of persons who have found employment or who have left the labour 
force by the time the count is made. On the other hand, not all the persons who are looking for 
work register at employment offices. 



624 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



Current Labour Statistics 

(Latest available statistics as of July 15, 1961) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 
Total civilian labour force (a) (000) 

Employed (000) 

Agriculture (000) 

Non-agriculture (000) 

Paid workers (000) 

At work 35 hours or more (000) 

At work less than 35 hours (000) 

Employed but not at work (000) 

Unemployed (000) 

Atlantic (000) 

Quebec (000) 

Ontario (000) 

Prairie (000) 

Pacific (000) 

Without work and seeking work (000) 

On temporary layoff up to 30 days (000) 

Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100) 

Immigration 

Destined to the labour force 

Strikes and Lockouts 

Strikes and lockouts 

No. of workers involved 

Duration in man days 

Earnings and Income 
Average weekly wages and salaries (ind. comp.) 

Average hourly earnings (mfg) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly wages (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (1949 = 100) 

Index numbers of weekly wages in 1949 dollars 

(1949 = 100) 

Total labour income $000, 000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-durables 



June 17 
June 17 
June 17 
June 17 
June 17 

June 17 
June 17 
June 17 

June 17 
June 17 
June 17 
June 17 
June 17 
June 17 

June 17 
June 17 

April 
April 

1st Qtr. 1961 
1st Qtr. 1961 



June 
June 
June 



April 
April 
April 
April 
June 

April 
April 



May 
May 
May 
May 



6,592 
6,222 
705 
5,517 
5,034 

5,448 
618 
156 

370 
49 
139 
108 
30 
44 

354 

16 

112.4 
105.4 

11,839 
5,374 



38 

13,823 

182,320 



$78.18 

$ 1.84 

40.6 

$74.52 

129.0 

138.4 
1,540 



170.5 
151.7 
147.9 
154.9 



+ 0.8 
+ 2.3 

- 2.9 
+ 2.9 
+ 2.6 

+ 3.1 

- 6.9 
+13.0 

-19.0 
-33.8 
-15.8 
-13.6 
-33.3 

- 8.3 

-19.4 
-11.1 

+ 1.2 
+ 0.5 



-24.0 
+ 6.3 
+ 62.8 



0.7 
0.5 
0.7 
1.2 
0.0 

1.2 
2.0 



+ 2.6 
+ 2.7 
+ 4.6 
+ 1.2 



2.1 

1.4 
3.4 
1.1 
0.8 

0.6 
10.0 
4.3 

17.5 
28.9 
33.7 
10.2 
0.0 
2.2 

18.0 
6.7 

2.1 
3.2 

28.7 



- 11.6 
+ 89.1 
+ 242.3 



2.9 
2.8 
0.2 
3.0 
1.1 

1.7 
3.1 



+ 0.5 

- 1.0 

- 3.8 
+ 1.4 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour 
Force a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also page 424 April issue. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1967 



625 



COLLECTIVE BARGAINING REVIEW 

ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



One of the main areas of collective bargaining activity during June was 
the transportation industry, as major agreements with rail, truck and air carriers 
had terminated and renewal negotiations were in progress. In the railway 
industry bargaining centered on the renewal of collective agreements with 
conductors, engineers* firemen, baggagemen and others directly involved in 
the operation of trains. By the end of June, conciliation boards had been or 
were in the process of being established to assist with most of these negotiations. 

In air transportation Trans-Canada Air Lines continued to bargain for 
the renewal of three major collective agreements with its pilots, stewardesses, 
pursers, and sales personnel. The negotiations that gained the most widespread 
attention were those with the Canadian Air Line Flight Attendants' Association 
where the issue of extra flying time credits for stewardesses and pursers working 
aboard jet and turbo-prop aircraft was prominent. The principle of jet speed 
allowances, originally proposed by the union, was recognized in a conciliation 
board's recommendations in a formula that would give flight attendants extra 
flying time credit for flights aboard DC-8 and Vanguard aircraft (see L.'G. June 
1961, page 535). The company, however, rejected the board's recommendations 
on the grounds that the formula would tie present and ' future wage rates to 
aircraft speeds. TCA's counter proposal for a straight salary increase .with a 
differential for work aboard jets was turned down by an overwhelming majority 
of the union membership and, when further talks failed to bring, about a 
compromise, the union set a strike date fox midnight July 21. In an attempt 
to avert the threatened work stoppage [a mediator was appointed and further 
negotiations were scheduled to take place before the strike deadline. 

In the trucking industry negotiations started in June between the Teamsters' 
union and 10 Ontario car carriers who haul cars from auto plants in Windsor, 
Oakville and Oshawa. These ; carrier firms, members of the Motor Transport 
Industrial Relations Bureau, \ employ 750 workers who are represented by 
Local 880 of the Teamsters; in Windsor. The union, in opening the talks, 
asked for wage increases ranging from 20 cents to 57 cents an hour depending 
on classification, as Well as an increase in employer ^contributions to the 
welfare fund.. According to press reports, the companies proposed that the 
new agreement include a clause that would authorize immediate dismissal, 
without recourse to grievance procedure, of any employee who participates 
in a strike during the term of the contract. Other company proposals included 
a change in the union- security clause from maintenance of membership to 
the voluntary revocable check-off as well as changes in the seniority regulations. 
At the end of June the parties reportedly asked for the assistance of a con- 
ciliation officer to help resolve^ the areas p of disagreement. Later in 1961, 
negotiations in the trucking industry will extend to another six major collective 
agreements covering 12,000 truck drivers, maintenance men and mechanics 
located mainly in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. 

Major negotiations were started during June in the basic steel industry 
in eastern Canada. The United Steelworkers of America opened bargaining for 
new agreements with Algoma Steel in Sault Ste. Marie and the Steel Company 
of Canada plants in Hamilton and Montreal, to renew contracts that terminate 

626 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



at the end of July. Details of the union proposals to Algoma Steel were not 
made public. However, a union policy conference held in Toronto earlier this 
year set higher wages and pensions as the major objectives for this year's 
negotiations. 

New contract proposals presented by the Steelworkers' to the Steel Com- 
pany of Canada in Hamilton reportedly asked for substantial wage increases; 
however, the main emphasis appeared to be placed on improved welfare and 
pension provisions. The union will also seek to establish parity in the wage 
rates paid at the ten Stelco plants in Ontario and Quebec. As in previous 
negotiations the union proposed the introduction of a supplementary unemploy- 
ment benefit plan to help cushion the effects of layoffs in the industry. The 
union's proposed unemployment benefit plan would supplement unemployment 
insurance for 52 weeks and bring the employee's income up to 65 per cent of 
his weekly earnings. 

The Steelworkers' proposals also included a number of provisions that 
would benefit retired employees. It was proposed that each employee receive 
on retirement a lump sum payment equivalent to 13 weeks' pay; a provision 
similar to this was agreed to by the United States steel industry in the 1960 
negotiations. With regard to pensions, the union requested a reduction in the 
retirement age to 60, an increase in benefits, and the introduction of vesting 
rights after 10 years of service. Other union proposals were for company-paid 
group insurance and hospitalization plans to cover pensioned employees and 
their dependents. 

The union demands included a number of other welfare proposals. One 
of these was a comprehensive medical plan for Stelco employees and their 
families as an initial step toward the union goal of a health centre offering 
complete medical and surgical care on a prepaid basis. Another was an increase 
in the weekly indemnity during sickness or accident to an equivalent of 65 
per cent of base earnings payable for 26 weeks. The union also asked for 
three days' bereavement leave in the event of a death in the immediate family. 
It was further suggested that a bonus equal to 25 per cent of an employee's 
vacation period be given to those who take their holidays in the winter. The 
union contended that this bonus would induce senior employees to take their 
vacations during the winter months leaving the summer months for the younger 
men, many of whom have school-age children. 

More than 40,000 workers were affected by settlements in the British 
Columbia fishing and logging industries during June. Four hours before sockeye 
fishing on the Nass and Skeena rivers was to open, the province's salmon 
fishermen voted to accept an offer from the coastal canning firms to renew 
the 1960 collective agreement for another year without any change in the 
prices to be paid for fish. The union negotiating committee, composed of 
representatives from the United Fishermen and Allied Workers and the Native 
Brotherhood of British Columbia, had recommended that the membership 
reject the offer made by the Fisheries Association of British Columbia. In the 
final vote 64 per cent voted in favour of the offer which included, however, a 
provision for increased company contributions to the union welfare fund. 

Concurrent negotiations conducted by the same unions on behalf of 
shore workers and tendermen also resulted in a new one-year agreement with 
the Fisheries Association of British Columbia. In the new agreement, hourly- 
rated plant workers will get an extra two cents an hour, monthly-rated employees 
will get $3.50 a month extra and refrigeration engineers will get a seven cents 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 627 



an hour increase. Hourly-rated employees will also be given two more paid 
holidays a year. Tendermen received increases of $7 to $8 a month as well 
as an increase in the daily allowance for board from $1.83 to $2.25. 

As reported in last month's Labour Gazette, 27,000 loggers and lumber 
workers in British Columbia were asked to vote on a proposed settlement 
reached by the International Woodworkers of America and the Forest Industrial 
Relations Limited representing more than 120 coastal operators. The proposed 
settlement, which featured an industry-wide health and welfare scheme but 
made no provision for a general wage increase, was accepted by 69 per cent 
of the union members who cast ballots. The major opposition came from the 
Vancouver local whose representatives urged the membership to reject the 
proposed one-year agreement and to hold out for the original demand of a 
12i cents an hour general wage increase. The new agreement was the third 
in the past seven years agreed to by the parties that provided for no general 
wage increases; the others were negotiated in 1954 and 1958. 

A similar contract, proposed by 11 pulp and paper plants in British 
Columbia, was rejected by their 5,000 employees. The companies' offer proposed 
that current wage rates remain unchanged, but included an industry-wide health 
and welfare plan, an additional holiday each year and a two cents per hour 
differential for afternoon and night shifts as well as some job rate djustments. 
The International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper Mill Workers 
reported that 63 per cent of the workers rejected the offer, primarily because 
no general wage increase was included. Further negotiations were scheduled to 
be held during July. 



Employment Situation in Local Areas 

(Continued from page 62S) 

strongly late in the second quarter and steel fabricators commenced production 
on steelwork orders for bridges, and for towers for a coastal relay communications 
system. 

Construction employment moved up seasonally but latest figures showed 
employment about 10 per cent below a year earlier. Heavy grain movements to 
China and Japan stimulated the demand for waterfront labour. Services employ- 
ment moved up strongly both from the first quarter and from a year earlier, and 
mainly accounted for the year-to-year increase in total employment. 

Unemployment went down seasonally from 13.2 per cent of the labour force 
in the first quarter to 8.5 per cent in the second quarter, although it was still 
slightly higher than in the corresponding quarter of 1960. In June, the 12 labour 
market areas of the region were classified as follows (last year's figures in 
brackets): in substantial surplus, 1 (2); in moderate surplus, 7 (5); in balance, 
4(5). 

Local Area Developments 

Kitimat (minor): Group 1. A blockage in tunnels supplying hydro turbines 
at Kemano necessitated a shutdown of the power plant for repairs. Production 
of aluminum was discontinued at Kitimat on June 19 when the supply of power 
was shut off, affecting over 1,500 employees for a period expected to be of 
about two months' duration. 

628 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



Collective Bargaining Scene 

Agreements covering 500 or more employees, 
excluding those in the construction industry 

Part I— Agreements Expiring During July, August and September 

(except those under negotiation in June) 

Company and Location Union 

Atlantic Sugar Refineries, Saint John, N.B Bakery Wkrs. (CLC) 

Automatic Electric, Brockville, Ont I.U.E. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Campbell Chibougamau Mines, Chibougamau, 

Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cluett Peabody, Kitchener & Stratford, Ont Amalgamated Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Ste-Anne de Portneuf, Que. Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Dominion Stores, Montreal & vicinity, Que. Retail Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dosco (Wabana Mines), Bell Island, Nfld Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

DuPont of Canada, Maitland, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Maritime Tel. & Tel., company-wide I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (traffic empl.) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, Ont Teamsters (Ind.) (drivers) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, Ont Teamsters (Ind.) (mechanics) 

Province of Saskatchewan Sask. Civil Service (CLC) (classified services) 

Provincial Transport, Que Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Sask. Wheat Pool (Elevator Div.), Ont., Man., 

Sask. & B.C Sask. Wheat Pool Empl. (CLC) 

Smith Transport, Montreal, Que Teamsters (Ind.) 

Towboat Owners' Assn., B.C Merchant Service Guild (CLC) 

Towboat Owners' Assn., B.C Seafarers (AFL-CIO) 

Trucking Assn. of Que Teamsters (Ind.) 

Winnipeg Transit Commission, Man Street Railway Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Part II— Negotiations in Progress During June 

Bargaining 

Company and Location Union 

Algoma Ore Properties, Wawa, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Algoma Steel, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Anglo-Nfld. Development, Grand Falls, Nfld Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

MiU Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 
Assn. des Marchands Detaillants (Produits Ali- 

mentaires), Quebec, Que Commerce Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Avro & Orenda Engines, Malton, Ont Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

B.C. Electric, company-wide I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Bowater's Nfld. Paper, Corner Brook, Nfld Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

C.B.C., company-wide Radio & T.V. Empl. (ARTEC) (Ind.) 

Cdn. International Paper, N.B., Que. & Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & Open Engi- 

eers (AFL-CIO) 
Clothing Mfrs. Assoc, Quebec, Farnham & 

Victoriaville, Que Clothing Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

C.N.R., system-wide ~. Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

C.P.R., system-wide Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Cap de la Madeleine & Three Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Rivers, Que Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Grand'Mere, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Les Escoumins, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Port Alfred, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Shawinigan, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cyanamid of Canada, Niagara Falls, Ont U.E. (Ind.) 

Distillers Corp., Ville LaSalle, Que Distillery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dominion Coal, Sydney, N.S Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Dom. Rubber (Footwear Div.), Kitchener, Ont. Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Structural Steel, Montreal, Que Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Donahue Bros., Clermont, Que Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Donnacona Paper, Donnacona, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Dosco. Cdn. Bridge, Walkerville, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

E.B. Eddy, Hull, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Edmonton City, Alta. I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Edmonton City, Alta. Public Empl. (CLC) (clerical empl.) 

Edmonton City, Alta Public Empl. (CLC) (outside wkrs.) 

Fraser Cos., Cabano, Que Woodcutters, Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

Fraser Cos., Edmundston, N.B Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Gaspesia woods contractors, Chandler, Que Woodcutters, Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 629 



Company and Location Union 

Great Lakes Paper, Ft. William, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

MiU Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Halifax City, N.S Public Empl. (CLC) (inside wkrs.) 

Hamilton Cotton & subsids., Hamilton, Dundas 

& Trenton, Ont Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hotel Dieu St. Vallier, Chicoutimi, Que Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Howard Smith Paper, Cornwall, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

MiU Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 
Kimberley-Clark Paper, Terrace Bay, Ont I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper Mill 

Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 
K.V.P. Company, Espanola, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

MH1 Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & I.B.E.W. 

(AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Marathon Corp. of Can., Marathon, Ont Pulp & Paper MiU Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Montreal Transp. Commission, Que RaUway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau (car car- 
riers), Ont. a Teamsters (Ind.) 

Okanagan Shippers' Assoc, Okanagan VaUey, 

B.C CLC-chartered local 

Old Sydney Collieries, Sydney Mines, N.S Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Provincial Paper, Thorold, Ont Pulp & Paper MU1 Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Que. North Shore Paper, Baie Comeau, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

R.C.A. Victor, Montreal, Que Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Sask. Power Corp., province-wide OU Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Shell OU, Montreal East, Que. Empl. CouncU (Ind.) 

Spruce Falls & Kimberley-Clark, Kapuskasing, Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Ont MU1 Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Ste. Anne Power, Beaupre, Que Carpenters (Lumber & SawmUl Wkrs.) (AFL- 

* CIO/CLC) 

Stelco (Canada Works), HamUton, Ont. Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Stelco (Hamilton Works), HamUton, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Stelco, Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

T.C.A., company-wide Air Line PUots (Ind.) 

T.C.A., company-wide Sales Empl. (Ind.) 

Conciliation Officer 

Abitibi Paper, Iroquois Falls, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

MiU Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Abitibi Paper, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mm Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 
Assn. Patronale du Commerce, (Hardware), 

Quebec, Que Commerce Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Assn. Patronale des Services Hospitaliers, Que- 
bec, Que Services Federation (CNTU) (female) 

Assn. Patronale- des Services Hospitaliers, Que- 
bec, Que Services Federation (CNTU) (male) 

Calgary City, Alta Public Empl. (CLC) (clerical empl.) 

Canada Cement, N.B., Que., Ont., Man., & Alta. Cement Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

C.N.R., system-wide Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen (AFL-CIO/ 

CLC) 

C.P.R., system-wide Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen (AFL-CIO/ 

CLC) 

C.P.R., system-wide Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) (dining car staff) 

Dryden Paper, Dryden, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & SawmUl Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Dupuis Freres, Montreal, Que Commerce Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

East. Can. Newsprint Grp., Que. & N.S Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Food stores (various), Winnipeg, Man RetaU Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hamilton General Hospitals, Hamilton, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) 

Noranda Mines, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Ontario Paper, Thorold, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Polymer Corporation, Sarnia, Ont Oil Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Saguenay Terminals, Port Alfred, Que Metal Trades' Federation (CNTU) 

Various pulp & paper mUls, B.C Pulp & Paper MiU Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Westeel Products, western provinces Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Winnipeg City, Man Public Service Empl. (CLC) 

Conciliation Board 

Assn. Patronale des Mfrs. de Chaussures, Que- 
bec, Que. Leather & Shoe Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

B.A. OU, Clarkson, Ont OU Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Canadian Car, Fort William, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Car & Foundry, Montreal, Que Railway Carmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Westinghouse, HamUton, Ont U.E. (Ind.) 

C.N.R., system-wide Locomotive Engineers (Ind.) 

C.P.R., system-wide Locomotive Engineers (Ind.) 

630 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



Company and Location Union 

Dominion Glass, Wallaceburg, Ont Glass & Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Oilcloth & Linoleum, Montreal, Que CNTU-chartered local 

Dom. Rubber (Rubber Div.), St. Jerome, Que. Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hollinger Mines, Timmins, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Mclntyre Porcupine Mines, Schumaker, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Miner Rubber, Granby, Que Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Ontario Hydro, company-wide Public Service Empl. (CLC) ,_._„-.. 

Price Bros., Kenogami & Riverbend, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Sangamo Company, Leaside, Ont Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Scarborough Township, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) (outside wkrs.) 

Shipping Federation of Can., Montreal, Que LL.A. (CLC) , ..„. r ir >,nr\ 

Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ont Building Services Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Union composing rooms, Toronto, Ont Typographical Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Post-Conciliation Bargaining 

B.C. Hotels Assn., New Westminster, Burnaby, ' ' 

Fraser Valley, B.C. Hotel Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

B.C. Hotels Assn., Vancouver, B.C Hotel Empl; (AFL-CIO/CLC) (beverage dis- 
pensers) 

Canada Paper, Windsor Mills, Que. Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

T.C.A., company-wide Air Line Flight Attendants (CLC) 

Arbitration 

(No cases during June) 
Work Stoppage 
Hotel Royal York (CPR), Toronto, Ont. Hotel Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

' Part III— Settlements Reached During June 1961 

(A summary of major terms on the basis of information immediately available. Figures for 
the number of employees covered are approximate.) 

Bldg. maintenance companies, Vancouver, B.C. — Bldg. Service Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 
current agreement covering 500 empl. extended for 1 yr. without change, tf 

Calgary City, Alta. — Public Empl. (CLC) (outside wkrs.): 2-yr. agreement covering 
1,000 empl. — wage rates during 1961 to remain unchanged; a general increase of 50 an hr. eff. 
Jan. 1, 1962; eff. Jan. 1, 1961 longevity pay of $5 a mo. for empl. with 10 yrs. of continuous 
service, and $10 a mo. for empl. with 15 yrs. of service. 

Cdn. General Electric, Cobourg, Oakville; Peterborough, Toronto, Ont. — I.U.E. (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) (plant & salaried empl.): 3-yr. agreement covering 1,000 empl. — 50-an-hr. increase 
eff;- Feb. 6, 1962 plus an additional 50 an hr. eff. Feb. 6, 1963; 10% cost-of-living bonus 
incorporated into the wage scale, and a new basis for calculation of cost-of-living bonus 
established; 4 wks. annual paid vacation after 25 yrs. of continuous service (formerly no 
provision for 4 wks. vacation); premium for night shift increased by 10 an hr.; improvements in 
medical plan. 

Cdn. General Electric, Quebec City & Montreal, Que. — I.U.E. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 
3-yr. agreement covering 1,200 empl. — general increase of 50 an hr. eff. Jan. 1, 1962; an 
additional increase of 50 an hr. eff. Jan. 1, 1963; 10% cost-of-living bonus incorporated into 
the wage scale; 10-an-hr. increase in shift premiums; 4 wks. annual paid vacation after 25 yrs. of 
continuous service (previously no provision for 4 wks. vacation). 

Cdn. Lithographers Assn., Eastern Canada — Lithographers (CLC): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 1,000 empl. — general increase of 3 % retroactive to Jan. 1, 1961; an additional 3% 
increase eff. Sept. 1, 1961 and a further 3% on May 1, 1962; 3 wks annual paid vacation after 
5 yrs. of continuous service (previously 3 wks. after 10 yrs.). 

Cdn. Vickers (Engineering Div.), Montreal, Que. — Boilermakers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 
Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others: 3-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — a general increase 
of 80 an hr. eff. May 6, 1961; an additional 70 an hr. eff. Nov. 5, 1962; retroactive pay 
for each empl. prorated on the basis of time worked between March 6, 1961, when the agreement 
terminated, and May 5, 1961 to a max. of $30; eff. Jan. 1963 work week to be reduced from 
411 hrs. to 40 hrs. with the same take-home pay. 

Courtaulds Canada, Cornwall, Ont.— Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. 
agreement covering 1,250 empl. — no provision for wage increase; improvements in pension plan. 
Davie Shipbuilding, Lauzon, Que.— Metal Trades' Federation (CNTU) : 3-yr. agreement 
covering 1,200 empl. — 50-an-hr. increase retroactive to Jan. 1, 1961; an additional 60 an hr. eff. 
July 1, 1961 to compensate for a reduction in work week 4H hrs. to 40 hrs.; three further 
increases each of 50 an hr. eff. on Jan. 1, 1962, July 1, 1962, and Jan. 1, 1963, plus another 
increase of 40 an hr. eff. July 1, 1963; 3 wks. vacation after 10 yrs. of continuous service 
(previously 3 wks. after 15 yrs.). 

Dominion Bridge, Vancouver, B.C.— Structural Iron Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. 
agreement covering 500 empl.— a general increase of 50 an hr.; 4 wks. vacation after 25 yrs. ot 
service (no previous provisions for 4 wks. vacation); improvements in the welfare plan. 

Employing Printers' Assn., Montreal, Que.— Printing Pressmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 
2-yr. agreement covering 600 empl.— a general increase of 100 an hr. retroactive to March 1, 
1961; a further increase of 100 an hr. eff. May 1, 1962; 3 wks. vacation afteF 15 yrs. continuous 
service eff. in 1961 (previously 3 wks. vacation after 18 yrs.); eff. in 1962, 3 wks: vacation will be 
extended to all empl. having 10 yrs. continuous service; statutory holidays falling on Sunday 
to be taken on the following day. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1967 



631 



Fisheries Assn. & Cold Storage Cos., B.C. — United Fishermen (Ind.) & Native Brother- 
hood (Ind.) (shore wkrs.): 1-yr. agreement covering 4,900 empl. — a general increase of 20 
an hr. for hourly-paid wkrs. and $3.50 a mo. for monthly-rated empl.; hourly-paid wkrs. to 
receive two additional paid holidays. 

Fisheries Assn., B.C. — United Fishermen (Ind.) (tendermen): 1-yr. agreement covering 
600 empl. — increases ranging from $7 to $8 a mo.; allowance to empl. for board increased from 
$1.83 to $2.25 a day. , „ 

Fisheries Assn., B.C.— United Fishermen (Ind.) (salmon fishermen) : 1-yr. agreement 
covering 5,000 empl. — wage rates are to remain unchanged; increase in the companies' contribu- 
tion to welfare fund by 20 per case (previously companies' contributions were 30 or 50 per 
case depending on size of catch). 

Fisheries Assn., B.C. — Native Brotherhood (Ind.) (salmon fishermen): 1-yr. agreement 
covering 1,200 empl. — wage rates are to remain unchanged; increase in the companies' contribution 
to welfare fund by 20 per case (previously companies' contributions were 30 or 50 per case 
depending on size of catch). 

Forest Industrial Relations, B.C. coast— Woodworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 1-yr. agree- 
ment covering 27,000 empl. — no general wage increase provided in the new agreement, but 
engineers & firemen to receive increases ranging from 4£0 to 100 an hr.; 2 additional paid 
holidays for empl. in logging operations; 1 additional paid holiday for empl. in the sawmills; 
industry-wide portable health & welfare plan providing for $5,000 life insurance, $5,000 accident 
insurance, and $35 weekly sick pay up to a maximum of 26 wks.; plan to be administered jointly 
by union and management. 

Goodrich Canada, Kitchener, Ont. — Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement 
covering 800 empl. — 60-an-hr. increase for day wkrs.; 5i0-an-hr. increase for incentive wkrs.; 

4 wks. annual paid vacation after 22 yrs. of continuous service (previously 4 wks. after 25 yrs.); 
improvements in health & welfare plans. 

Goodyear Cotton, St. Hyacinthe, Que. — Textile Federation (CNTU): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 700 empl. — 50-an-hr. increase retroactive to Oct. 6, 1960; an additional 30 an hr. eff. 
June 5, 1961; 2 wks. annual vacation after 3 yrs. of continuous service (previously 2 wks. after 

5 yrs.); 3 wks. annual vacation after 10 yrs. of service (formerly 3 wks. after 15 yrs.); 1 
additional paid holiday for a total of 9 annually; eff. Oct. 1, 1961 the company will pay the 
entire cost of the pension plan and the amount contributed by empl. to date will be refunded; 
company to contribute $1.55 per mo. for married empl. and 700 per mo. for single empl. toward 
the cost of health insurance plan. 

Hamilton City, Ont. — Public Service Empl. (CLC) (outside wkrs.): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 575 empl. — general increase of 3% for term of the agreement; some adjustments to 
be made in certain classifications. 

H. J. Heinz, Leamington, Ont. — Packinghouse Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agreement 
covering 800 empl. — general increase of 60 an hr. retroactive to Feb. 1, 1961 plus an additional 
general increase of 50 an hr. eff. Feb. 1, 1962; 3 wks. annual paid vacation after 12 yrs. of 
continuous service eff. Jan. 1962 (previously 3 wks. after 15 yrs.); eff. Feb. 1, 1962 Blue Cross 
Supplemental Plan to be introduced, company to pay 100% of the cost of this plan; weekly 
sick pay increased by $2.50, new rates to be $35 per wk. for female empl. and $40 per wk. 
for male empl. 

HOPITAL HOTEL-DlEU, MONTREAL, QUE. — SERVICE EMPL. FEDERATION (CNTU): 1-yr. 

agreement covering 800 empl. — $2 a wk. retroactive pay from June 1 to Dec. 31, 1960; increases 
ranging from $5 to $18 a wk. retroactive to Jan. 1, 1961; current work week of 44 hrs. to be 
reduced to 40 hrs. for non-professional empl. and 35 hrs. for office wkrs. with same take-home 
pay eff. Sept. 3, 1961; 4 wks. vacation after 20 yrs. of service (formerly no provision for 4 wks. 
vacation). 

MacDonald Tobacco, Montreal, Que. — Tobacco Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 2-yr. agreement 
covering 1,500 empl.— 90-an-hr. increase retroactive to May 1, 1961 plus an additional 90 an hr. 
eff. May 1, 1962; 3 wks. annual paid vacation after 12 yrs. of continuous service (formerly 3 
wks. vacation after 15 yrs.). 

R.C.A. Victor, Montreal, Que.— I.U.E. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. agreement covering 650 
empl. — 50-an-hr. increase retroactive to March 31, 1961; an additional 40 an hr. March 30, 1962 
and a further 30-an-hr. increase eff. March 29, 1963; improvements in the medical plan. 

St. Boniface General Hospital, St. Boniface, Man. — Empl. Union of Hospital Inst. 
(Ind.): 2-yr. agreement covering 750 empl. — a general increase of 3% for male empl. and 4% 
for female empl. eff. April 17, 1961; plus a further increase of 3% for all empl. eff. April 17, 
1962. 

St. Lawrence Corp., Red Rock, Ont. — Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp a Paper 
Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others: 1-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — 50-an-hr. increase 
retroactive to June 1, 1960 plus an additional 50 an hr. eff. June 1, 1961. 

Scott Clothing, Longueuil, Que. — Empl. Assn. (Ind.): 1-yr. agreement covering 550 
empl. — 50-an-hr. increase eff. July 2, 1961; paid holidays falling on Saturdays or Sundays to 
be taken the following Monday. 

Tamper Limited, Lachine, Que. — I.U.E. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. agreement covering 500 
empl. — increase of 40 an hr. retroactive to May 1, 1961, plus i0-an-hr. increase in differentials 
between job grades; an additional 20-an-hr. increase eff. May 1, 1962 with i0-an-hr. increase 
in differential between grades and a final increase of 20 an hr. eff. May 1, 1963 with another 
i0-an-hr. increase in the differential between grades; empl. with red circle rates will not obtain 
the i0 increments until their grades match their actual pay rates. 

Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, B.C. — Public Empl. (CLC): 18-mo. agreement 
covering 1,675 empl. — general increase of 2% eff. June 26, 1961, and on Jan. 6, 1962 a 
further 3% increase calculated on rates in effect prior to June 26, 1961; 4 wks. vacation after 
15 yrs. of service (formerly no provision for 4 wks. vacation). 

White Spot Restaurants, Vancouver, B.C. — Empl. Union (Ind.): 1-yr. agreement 
covering 625 empl. — wage rates remain unchanged; double time instead of time and one-half for 
work on statutory holidays. 

632 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



1961 Labour Department-University 
Research Grants Announced 

Grants in support of studies in the 
general field of labour-management rela- 
tions have been announced by the Depart- 
ment of Labour, following the report of its 
University Research Committee. This year 
is the tenth that grants for such studies 
have been made available. 

Subjects were chosen by the staff or the 
graduate students at the four universities 
which received the grants. They are: 

— A study of labour law in Denmark 
and a comparison of it with Canadian 
labour law, by H. W. Arthurs, Osgoode 
Hall Law School, Toronto. 

— A study of the labour aspects of human 
re-organization within a firm under tech- 
nological change, by S. T. Bogusheski, 
McGill University. 

— A study of the extension of agreements 
in the Quebec building trades, by G. Hebert, 
McGill University. 

— A study of the centralization of the 
personnel function in industry, by J. Lucier, 
McGill University. 

— A study of the changes in the occupa- 
tional wage structure of Canadian industry 
and the implications for labour-manage- 
ment relations, by G. Marion, University 
of Montreal. 

— A study on the problem of employers 
contracting for outside services formerly 
performed by its regular employees under 
terms of its collective agreements, by F. J. L. 
Young, Queen's University. 



Slight Decrease in Number of 
Immigrants to Canada in 1960 

Immigration to Canada in 1960 totalled 
104,111. This represents a slight decrease 
in comparison with the 1959 figure of 
106,928. More than two million immigrants 
entered the country since 1946. 

Approximately 51.5 per cent of the 1960 
immigrants intended to enter the labour 
market. The remaining 48.5 per cent were 
wives, children, other dependents and re- 
tired persons. 

Of the 53,573 prospective immigrant 
workers, manufacturing and mechanical 
workers formed the largest group with 17.6 
per cent; service occupations represented 
16.4 per cent; general labourers, the great 
majority of whom was sponsored by Cana- 



dian residents (mainly close relatives), were 
14.0 per cent. 

A somewhat higher percentage of immi- 
grant labour force was classed as profes- 
sional and managerial than in 1959; they 
numbered 8,261, or 15.4 per cent. 

Farm workers represented 9.9 per cent 
of the immigrants entering the labour mar- 
ket, construction workers, 7.7 per cent. 
The remaining 19.0 per cent were clerical, 
commercial, and transportation workers. 

The total number of immigrants con- 
sisted of 51,018 men and 53,093 women, 
although there were more single males than 
single females among them. 

Ontario absorbed the largest part of im- 
migrants, totalling 52.3 per cent. Quebec 
received 22.8 per cent; the Prairie Prov- 
inces, 12.9 per cent; British Columbia, 9.8 
per cent; and the Atlantic Provinces, 2.2 
per cent. 

The number of newcomers from the 
United States remained practically un- 
changed at 11,247 in comparison with 
11,338 in 1959. 



Number of Immigrants Drops 
In First Quarter of 1961 

During the first quarter of 1961, the 
number of immigrants to Canada was 
smaller than in a comparable period a year 
ago, the Department of Citizenship and 
Immigration announced in its Quarterly 
Immigration Bulletin. 

Of the 11,839 immigrants admitted in 
the first three months of this year, 5,374 
persons were expected to enter the labour 
force, the remainder consisted of wives, 
children, other dependents, and students. 
The prospective labour force accounted for 
8,087 out of 16,599 immigrants the previous 
year. 

Occupational group analysis indicates 
that, in comparison with the 1960 figures, 
manufacturing, mechanical and construction 
occupations dropped this year to the second 
place numerically with 1,059 prospective 
workers, while the proportion of service 
occupations gained a lead with 1,107 per- 
sons. The professional group remained 
numerically very high with 973 members, 
while clerical occupations accounted for 
610 and managerial occupations for 181 
immigrants. 

The sharply reduced number of labourers, 
698 in comparison with the 1,586 who 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



633 



arrived during the first trimester in 1960, 
reflects a policy discouraging immigration 
among occupational groups severely affected 
by unemployment. There were 408 persons 
planning to engage in agriculture, half the 
number in that classification the previous 
year. Commerce registered 189 immigrants 
and the remainder was distributed in smaller 
groups among transport, communications, 
finance, mining, and other occupations. 

A little more than half the immigrants, 
numbering 6,504, went to Ontario. Quebec 
followed with 2,563 and British Columbia 
with 1,229; Manitoba received 305, Saskat- 
chewan 167, and Alberta 720. 

Distribution by country of last permanent 
residence indicates that the group arrived 
from the United Kingdom, numbering 
1,514, was surpassed by the 2,714-member 
group from Italy. There were 2,023 immi- 
grants from the United States. 

As in 1960, when females outnumbered 
males 8,501 to 8,098, the first quarter of 
the year marked a considerably larger 
female immigration: there were 5,125 men 
and 6,714 women. 



Unique Collective Agreement 
Cuts Housing Costs 

Under a unique collective agreement, 
contractors working on a $20,000,000 
middle-income housing project in Pittsburgh, 
Pa., have been given a completely free hand 
regarding labour-saving methods and mate- 
rials. Thus, wage rates are established at 
10 per cent under those prevailing for 
commercial work, travel pay is waived, 
hiring procedures are - freed from certain 
restrictions, jurisdictional strikes are for- 
bidden, and premium pay provisions are 
eased. 

This agreement has been accepted by the 
Pittsburgh Building and Construction Trades 
Council, dealing with Cantranel, Inc., the 
builder of East Hills, a community of 1,400 
dwellings on the outskirts of Pittsburgh. 
The project is sponsored by ACTION- 
Housing Inc., an organization that was 
formed for the purpose of promoting home- 
building programs for middle-income fami- 
lies, and is financed by contributions from 
the Aluminum Co. of America, United 
States Steel Corporation, Westinghouse 
Electric Corporation, and 27 other large 
companies that have an interest in supplying 
housing materials or utility services. 

The contract is the result of an effort 
by the construction unions to recapture 
the place in the home-building field that 
they lost in the late 1940's, when their 
last agreements were written off. 

The vital provision of the agreement gives 
the builder and his sub-contractors "the 



sole right to manage their respective busi- 
nesses, including the right to decide the 
machines, tools, and equipment to be used 
at East Hills, as well as construction 
methods, assembly processes, and the right 
to use factory fabricated units." 

Roland S. Catrinella, President of Can- 
tranel, estimates that the aggregate savings 
that will result from the agreement will 
enable him to sell for $14,000 a house that 
would otherwise cost the purchaser $18,000. 



Booklet Tells How Handicapped 
Women Can Help Themselves 

"Satisfying employment is recognized as 
the goal of vocational rehabilitation . . . For 
the handicapped housewife 'employment' 
means being able to look after herself and 
to carry out her household duties effectively; 
for other women and for men it means 
working for pay," says a bulletin just pub- 
lished by the Women's Bureau of the 
Department of Labour, entitled A Niche of 
Usefulness. 

The new publication tells "How handi- 
capped women may learn to help them- 
selves with the aid of vocational rehabilita- 
tion services in Canada." It gives a historical 
sketch of the development of rehabilitation 
services in Canada, describes the rehabili- 
tation programs that are being operated by 
the provincial governments, by voluntary 
organizations, and by the federal Govern- 
ment. It also contains chapters on "Find- 
ing Jobs for the Handicapped" and "Careers 
for Women in Rehabilitation." 

The booklet gives the titles and addresses 
of provincial rehabilitation officers and 
workmen's compensation board officers, the 
names and addresses of national voluntary 
organizations concerned with rehabilitation, 
addresses of district offices of the Depart- 
ment of Veterans Affairs, and a list of 
associations of professional workers in the 
rehabilitation field. 

Copies of the bulletin may be obtained 
from the Queen's Printer, price 25 cents. 



Latin American Labour 
Leader Visits Ottawa 

Jose Gonzales Navarro, President of the 
Venezuelan Confederation of Labour which 
has a membership of 1,200,000 industrial 
workers and farmers, visited Ottawa last 
month to confer with Canadian labour 
leaders and Government officials. 

Mr. Navarro met with the Minister of 
Labour Michael Starr and the Deputy 
Minister of Labour George V. Haythorne, 
and had talks with the CLC President 
Claude Jodoin and other CLC officers. 



634 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



The federal Minister of Labour of Nigeria, the Hon. Joseph M. Johnson, visited Ottawa 
in June where he met with the Prime Minister and other members of the Cabinet. Mr. 
Johnson discussed with the Minister of Labour, the Hon. Michael Starr (right) and the 
Deputy Minister of Labour, Mr. George V. Haythorne, industrial relations problems and 
research programs in the labour field. 



Although acting independently of his 
government, Mr. Navarro said he had its 
full approval in his efforts to gain Canadian 
support for his platform of alliance of all 
democratic leaders in this hemisphere. The 
platform consists of proposals for land 
reform, industrialization of every Latin 
American country, common action against 
unemployment and against the high cost of 
living, and strengthening of democratic 
systems in the hemisphere. 



Michael Rygus Elected Canadian 
Vice-President of Machinists 

Michael Rygus, international representa- 
tive from Toronto, has been elected General 
Vice-President for Canada of the Inter- 
national Association of Machinists (CLC). 

Mr. Rygus was chosen by a referendum 
vote of the union's 900,000 members to 
succeed George P. Schollie of Montreal 
who has retired last month (L.G., Feb., 
P- HI). 



W. Cocks, Saskatchewan 
Labour Leader Dies 

William Cocks, one of the originators of 
the Regina Labour Council, the managing 
director of the Regina Labour Temple 
Company and a prominent Saskatchewan 
labour leader, died last month at the age of 
84 years. 

Born in London, Eng., Mr. Cocks appren- 
ticed as a painter and after his arrival in 
Canada organized unions among the 
painters, carpenters and bricklayers. 

In 1907, he helped to organize the Regina 
Labour Council to act as the trade unions' 
legislative mouthpiece in Regina. He became 
the Council's first secretary and later served 
for two years as its president. 

Mr. Cocks participated in the formation 
of the Regina Labour Temple Company in 
1912, and held many offices in the Com- 
pany before he became its managing direc- 
tor in 1946, a position he held until his 
death. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



635 



HOUSE OF COMMONS DEBATES 
A Guide to Items of Labour Interest in Hansard 



(page numbers refer to Hansard) 

May 27 — Hours of work and rates of pay 
for cooks, stewards and crew members of 
ships of the Department of Mines and 
Technical Surveys serving on the East and 
West Coasts given by the Minister in 
answer to a question. Cooks and stewards 
on the East Coast work a 48-hour week and 
all other crew members work a 40-hour 
week; while on the West Coast all crew 
members, including cooks and stewards, 
work a 40-hour week, the Minister says 
(p. 5497). 

May 29 — A statement on Commonwealth 
Technical Training Week made by the Prime 
Minister, in which he outlines five broad 
objectives of the week and the preparations 
made for it by the federal and provincial 
governments (p. 5499). 

May 30 — Continuation of the subvention 
of $1 per ton on coal mined in Cape 
Breton for the period June 1, 1961, to 
August 1, 1962, to a maximum of $300,000 
a year, the cost to be shared by the federal 
and the Nova Scotia Governments in the 
ratio of 80 to 20, announced by the Minister 
of Mines and Technical Surveys. Parliament 
will also be asked, he says, to provide an 
amount of $1,500,000 for approved projects 
that will give alternative employment in 
Cape Breton for miners who are laid off in 
spite of the subsidy (p. 5567). 

A committee of employees is meeting 
the management of the CNR to discuss 
the situation regarding the curtailment of 
repairs to heavy passenger car equipment 
at Moncton, in an attempt to find some 
way of alleviating the effect of consequent 
layoffs, the Minister of Transport says in 
reply to a question (p. 5574). 

Bill C-93, to amend the Freight Rates 
Reduction Act considered by the House in 
committee (p. 5627). After short debate, 
the bill is reported, read the third time 
and passed (p. 5630). 

The ratio of active physicians to popula- 
tion in Canada at September 1, 1960 
averaged one physician to 909 persons, 
which is one of the most favourable phy- 
sician-population ratios in the world, the 
Minister of Health and Welfare says in 
reply to a question about shortages of 
doctors, dentists, graduate social workers 
and graduate nurses in Canada (p. 5635). 
The ratio of dentists to population is about 
one to 3,000, and the ratio of registered 
nurses to population was estimated in 1958 
at one per 275. There is an acute shortage 
of social workers, the Minister acknowl- 
edges. 



Percentage of civil servants who in 1960 
were paid less than $4,000 a year was 49.3, 
and the percentage of those paid between 
$4,000 and $5,999 was 38.8, the Secretary 
of State says in reply to a question. The 
actual numbers in each group and the num- 
bers and percentages in other salary groups 
are also given (p. 5636). 

Hours of work and rates of pay for 
cooks, stewards and crew members of ships 
of the Department of Fisheries serving on 
the East and West Coasts are given by the 
Minister of Fisheries. The hours are the 
same as those given on May 27 by the 
Minister of Mines and Technical Surveys 
for ships of his department (p. 5636). 

May 31 — Applications for designation as 
surplus manpower areas or localities under 
the special capital cost allowances program 
have been received from 36 areas or locali- 
ties, and at May 24 four areas and one 
locality have been declared eligible under 
the program, the Parliamentary Secretary 
to the Minister of Labour says in reply to 
a question. The four areas are: Cornwall, 
Windsor and Elliot Lake, Ont.; and New 
Glasgow, N.S. The one locality is Grand 
Falls-St. Leonard, N.B. (p. 5637). 

Financial contributions to help municipali- 
ties under the federal municipal winter 
works incentive program have been made by 
seven provinces; British Columbia, Alberta, 
Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, 
and Prince Edward Island, the Parlia- 
mentary Secretary to the Minister of Labour 
tells a questioner. Quebec paid 40 per cent 
of direct payroll costs, the other provinces 
25 per cent, with some modification in the 
case of Manitoba (p. 5637). 

To cover about half the cost of carrying 
out urban renewal studies, at the request 
of the city of Montreal, a grant of $15,000 
in 1959 and two grants of $63,750 and 
$37,500 respectively in 1960 were approved 
by the federal Government, the Minister of 
Public Works says in reply to a question 
(p. 5638). 

Number of active claimants for unem- 
ployment insurance benefits on March 31, 
1961 (corresponding 1960 figures in brack- 
ets) was 837,961 (823,005) and number of 
unplaced applicants registered for employ- 
ment in NES offices on the same date was 
864,016 (834,990), the Parliamentary 
Secretary to the Minister of Labour says in 
reply to a question. On April 30 the figures 
were 713,147 (714,894) and 767,791 (756,- 
432) respectively (p. 5639). 



636 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



June 1 — Royal assent given to an act 
respecting the vocational rehabilitation of 
disabled persons and the co-ordination of 
rehabilitation services (p. 5725). 

June 2 — Total commitments for the first 
two years of India's third five-year plan, 
undertaken by a consortium of countries 
and international agencies concerned with 
financing the foreign exchange requirements 
of the plan, is $2,225,000,000, of which 
Canada's commitment amounts to $56,000,- 
000, the Prime Minister states. The Cana- 
dian figure is at the rate of $28,000,000 
for each of the two years, and this includes 
$18,000,000 each year of aid made avail- 
able under the Colombo Plan and $10,000,- 
000 in each year that the Government has 
undertaken to allocate in the form of export 
credits, Mr. Diefenbaker says (p. 5761). 

June 5 — No resolution has yet been 
received from the Canadian Federation of 
Mayors and Municipalities regarding the 
municipal winter works incentive program, 
the Minister of Labour says in reply to a 
question, but he indicates that an announce- 
ment will be made on the question when a 
decision has been reached by the Govern- 
ment (p. 5848). 

"There are not enough securities in the 
[Unemployment Insurance] Fund now to 
warrant the Minister of Finance making 
loans which would put the Fund into a 
condition of security and giving the neces- 
sary confidence to those who have contrac- 
tual rights under the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act." Hon. Paul Martin says during 
a debate on a motion for interim supply 
proposed by the Minister of Finance (p. 
5856). 

Hours of work and rates of pay for cooks 
and stewards and crew members serving on 
vessels of the Department of Transport on 
the East and West Coasts are given by the 
Minister of Transport in reply to a question. 
The hours worked are the same as those 
worked on ships of the Department of 
Mines and Technical Surveys, given by the 
Minister of that department on May 27 
(p. 5918). 

June 7 — Value of securities held in the 
Unemployment Insurance Fund was $63,- 
713,500 at par, and $54,776,325 at market 
value on May 31; and the value of securi- 
ties pledged for loans to the Fund was 
$181,089,000 at par, and $147,018,817.50 
at market value, on the same date, the 
Minister of Finance tells a questioner (p. 
5968). The total amount of these loans 
for which securities are pledged is $140,- 
500,000, and contributions by the federal 
Government to the Fund during this fiscal 
year total $8,059,584.96. 



June 8 — Licence to export grain unload- 
ing equipment already on order for installa- 
tion on ships delivering grain from Cana- 
dian ports under charter to Communist 
China will now be issued to United States 
corporations as an exceptional measure, if 
they apply, the United States Treasury 
Department has decided, the Prime Minis- 
ter says (p. 6016). 

June 9 — Five municipalities in Ontario 
have initiated programs for training unem- 
ployed persons under Schedule "M" of 
Bill C-49, the Minister of Labour informs 
a questioner. The municipalities are: Brant- 
ford, Cornwall, Toronto, St. Catharines 
and Windsor. Since April 1, 1960, the num- 
ber of unemployed who have completed 
such courses is 103, the Minister says 
(p. 6129). 

June 13 — St. Lawrence River pilots are 
given remarkably good treatment by the 
Department of Transport and there are 
few Canadian corporations whose employees 
are so highly paid proportionately to their 
work, the Minister of Transport says dur- 
ing the debate on the third reading of Bill 
C-98, to amend the Canada Shipping Act. 
He also says that "not a single Canadian 
pilot will lose a cent because American 
vessels benefit from an exemption" from 
compulsory pilotage in a section of the 
St. Lawrence River, and that in the Great 
Lakes and St. Lawrence River "the pilots' 
situation is better now than it has ever 
been" (p. 6253). 

June 14 — Statement on the resignation of 
Governor James Coyne of the Bank of 
Canada, made by the Minister of Finance. 
The Government's main reason for this 
request, the Minister says, was that "Mr. 
Coyne's continuation in office as Governor 
of the Bank of Canada, would stand in the 
way of the implementation of a compre- 
hensive, sound and responsible economic 
program designed to raise the levels of 
employment and production in Canada" 
(p. 6313). 

The CNR's pension regulations provide 
that the pension board need not regard as 
a break in service a suspension or discharge 
subsequent to December 31, 1951, if fol- 
lowed by reinstatement or re-employment 
within two years, the Acting Minister of 
Transport says in reply to a question. 
Before January 1, 1952, the period within 
which reinstatement was necessary to pre- 
vent a break in service was one year (p. 
6321). 

Arrangements made by the CBC for 
special broadcasts on radio and television 
announcing and marking Commonwealth 
Technical Training Week, described in 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



637 



detail by the Parliamentary Secretary to 
the Minister of National Revenue in answer 
to a question (p. 6323). 

Securities held in the Unemployment 
Insurance Fund that show a depreciation 
in market value of more than 14 per cent 
total $11,057,000, and those pledged for 
loans by the Fund that show a depreciation 
of more than 18 per cent total $109,705,000 
in value, the Minister of Finance says in 
answer to a question (p. 6324). 

The unspent portion of the $140,500,000 
borrowed by the Unemployment Insurance 
Commission was $4,210,078.83 on May 31, 
1961, the Minister of Finance tells a ques- 
tioner (p. 6325). 

The creation of the National Productivity 
Council and its activities "have had a 
stimulating effect on employment," and are 
increasing "general awareness in Canada 
of the need for greater efficiency in the 
competitive performance of our economy," 
the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister 
of Labour says in reply to a question (p. 
6325). 

Motion to adjourn the House for the 
purpose of discussing a matter of urgent 
public importance in the shape of the 
Government's request for the immediate 
resignation of the Governor of the Bank 
of Canada, is proposed by the Leader of 
the Opposition (p. 6327), and after long 
discussion is negatived on division (p. 
6356). 

June 17 — Initial steps to help in providing 
alternative employment for persons affected 
by the closing of certain mines in Cape 
Breton, for which Parliament is to be asked 
to provide $1,500,000- this year, are an- 
nounced by the Prime Minister. Two of 
the specific projects to be undertaken, he 
says, are a program for the improvement 
of forest stands in the area, estimated to 
provide employment for about 100 persons, 
in the cost of which the Nova Scotia Gov- 
ernment will share; and the first stages of 
a program for the restoration of Louisbourg 
fortress as a tourist attraction, estimated 
to provide 280 jobs in 1961-62 (p. 6481). 

Bill C-11I, to amend the Railway Act 
to apply to rapeseed the rates applicable 
to flaxseed by virtue of the Crowsnest Pass 
agreement, introduced by the Minister of 
Transport and read the first time (p. 6482). 

Administration of the national health 
grants is entirely a responsibility of the 
provinces; and applications for health grants 
are received by the Government directly 
from, and all grant money is paid directly 
to the provinces, the Minister of National 
Health and Welfare says in reply to a 
question as to whether a new formula is 
being used for construction grants to hospi- 
tals (p. 6485). 



June 19 — The Minister of Labour for 
Nigeria, Hon. J. M. Johnson, who is present 
in the diplomatic gallery of the House, 
is welcomed by the Prime Minister (p. 
6527). 

To intervene in the strike of carpenters 
at a defence project in Moosonee is not 
the responsibility of the Government, as 
this dispute is under the Ontario Department 
of Labour, the Minister of Defence Pro- 
duction says in answer to a question about 
the continued use by the strikers of bunk- 
houses owned by the Crown. The Carter 
Construction Company was given the use 
of these buildings as part of their contract, 
the Minister explains (p. 6536). 

June 20 — Members of the Royal Com- 
mission on Health are named, and the 
order-in-council by which the appointments 
were made is tabled by the Prime Minister 
(p. 6600). 

Vanguard service between Chicago and 
New York operating with air crews consist- 
ing of two supervisory pilots each will be 
begun by the TCA, the Minister of Trans- 
port says in reply to a question. Later, the 
supervisory pilots will be gradually replaced 
by regular line pilots, and this will be the 
ultimate method of operation, he says (p. 
6601). 

Bill C-lll, to amend the Railway Act to 
provide that the Crowsnest Pass freight 
rates on flaxseed shall apply to rapeseed, 
after being debated and amended, passes 
second reading. Third reading is thereupon 
moved and agreed to, and the bill is passed 
(p. 6617 and 6630). 

The budget is presented by the Minister 
of Finance, in which a deficit of $650,000,- 
000 is forecast for the 1961-62 fiscal year, 
in comparison with an actual deficit of 
$345,000,000, in the 1960-61 fiscal year, 
according to preliminary estimates (p. 6639 
and 6666). 

June 21 — Twenty thousand copies of the 
Bill of Rights in English and 7,000 copies 
in French, suitable for framing and mount- 
ing on a wall, have been printed, the Secre- 
tary says in answer to a question. The sale 
price will be $1 per copy for an illuminated 
copy on parchment, and 25 cents for a 
copy not illuminated and printed on plain 
paper (p. 6809). 

The federal Government has always been 
prepared to share, under Section 8 of the 
Unemployment Assistance Agreement, in 
additional relief payments to recipients of 
old age assistance, blind persons allowances 
and disabled persons allowances, the Minis- 
ter of National Health and Welfare says 
in reply to a question as to whether the 
Government had made any offer to the 



638 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 J 



Government of British Columbia to share 
in the cost of supplementary allowances to 
recipients of old age pension (p. 6811). 

June 22 — No action to restrict the admis- 
sion of Canadians travelling daily to work 
in places in the United States is being con- 
sidered at present by the United States 
authorities, the Government has been 
assured, the Prime Minister says in reply 
to a question (p. 6857). 

June 23— Bill C-114, to provide that a 
vacancy in the office of the Governor of 
the Bank of Canada shall arise upon its 
coming into force, introduced by the Minis- 
ter of Finance and read the first time 
(p. 6934). 

June 26 — A contributory pension plan for 
the staff of the Bank of Canada was intro- 
duced on March 12, 1936, the Minister of 
Finance says in reply to a question. He 
also gives particulars of the contributions 
that have been made to the fund by Mr. 
Coyne (p. 7032). 

To provide equal opportunities and rights 
for all Canadians everywhere and to re- 
move any element of discrimination is the 
aim of the Government, the Minister of 



Northern Affairs and National Resources 
says in reply to a question about a reply 
to a letter sent by the Minister to the 
president of the Canadian Marconi Com- 
pany regarding the so-called non-fraterniza- 
tion clause in the contracts of employees 
of the company (p. 7035). 

June 27 — Post office employees who 
normally would not work on Saturday, July 
1, and who are required to work, will be 
compensated at the rate of time and a 
half; but those who normally would not 
work and are not required to work, will, 
like the great bulk of the civil servants, 
receive neither addition to, nor deduction 
from their salaries or hour reserve, the 
Postmaster-General says in reply to a ques- 
tion (p. 7107). 

Before the strike against Carter Con- 
struction Company in Moosonee, 14 Indians 
were working on the project — in what 
capacities are not known — and he is having 
a check made to see if the number of 
Indian workers on the site has increased, 
the Minister of Defence Production says 
in reply to a question about the reported 
use of Indians as strikebreakers in the dis- 
pute (p. 7108). 



James R. Hoffa Re-elected Teamsters' President 

The convention of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters in Miami Beach, Fla., 
last month elected James Riddle Hoffa to another five-year term as the President of the 
1,700,000-member union. 

Mr. Hoffa's only rival for presidency was Milton J. Liss, president of Local 478 of 
Newark, N.J., who has been champion of local autonomy since he became business 
representative of his 47,000-member unit in 1937. Mr. Liss sponsored a referendum asking 
for every member to be allowed a direct secret vote on new officers. 

The convention delegates gave a blanket "approbation" to every action taken by 
Mr. Hoffa and other union officers taken during the last four years, approved a $25,000 
increase of Mr. Hoffa's salary that brought it to $75,000 annually, and gave Mr. Hoffa 
additional power over the union's affairs through a number of constitutional changes 
strengthening the centralized control. 

Mr. Hoffa also succeeded in obtaining an approval for a $12 million annual increase 
in union dues by raising them by $1 a member per month. Dues vary from $3 to $6 
a month. 

The union's jurisdiction was officially expanded by the convention to all workers 
in all fields on a global basis. Even if the Teamsters limit themselves to organizing 
workers who do not now belong to other unions in the United States and Canada, this 
would cover a potential field of more than 40 million workers, more than triple the 
membership of the AFL-CIO, from which the teamsters were expelled four years ago. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



639 



90th Annual General Meeting of the 

Canadian Manufacturers' Association 

Training, portable pensions and employee benefits subjects of discussion at the 
Industrial Relations Conference. Export trade seen as a way to high employment 
by the federal Minister of Trade and Commerce. F. D. Mathers elected President 



The Canadian Manufacturers' Association 
held its 90th Annual General Meeting in 
Vancouver, June 5, 6 and 7. This year's 
theme was "Roadmaps for Industry". 

The meeting consisted, in addition to 
general business sessions, of three plenary 
conferences devoted to management prob- 
lems, world trade, and industrial relations 
and headed: "Management — the Way 
Ahead"; "Trade and Industry — an Explo- 
sive Combination"; and "Industrial Rela- 
tions at the Crossroads". 

Canadian employment problems were 
linked with Canada's competitive position 
in the world market by Hon. George H. 
Hees, Minister of Trade and Commerce, in 
his keynote address at the conference on 
world trade. 

The industrial relations conference, fully 
reported here, was opened by Robert Wil- 
liam Bonner, Q.C., Minister of Industrial 
Development, Trade and Commerce, British 
Columbia. His address, entitled "Labour 
Relations and the Public Interest", was fol- 
lowed by the capsule report "A New Look 
at Industrial Training" by H. L. Shepherd, 
Personnel Manager, Compensation and 
Development, Canadian Westinghouse Ltd., 
Hamilton, Ont., who is on loan to the 
federal Department of Labour for special in- 
quiry on training in industry. Two addresses 
and a panel quiz and discussion entitled 
"Controlling Indirect Labour Costs" com- 
pleted the programs. 

The two addresses were "Portable Pen- 
sions^ — Help or Hindrance?" by Harold R. 
Lawson, F.S.A., President, National Life 
Assurance Company of Canada, Toronto, 
and "Employee Benefits Abroad — Lesson 
for Canada?" by J. A. Belford, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Personnel and Industrial Relations, 
Massey-Ferguson Limited, Toronto. Both 
speakers took part in the panel discussion, 
along with Wm. M. Mercer, President, 
Wm. M. Mercer Limited, Vancouver, and 
L. F. Wills, Honeywell Controls Limited, 
Toronto, Chairman of the CMA's Ontario 
Division, Portable Pensions Committee. 

The convention chose F. D. Mathers, 
President, Royal City Foods Limited, New 
Westminster, B.C., as the Association's 
President for 1961-62. He succeeds Thomas 
R. McLagan of Montreal. 



S. J. Randall, President, General Steel 
Wares Limited, Toronto, and Carl A. Pol- 
lock, President, Dominion Electrohome 
Industries Limited, Kitchener, Ont., were 
elected first and second vice-presidents 
respectively. T. A. Rice, International Har- 
vester Company of Canada Limited, Hamil- 
ton, was re-elected Treasurer. 

President's Address 

"Canadian labour and management must 
find some way of working closely together, 
otherwise our standards will go down and 
unemployment will increase," retiring CMA 
President T. R. McLagan told the delegates 
attending the luncheon and general business 
session. He also characterized the labour- 
management relations as "our most impor- 
tant problem." 

Reviewing past year's activities Mr. Mc- 
Lagan stressed CMA's participation in the 
Prime Minister's Conference on Employ- 
ment last October, which led to the forma- 
tion of the National Productivity Council 
(L.G., Nov. 1960, p. 1108) and the Labour- 
Management meeting called by the Minis- 
ters of Labour and of Trade and Com- 
merce (L.G., April, p. 333) out of which 
came a steering committee under the joint 
chairmanship of the President of the CLC 
and the President of the CMA. Mr. Mc- 
Lagan expressed the hope that these two 
councils will help Canada "to do something 
about Canadian costs and Canadian pro- 
ductivity" in face of a fierce world com- 
petition. 

Canada's lag in productivity growth 
indicated serious weakening of our compe- 
titive position, Mr. McLagan said. In face 
of Japanese and European economic come- 
back within the last seven years, the lack 
of expansion in Canadian economy caused 
a higher level of unemployment than the 
country has shown for some years. "The 
pity of it is that, even today, there are 
some powerful unions which have yet to 
see that the inevitable result of excessive 
wage and other demands on hard-pressed 
companies and industries is to jeopardize 
their own members' jobs and promote 
unemployment. 

"The $1.50-an-hour man with a secure 
job is much better off than the $2.50-an-hour 
man without a job", he continued. "It is 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



possible to force up wage rates in a coun- 
try, but it is not possible to force people 
to buy goods if the cost of them is too 
high." 

The level and structure of corporate tax- 
ation in Canada was criticized by the 
speaker, and more liberal depreciation rates 
advocated to stimulate investments in new 
machinery and plant. He also stressed that 
the CMA has been pressing the case for 
corporate tax revision to lower tax burdens 
and increase other business incentives in 
Canada. 

The "Buy Canadian" campaign, does not 
aim at cutting off imports of competitive 
goods, but at cutting them down, in order 
to check an unrestrained foreign spending 
spree which endangers Canada's manufac- 
turing industry, explained Mr. McLagan. 

Within the next few years, Canada must 
contend with the influx into the labour 
force of many tens of thousands of young 
Canadians, born immediately after the end 
of the Second World War, Mr. McLagan 
said. "The nature of our economy and the 
rapidity of technological advance are such 
that manufacturing industry, the biggest 
single employer of labour, will have to 
absorb a large proportion of these if we 
are not to be faced with chronic unemploy- 
ment on a much greater scale than any- 
thing we have so far seen." 

"There is no reason why we in Canada 
should not be able to put to work every 
single one of these young Canadians. They 
must, however, possess the knowledge, in- 
telligence and skills that industry needs. It 
is not a bit of good youngsters being fed 
into the labour market at 15 and 16 years 
of age with a little more than a Grade 10 
or 11 education and expect to find worth- 
while and well-paid employment for any 
length of time. Those days are largely past 
and parents must realize it and insist that 
continued schooling is more important 
than a quick dollar." 

"There will always be those who, by 
reason of natural limitation, do not have it 
in them to profit from advanced education 
and no doubt we will be able to find some 
kind of employment for a number of 
them . . . but there will be fewer openings 
for such people in the future than ever 
before." 

To cope with this problem, Mr. McLagan 
called for more intensive programs of voca- 
tional training. Qualified educators and well 
equipped facilities are indispensable, he said, 
and industry shares the responsibility to 
see that these things are not lacking. "Many 
thousands of jobs are going begging in 
Canada for no other reason than that there 
are too few people with the necessary edu- 




F. D. Mathers 

cation and technical qualifications to fill 
them. Better by far that we invest in the 
training of such people, belated as it is, 
than continue indefinitely to help them in 
uneducated idleness, draining the Unem- 
ployment Insurance Fund dry, or subsisting 
on government relief." 

Mr. McLagan pointed out that Canada 
loses every year some 40,000 of the most 
talented and best trained people who turn 
to other countries for lack of incentives 
and opportunities at home. He further de- 
plored displays of irresponsible anti-Amer- 
icanism as harmful to Canada's economic 
growth which rightly takes advantage of 
foreign investments. U.S. investors, while 
continuing to play an important and vital 
role in Canada's economic expansion con- 
tributing to Canada's living standards and 
employment, will become gradually less 
significant if Canadians will care enough 
and are allowed to retain money enough 
to increase their own stake in Canada. 

General Manager's Report 

General Manager J. C. Whitelaw's report 
covered the 16 principal submissions to 
governments at all levels. Of particular 
interest were the briefs submitted to: 

— The Prime Minister's Conference on 
Employment, 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



641 



— The Special Committee of the Senate 
on Manpower and Employment, 

— The Minister of Labour, on Unem- 
ployment Insurance, and 

— The Minister of Justice, regarding Bill 
C-70 respecting Corporation and Labour 
Union Statistics. 

The association continued its strong stand 
against inflationary tendencies in the 
economy that allow wages and prices to rise 
unjustifiably. It recommended that "policies 
having the object of relieving unemployment 
should be used carefully if they are likely 
to generate inflation", and suggested a new 
study be made of the nation's whole finan- 
cial structure and machinery. 

The impact of the present "Buy Cana- 
dian" program was evaluated by the CMA, 
and a need for continuing a publicity cam- 
paign was stressed. 

The Association favoured study of the 
organization and methods of administration 
of the various government departments and 
gave its approval to the creation of the 
Glassco Royal Commission on Government 
Expenditures. It also requested formal recog- 
nition of the industry's importance by the 
appointment of a Minister of Manufac- 
turing or through the re-designation of the 
Department of Trade and Commerce as 
the Department of Industry and Commerce. 

Establishment of the new Design Branch 
of the Department of Trade and Com- 
merce, with the purpose of furthering indus- 
trial and scientific research and industrial 
design, received the support of the Asso- 
ciation. 

The General Manager pointed out that 
when, in Government contracts, the "Buy 
Canadian" principle would lead to high 
prices, inferior quality, or delayed delivery, 
that it would then be undesirable. However, 
in all other cases, Canadian-manufactured 
goods should be specified. 

It also recommended mandatory dis- 
closure of pertinent points of the contract 
upon the request of an unsuccessful ten- 
derer, and standard general conditions for 
all Government "supply" contracts. 

The Association reported continuing its 
programs for encouraging further vocational 
and technical education, and its close rela- 
tionship with the Industrial Foundation on 
Education, the advisory and research body 
created by the St. Andrews Conference in 
1956 and supported entirely by industry. 

The CMA favours immigration despite 
high unemployment because there is still 
a shortage of skilled persons in Canada. 
The low of immigration, if abnormally cut 
or discouraged, cannot usually be easily 
revived at will. Selection of immigrants 
with technical and professional qualifications 



and experience was recommended and their 
beneficial impact on the national economy 
confirmed. 

The Association, commenting upon the 
Corporation and Labour Unions Statistics 
Act, requested the removal of retroactive 
provisions of the Bill and simplification of 
requirements for reporting the residence of 
shareholders, in addition to a demand that 
information should be required regarding 
general or trust funds sent out of Canada 
and the purpose for which such funds are 
employed. 

The CMA objected to the Unemployment 
Insurance Act clauses which permit, in 
some circumstances, the support of a strike 
through the payment of unemployment 
insurance benefits to workers who have an 
interest in the outcome of the strike, and 
criticized the proposed check-off of union 
dues from an employee's wages in support 
of the new political party. 

Government-sponsored vocational train- 
ing programs were welcomed by the Asso- 
ciation, and full co-operation promised in 
working out an effective liaison with the 
provincial governments to advance various 
training schemes. 

Minister of Trade and Commerce 

It is only by competing successfully in 
today's trading world that we can provide 
the additional jobs we need each year to 
keep our people employed, Hon. George H. 
Hees, Minister of Trade and Commerce 
said in his address on "Canada and World 
Trade". 

"Many of the countries new to nation- 
hood are concentrating in the labour inten- 
sive industries and are having significant 
effects upon the production of traditional 
Canadian manufacturers in these lines," 
said Mr. Hees in characterizing the chal- 
lenges that face Canadian industry. He 
added that the new trading groups which 
have been formed create an increasingly 
intense competition in world markets as 
well as in the Canadian domestic market. 

Canadian businessmen sometimes allow 
their fears of competition from other coun- 
tries to narrow their outlook, to under- 
estimate their own capacities, Mr. Hees 
said. "We have many important advantages 
in Canada and, through courageous plan- 
ning and initiative, we should be able to 
make the most of them. Our labour force 
is skilled. We are one of the world's lead- 
ing producers of industrial materials. Cana- 
dian technology is highly advanced. Coupled 
with enterprising management, these are 
the essential ingredients for developing and 
expanding our markets at home and abroad." 



642 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



As to the opportunities for Canadian 
exports, the Minister of Trade and Com- 
merce reported on the results of a survey 
on the commodities and products in 102 
countries, conducted by 62 Canadian Trade 
Commissioners. The Trade Commissioners 
suggested items in each of these markets 
where sales could definitely be increased 
or initiated if the Canadian article could 
meet foreign competition. 

"Buying Canadian" and maintaining a 
healthy and flourishing foreign trade is not 
inconsistent, Mr. Hees suggested, because 
both mean more jobs and bigger incomes 
for our people. 

"Buy Canadian" is for the consumer. "Sell 
Canadian" is for the manufacturer, who 
has the responsibility for turning out a 
better product at a more competitive price, 
for domestic as well as export markets, Mr. 
Hees said. He concluded by pointing out 
that, with labour, management, and Gov- 
ernment working together, Canadians can 
increase sales to the point "where we have 
full employment in this country, and the 
highest standard of living in the world." 

Robert William Bonner 

While the problems of labour and man- 
agement are different, their interest must 
be recognized as identical, Hon. R. W. 
Bonner, Q.C., told the Plenary Conference 
on "Industrial Relations at the Crossroads". 

The present economic scene in Canada, 
with its large unemployment, slow-down in 
economic growth, foreign trade deficit, and 
many other problems is the background 
against which labour and management ques- 
tions must be considered, Mr. Bonner 
asserted. 

High-wage policy to which this country 
is committed is not the "villain to be com- 
batted," he continued. Low wages did not 
provide prosperity during the 1930's, and 
lowering of today's wages cannot be ex- 
pected to provide prosperity during the 
sixties. Canada is a trading nation, and the 
problems of a trading nation cannot be 
solved by lowering the ability of the domes- 
tic market to take up production, he said. 

Manufacturing policy should therefore 
be concerned with markets rather than with 
protection, Mr. Bonner asserted, and con- 
centrate upon developing a mass market 
in the world by price, quality, and product 
design. 

Wealth is created by production — not by 
its interruption, Mr. Bonner said. In pro- 
duction, labour relations are of importance, 
because despite the techniques employed 



either by professional management or pro- 
fessional labour, they still consist of inter- 
personal relationships which make produc- 
tion possible. 

"The depletion of the Unemployment 
Insurance Fund in this country illustrates 
the basic fact that there is no substitute 
for gainful employment; that there is no 
employment except in profitable industry; 
and, finally, that today there is no purpose 
in securing hourly rates for men and women 
on the production line which cause these 
same men and women to become the highest 
hourly rated unemployed in the country." 

Harmony between public interest and 
labour relations existed in Canada during 
the Second World War, and it exists in 
Europe and in Japan at present, but it is 
seriously lacking in Canada now. Mr. Bon- 
ner believes this is for want of definition 
as to what is the public interest in our 
country. To define it, he recommends a 
series of questions: 

— Does our current policy reverse or 
accelerate the present slow-down in the 
Canadian economy? 

— Do your immediate objectives utilize a 
greater or lesser proportion of potential 
productive capacity? 

— Is the immediate effect of the steps 
taken an increase or a decrease of unem- 
ployment? 

— Do our current efforts maintain or 
destroy the stable price level? 

Labour and management share the respon- 
sibility to answer these questions when 
forming their policy, Mr. Bonner said, 
because they have a common interest in 
economic recovery. 

H. L Shepherd 

Individuals have a high responsibility for 
their own development; many people do not 
use existing opportunities; training of itself 
will not cure unemployment; and companies 
cannot lower the prices while adding to their 
expenses the training costs for which they 
have no assurance that they will pay off: 
These are some of the difficulties encoun- 
tered in vocational training, H. L. Shepherd 
pointed out in his address entitled "A New 
Look at Industrial Training." 

The current upsurge of interest in voca- 
tional training is "somewhat unco-ordinated 
among educational institutions, govern- 
ments — local, provincial, federal — technical 
and professional societies, industrial asso- 
ciations and companies," said Mr. Shepherd 
who is on loan to the federal Department 
of Labour for a special inquiry on training 
in industry. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1 96 J 



643 



The purpose of the study of the Depart- 
ment of Labour is to assess the needs and 
the most logical and effective lines of action. 
Companies report on their training activities, 
including the "going" training-in-industry 
programs that pay their own way, training 
programs that were unsuccessful, and the 
company-government teamwork, especially 
where in-company training plays a part. 
How training needs are being met in smaller 
companies, especially those remote from 
larger vocational schools, is also of interest 
to the Department. 

Training its people on a systematic basis, 
whether or not there is a need for that 
particular training at the moment, was 
found an advantage by one company, Mr. 
Shepherd reported. "When unforeseen needs 
arise, there are people on hand who are 
disciplined in some phases of learning, have 
the confidence born of the mastery of more 
than one skill, and who do readily learn 
new work." 

"Several companies have outstanding pro- 
grams — and whether by coincidence or not, 
they seem to have relatively few personnel 
problems," Mr. Shepherd said. 

However, there are many obstacles to 
training programs. An example of these is 
the collective agreements which may con- 
tain provisions which, especially in times of 
work shortages, turn training investment 
into waste by restricting freedom of action 
in placing or even retaining the best-trained, 
high-potential staff. 

Still, there is ample evidence in success- 
ful companies that their superior ability to 
compete is strengthened by better prepared 
people at all occupational levels. "The tide 
of improved training is running — not be- 
cause it's popular, but because it's got to 
be," Mr. Shepherd concluded. 

Harold R. Lawson 

"I am against any legislative action at 
this time to compel or encourage portability. 
In my opinion it would be no help but a 
hindrance," said Harold R. Lawson, Presi- 
dent of the National Life Assurance Com- 
pany of Canada, who spoke on "Portable 
Pensions — Help or Hindrance?" 

Mr. Lawson made it clear, however, that 
he was not against portability, but only 
against portability imposed on employers 
by legislative pressure or coercion. Port- 
ability, he thought, would become more 
general as time goes on, and he contended 
that great strides were now being made by 
the voluntary process. 



Quoting from the 1959 Clark Report on 
Economic Security for the Aged in the 
United States and Canada, he cited statistics 
which showed that the percentage of em- 
ployers with pension plans had increased 
from 8 in 1936 to 53 in 1957, and that 
during that period the percentage of the 
labour force employed in such firms had 
increased from 34 to 77. 

"I can assure you from personal knowl- 
edge . . . that there has, over the whole 
period, though possibly not recently, been 
a gradual liberalization of the provisions 
of pension plans as to portability. Never- 
theless, many private plans today do not 
provide for portability and few could be 
called completely portable . . ." 

During the past few years, portability 
of pensions has become a sort of political 
football, the speaker complained. He dis- 
agreed strongly with some of the views 
and recommendations contained in the 
summary report of the Ontario Committee 
on Portable Pensions, which, he pointed out, 
were important because they might become 
the law in Ontario and a pattern for other 
provinces. 

The Committee had taken as its terms of 
reference a statement made by Premier 
Frost in the Legislature to the effect that 
its task would be to "make recommenda- 
tions for strengthening the existing program 
of pensions and removing impediments to 
the employment of the older worker." But 
during the debate in which the statement 
was made no evidence had been introduced 
to show that the existing program of pen- 
sions was in fact an impediment to the 
employment of the older worker, he con- 
tended. 

"What evidence is there that older work- 
ers find it more difficult to secure employ- 
ment than they did 15 or 20 years ago 
when private pension plans were much less 
general? Has any one unfortunate individual 
been found who cannot get a job for the 
sole reason that he does not carry with 
him a portable pension?" Mr. Lawson 
asked. 

General reasoning, combined with our 
own experience as employers tell us that 
even if company pension plans are a factor 
in making it difficult for an older man to 
get employment, they are not the most 
important one, he contended. Seniority pro- 
visions; insufficient education, training or 
experience to justify the wage that his 
family responsibilities would require; im- 
perfect health; or unwillingness to stay at 
a job might be more serious obstacles than 
a pension plan. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



"Any difficulty that exists for men aged 
30 to 35 years or over in securing employ- 
ment is just part of our general unemploy- 
ment picture," the speaker argued. 

"What is the logic of making portability 
compulsory, or penalizing lack of portability 
through income tax structure, if it is en- 
tirely optional with an employer whether 
he have any pension plan at all?" he asked. 
Surely an older worker with no pension 
entitlement at all would be just as much 
at a disadvantage in the labour market 
as one who had a non-portable pension. 

It would be unfair, he argued, to allow 
one employer to have no pension plan, and 
to penalize another who had a plan that 
cost him, perhaps 10 per cent of his pay- 
roll, merely because it was not portable. He 
was not arguing that pension plans should 
be made compulsory, however, on the con- 
trary they should be entirely voluntary. 
"The Old Age Security Act provides a basic 
floor of protection for all our senior citi- 
zens," he pointed out, and if it were thought 
that supplementary pensions should be com- 
pulsory, the benefits under this act should 
be increased, although he thought they 
were at present adequate. 

Another recommendation of the Ontario 
committee that Mr. Lawson criticized was 
that all pension plans should be made 
portable on a basis proportionate to their 
original terms. This would mean that an 
employer who allowed 2 per cent for each 
year of service would find his costs go 
up more than the employer who allowed 
only 1 per cent. "In other words, those 
employers with the most generous plans 
would be penalized the most." Yet a 2-per- 
cent plan without portability might be far 
more valuable to the average employee than 
a 1-per-cent plan with portability, the 
speaker pointed out. 

"Another feature of these proposals for 
enforced portability is that employee con- 
tributions would be locked in forever," he 
said, and "who are we, or who is the 
Government, to dictate what a free man 
shall do with his own money? If we are 
going to legislate against improvidence, 
what about outlawing amusements, tobacco, 
liquor and other extravagances? What shall 
we do about buying on credit, and what 
about finance companies?" If the employed 
were to be forced to save, what about the 
self-employed?" What about those who 
might have some better use for their money 
than to leave it in a pension fund? 

Mr. Lawson thought that "semi-compul- 
sion by manipulation of the tax laws," 
which had been proposed in connection 
with pension plans and other matters also, 
was all wrong. "To require an employee 
to pay income tax on both his own and 



the employer's contribution at the time 
they are made . . . just because the plan 
does not provide some particular benefit, 
would be most arbitrary," he asserted. 

Another recommendation of the Ontario 
committee that full portability should be 
reached over a five-year period from age 
30 to 34, after only two years of service, 
would surely lead to the tightening up of 
pension plans in other respects and might 
even militate against the employment of 
workers above that age. The presumable 
additional cost due to portability would 
probably fall on the employer, and would 
be added to the price of the goods pro- 
duced, making them less competitive in 
world markets, the speaker said. 

A passage in the Ontario committee's 
report, quoted by Mr. Lawson, said that 
"the current expansion of pension plans 
will not proceed quickly enough or far 
enough to meet the social needs, unless 
government inducements or compulsion are 
invoked." His comment on this was: "Does 
everything that is right and proper have to 
be induced or compelled by Government? 
If portability is to be made compulsory, 
then participation will become compulsory, 
then pension plans, and then who knows 
what next?" 

J. A. Belford 

The pattern of employee benefits and 
the means of financing them not only have 
impact upon the national cost structure, 
they also affect the availability and the 
mobility of resources within the economy, 
J. A. Belford, Vice-President for Personnel 
and Industrial Relations, Massey-Ferguson 
Ltd., Toronto, stated in his discussion of 
"Employee Benefits Abroad — Lesson for 
Canada?" 

For employees, these benefits furnish a 
cushion against illness and accident, reduced 
income, unemployment, and old age. For 
employers, they represent a major element 
of labour cost that can effect the domestic 
and foreign competitive effectiveness of the 
business. The extent and variety of em- 
ployee benefits in Western economies mirror 
the social and political emphasis on welfare 
in our area, and these commitments are 
not likely to reduce, Mr. Belford said. 

To illustrate the scope and variety of 
employee benefits, Mr. Belford gave a par- 
tial list of the benefits in effect in Massey- 
Ferguson in North America, United King- 
dom, France, West Germany and Australia. 

He pointed out that these benefits are 
"in a fiercely competitive industry. In 
Europe, most of the features are statutory 
requirements, reflecting the political-action 
orientation of European trade unions," Mr. 
Belford said. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3—3 



• JULY 196 7 



645 



"Pensions, of course, are universal — state, 
or private, or in combination; but always 
at a direct or indirect cost to the employer. 
Group life insurance or death benefits, 
hospitalization, basic medical and surgical 
care on a prepaid or insurance basis, major 
medical coverage, weekly indemnity during 
illness or paid sick leave, and workmen's 
compensation almost round out the defences 
against what might be called the biological 
hazards of waking up in the morning. 

"Employer-financed family allowances or 
baby bonuses scaled to the number of 
children of the employee are provided; and 
at some locations, the company staff of 
doctors and nurses provide full medical 
care — in plant, at home, and in hospital — 
for the employee and his family." 

Unemployment insurance, supplementary 
employment benefits, separation payments, 
income stabilization schemes in the form 
of premium rates in the event of reduced 
hours, compensation for loss of office, ex- 
tended notices of lay-off or other separation, 
recall rights and call-in pay protect the 
employees against economic hazards, Mr. 
Belford said. 

The shift toward benefits in the form 
of leisure is seen in the long-term inter- 
national trend to reduced hours with main- 
tenance of income; paid statutory holidays 
and paid vacations and rest periods for tea, 
coffee, or wine break and paid wash-up 
time". Subsidized housing is not unusual 
outside of North America. 

Procedural benefits including restricting 
work rules, mutual consent requirements, 
featherbedding, seniority rights, etc., are to 
some degree universal, but very little is 
known about their cost to make comparison 
possible. Therefore, they are not included 
in the following table: 

AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS AND 

AVERAGE EMPLOYEE BENEFITTCOSTS 

IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, 

DECEMBER 1960 



Country 


Hourly 
Earn- 
ings* 


Employee 
Benefits* 


Total 

Cost* 

per 

Hour 


Benefits 
as Per 
Cent of 
Earn- 
ings 


Italy 

Netherlands . . 


.37 
.49 
.52 

.63 

.59 

.70 

.71 

1.04 

2.32 

1.82 


0.28 
0.14 
0.27 

0.28 
0.18 
0.11 
0.11 
0.15 
0.48 
0.40 


0.G5 
0.63 
0.79 

0.91 
0.77 
0.81 
0.82 
1.19 
2.80 
2.22 


74 
30 

52 


West Germany 

(Nov) 

Belgium 

Switzerland. . . . 
TJ.K 


44 
31 
15 
14 


Sweden 

U.S. 


15 
21 


Canada 


22 



•In U.S. 
646 



Dollars. 



According to Mr. Belford, the higher 
proportion of labour cost represented by 
company financing or subsidizing employee 
social and recreational activity expresses 
the paternalism frequent abroad. "But as 
standards of living rise, as industrial work- 
ers become more 'middle class' and as 
industry becomes more dynamic, there is, 
I think, a discernible trend away from this 
pattern," Mr. Belford observed. 

Within the broad picture of Canadian 
economy, employee benefits unfavourably 
restrict the control over resources in the 
industry, Mr. Belford believes, not only by 
tying up financial resources but by restrict- 
ing also the mobility of workers. 

As an example of a successful solution 
of the constricting effects inherent in em- 
ployee benefits, Mr. Belford cited West 
Germany's approach to pension manage- 
ment. As the only security in the private 
German pension plan is the prosperity of 
the individual firms, the employees and 
the union have a vested interest in the 
competitive effectiveness of their employer, 
and therefore try to avoid serious wage 
inflation despite a ratio of job vacancies 
in excess of 5 to 1. This entire scheme is 
made possible by an underlying State Pen- 
sion Plan which is fully vested and portable 
and which is supported by employee, em- 
ployer and state contributions; it provides 
for escalation with cost-of-living and general 
wage and salary levels. 

While Mr. Belford does not advocate a 
transplantation of similar systems from 
abroad to Canada, he believes that Canadian 
management can derive useful lessons from 
international comparisons. These he sums 
up as follows: 

"Keep your eye on total labour cost; 
ensure that no benefit is a disincentive to 
work; forget ideological labels and your 
prejudices; allocate your labour dollar 
among wages, monetary benefits and leisure 
with due regard for the preference and 
expressed needs of employees, their repre- 
sentatives, and the community; but keep 
your eyes on that total labour cost figure! 

"This approach takes the moral gauges 
off contributory versus non-contributory 
plans, for example. It doesn't mean doing 
unto others as you would be done by; 
rather, it means doing unto others as they 
would be done by — provided your costs 
remain under control and you preserve your 
competitive position and profitability. 

"At certain times, state-run plans can 
be the most effective, the most economical 
and best for the economy. It's unbusiness- 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



like and doctrinaire to oppose such plans 
when they serve needs best, simply because 
someone labels them 'socialism' or 'statism'. 
"For management, the real substance of 
employee benefits is the effect on total 



labour cost," Mr. Belford concluded. "Em- 
ployee and community values are more 
important in determining the form of em- 
ployee benefits than management precon- 
ceptions." 



McGill University's 13th Annual 

Industrial Relations Conference 

The five speakers, including two university professors, a government official, a 
businessman and a management consultant, examine the changing patterns of 
today's industrial relations. The conference was chaired by Prof. Edward C. Webster 



The effects of technological change on 
industrial relations, under the title "Chang- 
ing Patterns in Industrial Relations," formed 
the subject of the 13th annual conference 
of the Industrial Relations Centre of McGill 
University, held on June 6 and 7. About 
180 delegates, representing business firms, 
labour organizations, employers' organiza- 
tions, other universities, and federal, pro- 
vincial and municipal governments, attended 
the meetings. 

For the past four years this conference 
has been held in September, and the holding 
of the conference early in June was in 
some degree a reversion to the practice of 
earlier years. 

The conference consisted of addresses by 
five speakers, with a discussion period fol- 
lowing each address. The panel discussion 
that in the past had been held at the end 
of the conference was omitted on this 
occasion. 

The first speaker, Dr. W. R. Dymond, 
Director of the Economics and Research 
Branch of the federal Department of La- 
bour, dealt with "Technological Changes 
and Their Impact on Employment and 
Occupations in Canada." 

The second address, on the subject: "The 
Contribution of the Personnel and Indus- 
trial Relations Function in a Period of 
Rapid Mechanization," was given by T. 
Earl Hawkins, Personnel Assistant to the 
Executive Vice-President of the Imperial 
Tobacco Company, Montreal. 

The dinner speaker, Prof. B. M. Selek- 
man, Kirstein Professor of Labor Relations 
at the Harvard University Graduate School 
of Business Administration, spoke on 
"Power and Morality in Labour Relations." 

E. Floyd Henry, Managing Director of 
C.M.S. Counsellors, Ltd., management con- 
sultants, at the morning session on the 
second day gave an address on "Techno- 
logical Change — A Challenge to Collective 
Bargaining?" 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3— 3i 



• JULY 7967 



The last speaker was Prof. Jack Barbash, 
Professor of Labor Education and Econom- 
ics of the University of Wisconsin, and 
former Director of Research and Education, 
Industrial Union Department, AFL-CIO. 
His subject was, "Labour's Share in Eco- 
nomic Progress." 

The conference was opened by Prof. 
Edward C. Webster, Chairman of the Indus- 
trial Relations Centre; and the respective 
chairmen of the four sessions were: Dr. A. 
Asimakopulos, Dr. W. E. Lambert and 
Dr. Donald E. Armstrong, all members of 
the faculty of McGill University; and Dr. 
Eugene Forsey, Research Director of the 
Canadian Labour Congress. 

W. R. Dymond 

Technological change during the past 
decade has differed considerably in its 
character and quality from the technological 
change of earlier years, said W. R. Dymond, 
Director of the Economics and Research 
Branch of the Department of Labour, the 
first speaker at the conference. 

The pace of innovation has been greatly 
accelerated, and technological change is 
having sharply different effects on man- 
power than was the case in the past. It is 
stimulating the demand for highly trained 
manpower, in contrast to such change in 
the twenties and thirties, and even of the 
war period, which increased the need for 
semi-skilled and unskilled workers as a 
result of the introduction of mass produc- 
tion, the speaker said. 

Dr. Dymond first summarized a report 
that had previously been submitted to the 
Senate Committee on Manpower and Em- 
ployment by the Economics and Research 
Branch and then offered some speculations 
on the possible development of industrial 
relations under the influence of techno- 
logical change during the next few years. 



647 



Highly trained manpower is more im- 
portant to the economic growth of Canada 
than was the case up to the decade of the 
fifties, and will be of strategic importance 
to the country's economic development in 
the sixties, Dr. Dymond said. 

He went on to outline the various types 
of technological change and described 
briefly the effect of these changes on some 
occupations and on different types of 
labour. 

Regarding the impact of these changes 
on labour relations, Dr. Dymond said that 
in times of expansion the main burden of 
changes in technology appears to fall on 
potential jobs, that is to say, the changes 
lead not so much to layoffs as to a reduc- 
tion in the number of new jobs that are 
opening up. In this case the people most 
seriously affected are the young who are 
trying to enter the labour force for the first 
time, and those who are already unem- 
ployed. 

In times of declining economic activity, 
employment in general not only fails to 
expand but actually declines, with the result 
that layoffs become necessary. 

When layoffs occur, seniority provisions 
cause the younger employees to be more 
affected than the older ones; on the other 
hand, when older workers are laid off they 
have greater difficulty than the younger 
ones in finding other employment. 

"Clerical workers are the group where 
the displacement effects of technological 
change may be greatest," the speaker said. 
Planning by employers might reduce the 
need for layoffs, but it did not solve the 
problem. 

Turning to the impact of technological 
changes on unions, management and gov- 
ernments, Dr. Dymond said that the first 
of several basic influences was that skilled, 
technical and professional occupations were 
making up an ever growing proportion of 
the labour force. Conversely, the rates of 
growth for the semi-skilled and unskilled 
occupations were slower, and in some of 
the primary industry occupations there were 
absolute declines, 

A second effect was the growth of the 
service industries in terms of employment, 
and in recent years the lack of growth or 
actual decline in employment in the goods- 
producing industries. "This has led to a 
rapid growth of female employment, par- 
ticularly among married women, and also 
an increase in the proportion of the labour 
force engaged in indirect labour and in 
offices," the speaker remarked. 

A third result was that for individual 
workers, for managements, for unions and 
for governments, adjustments to meet these 



changes had to be more extensive and 
speedy than had been necessary in earlier 
times. 

"For unions, some of the problems caused 
by technological change have appeared in 
the form of how to organize workers in the 
new higher skilled and technical occupa- 
tions, and in offices where employment is 
growing most rapidly. This problem of 
expanding the bounds of organization is 
basic to the long-run survival of the union 
movement as an expanding and dynamic 
force," Dr. Dymond said. 

The factors that made organization of 
these newer and growing occupational 
groups difficult are their "consciousness of 
separateness" and "their tendency to occu- 
pational exclusiveness of economic interest 
and status." 

At the same time, the semi-skilled and 
unskilled occupational groups, among whom 
the strength of industrial unionism has lain 
for the past 20 or 30 years, are declining 
in relative importance. 

The speaker foresaw a difficult problem 
for the unions in making an organizational 
appeal to both the growing highly skilled, 
and the declining semi-skilled and unskilled 
groups. This suggested that there may be 
pressures for a new type of craft unionism 
suited to both these groups. 

An interesting question, the speaker re- 
marked, was what form of organization 
the technician group, especially the engi- 
neering technicians, would turn to. He 
thought that there might be a change in 
the character of the purely professional 
organizations. Many professionals in large 
enterprises found themselves more in the 
position of employees and wage earners 
than in that of the independent profes- 
sionals This raised the question of whether 
their organizations would take on the char- 
acter of trade unions or would continue in 
their old role of protecting the professional 
status of their members and setting en- 
trance requirements for the profession. 

For management, technological change 
raised questions regarding methods of deal- 
ing with office workers, professional and 
semi-professional workers, training and re- 
training, and management's responsibility 
for looking after those displaced by such 
changes. 

"Questions can ... be raised about the 
extent to which collective bargaining is 
effectively coping with many of the prob- 
lems of human adjustment which are 
thrown up by technological change. What 
responsibilities extend beyond the formal 
employment contract for workers whose 
skills are displaced?" 



648 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



Dr. Dymond said that technological 
change was an important way of meeting 
increasing competition, and that manage- 
ments and unions by working together could 
make a contribution to improving the com- 
petitive position of a single enterprise or 
of the economy as a whole. This had been 
done in Europe, and at least some steps 
were being taken in Canada under the 
auspices of the National Productivity Coun- 
cil and through labour-management com- 
mittees. 

As to the role of governments under the 
impact of changing technology, the speaker 
said that today governments were going 
beyond their traditional kinds of assistance 
and intervention in the labour market and 
in labour-management relations. "Govern- 
ment intervenes now and may intervene 
more decisively in the future at points 
where the human consequences of tech- 
nological change are too severe. This inter- 
vention may be in terms of the creation of 
new employment opportunities, the retrain- 
ing of the labour force, the assistance of 
labour mobility, support of the income posi- 
tion of those technologically unemployed, 
etc. Further, government may play a role, 
at least of guidance, and of assisting in the 
effective promotion of the vast human and 
material investments which are so neces- 
sary for the development of a modern 
technological society," Dr. Dymond said. 

In conclusion, he asserted that education 
and training are a major weapon of sur- 
vival in our kind of economy, and that 
they must not end when a youth leaves 
school, but must continue throughout his 
career. 

Question Period 

In the discussion following his address, 
Mr. Dymond pointed out that the most 
important route to greater mobility of 
labour lay in giving workers the kind of 
broad training that would help them to 
adapt themselves readily to change. Under 
conditions of rapid technological change it 
was necessary to learn something more than 
narrow technique. Geographic mobility, he 
said, was greater than we tended to think, 
and he cited experience in the coal mining 
industry of Cape Breton as an encouraging 
instance of this. 

Regarding the relation between the level 
of general employment and the rate of 
technological change, the speaker remarked 
that during the stage in the business cycle 
when industry was coming out of a period 
of high excess capacity due to insufficiency 
of demand for its products and entering 
on the period of full use of resources, 
there was an appearance of rapid gain in 
productivity. When this stage had passed, 



however, further gains in productivity re- 
quired an increase in investment. As output 
expanded and production was under pres- 
sure, with consequent pressure on the labour 
market and rising wage rates, technological 
change was stimulated by the need to keep 
down costs. 

T. E. Hawkins 

The function of personnel and indus- 
trial relations is to acquire and use the 
physical, mental and emotional resources 
of the human beings who make up an 
organization, for the attainment of the 
organization's objectives, through the pro- 
cess of administration, said T. E. Hawkins, 
Personnel Assistant to the Executive Vice- 
President of the Imperial Tobacco Com- 
pany. 

The importance of making use of an 
organization's physical, mental and emo- 
tional human resources was a constantly 
recurring theme of Mr. Hawkins' address, 
the title of which was "The Contribution of 
the Personnel and Industrial Relations 
Function in a Period of Rapid Mechan- 
ization." 

The personnel and industrial relations 
function has not developed very logically, 
but has "just growed up" like Topsy, the 
speaker said. Its techniques have been 
"largely of the manufacturing or engineer- 
ing type." This type of approach works 
fairly well when you are making cigarettes 
or refrigerators, but although good in its 
way, it may not be a good one for human 
beings. 

"An assembly line job is probably as 
poorly designed a job as you could wish for 
to utilize the physical, mental and emotional 
resources of a human being . . . but it has 
one major advantage: it is the most econom- 
ical way of getting certain kinds of work 
done," Mr. Hawkins said. Who would pay 
$12,000 for an automobile that now sells 
for $3,000 in order to be assured that the 
people who had made the $12,000 car had 
got real satisfaction out of their work, he 
asked. 

Union-company relations are becoming 
"an area for specialists ... It is becoming 
more and more legalistic. I would think 
that in many instances it is primarily a 
power struggle between a company or 
industry and the union," the speaker said. 
Rapid mechanization will bring more prob- 
lems to union-company relations, and it 
"is going to create a lot more problems 
than it is going to solve," he thought. The 
function will be largely "a defensive activity, 
not a constructive one." 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



649 



"I would think that it will probably be 
largely limited to maintaining or regaining 
the right of industry to exist, to be com- 
petitive with the rest of the world, which 
we certainly are not now," Mr. Hawkins 
suggested. 

"Unions or no unions, I think manage- 
ment must learn how to use its human 
resources in its plants and offices. We won't 
use them through unions." 

The personnel function is concerned with 
complex disciplines about which we have 
not much factual knowledge, and we know 
little about how to apply the theories we 
have regarding personnel management. 

A recent study on the relationship be- 
tween motivation and work, Mr. Hawkins 
said, referred to such things as wages and 
salaries, benefits, company practices, good 
supervision practices, and so on, as "hygiene 
items, dissatisfying factors." A poor wage 
structure might cause dissatisfaction, and if 
you eliminated the poor wage structure 
you eliminated the dissatisfaction, that was 
all. If you raised the wage level above 
average you accomplished nothing except 
to raise costs. 

"The motivation for people to work lies 
within the work, within the job itself," and 
jobs must be so designed that people can 
use their own physical, mental and emo- 
tional resources. 

Regarding job design, Mr. Hawkins 
added: "One of the things that bothers me 
is all these skills that are required. I can 
remember running a mining camp during 
the war when I could not find a welder 
to weld aluminum. We had to fly in a 
man. Boy this was a skill that required a 
master welder. Three years later there were 
thousands of girls welding aluminum. I 
wonder just how much of a problem these 
skills are." 

The speaker was inclined to discount a 
good deal of what we hear about automa- 
tion, of how it was going to require 
extensive retraining, that the unskilled 
worker was going to become useless, that 
radical changes would have to be made 
in the work force, that wage policies are 
no good, that we must throw out our plans 
and start again. "I doubt it," he said. "My 
definition of automation is that when a 
machine anticipates required action and 
takes it, you have automation. I think we 
are an awfully long way from that." 

"We are going to be faced with the 
problem of job skills going up and down. 
We are going to have some real practical 
problems about highly skilled people who 
are going to have such a low level of work 
that they are going to be dissatisfied. In 



addition to that there will be the problem 
of highly skilled people that we cannot 
find." 

The speaker emphasized the importance 
of designing jobs so that those who are 
doing them can take an interest in what 
they are doing and can feel that they are 
making use of their capabilities. Even 
minor changes in this direction would have 
a much greater effect than major changes 
in the "hygiene items," he contended. Job 
design, however, was a "pretty unknown 
area ... an area of terribly built-in assump- 
tions." 

Research is bringing out the fact that 
people in offices are much more interested 
in "the things that come out of proper job 
design" than are the people in the factories. 

A poor organization structure makes the 
effective utilization of human resources 
almost impossible, Mr. Hawkins said. If 
you analyse the circumstances and require- 
ments of a job, you do not need a massive 
system. 

To illustrate this, the speaker said that 
on one occasion a group of people, of 
which he was one, were planning a posi- 
tion, and they decided that what was 
needed was "a highly trained, highly com- 
petent foreman with mechanical aptitudes. 
Boy! he had to be the works. We had the 
job description to prove it. When we sat 
down and started to analyse some of these 
things we decided that what we really 
needed was a junior clerk." 

Mr. Hawkins predicted that rapid mechan- 
ization was going to mean fewer levels of 
supervision, entirely different relationships 
between line and staff departments, an 
entirely different control system, different 
people were going to make the decisions, 
and if it was to be successful it would 
mean a complete change of organization 
structure. Forecasting and planning of 
organizational details, sales, and so on, 
were going to be most important. 

Regarding selection and placement, the 
speaker suggested that we do not know 
very much about selecting people. He said 
he had heard a man state, "after a very 
major piece of research in selection prac- 
tices in industry," that the best way to 
select a particular man for a particular 
position in a particular company for a 
particular boss was to hire ten men and 
fire nine. "Surely we can do better than 
that," Mr. Hawkins remarked. 

In training a person for a job we should 
concentrate on his aptitude for the job, 
and not allow ourselves to be led astray 
by irrelevancies such as his taste in ties 
or his political views. "Some companies 
have gone to the point where their training 



650 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



programs are tied into their promotion 
schedules. This has helped solve this sense- 
less argument about seniority." 

"There is an old saying that the most 
important thing to a young man starting 
his career in life is the choice of his first 
boss. It is second only in importance to 
his choice of parents. That still holds true. 
No matter what you do about these things, 
it is a process, it is dependent on having 
a job in which the man can learn how to 
use his resources, in an organization struc- 
ture that will permit it and with a superior 
who will coach him," Mr. Hawkins said. 

"Some of the assumptions we are making 
in appraisal programs are almost frighten- 
ing." He doubted the assumption that all 
men want to advance and to know how 
they are getting along. "I don't believe 
there is a person in this room who wants 
to be called into the boss's office tomorrow 
morning and told, "You are doing a lousy 
job.' What you . . . and I want ... is to be 
called in by the boss and told one of two 
things: "It is a wonderful job you are 
doing, you are irreplaceable," or, "Boy! are 
you good, there is a major promotion 
ready for you right now." 

The idea that work is important to a 
human being is "terrible old-fashioned and 
completely against the social climate of our 
time, that work is something you are 
supposed to avoid," but "I do not believe 
that," the speaker said. He believed that 
people were not happy, and that children 
could not develop unless they were doing 
some work. He allowed, however, that 
money had some value as an incentive; 
and he ascribed the present difficulty in 
getting boys to undertake apprenticeship 
training to the lack of sufficient money 
incentive, in comparison with what could 
be earned by "some guy who knows 
nothing" and "has done nothing." 

The question as to the relationship be- 
tween the efficiency of a machine and the 
wages that should be paid to the man who 
operates it was raised by the speaker. Should 
the operator of a new and much more 
productive machine be paid more than the 
operator who is still plugging along with 
the old machine? and, if so, how much 
more? he asked. 

He thought that the changes which are 
coming about, not only in technology but 
also in our social climate, create "a real 
opportunity for the personnel people." If 
advantage were taken of this opportunity, 
the result would be that personnel would 
become an integral part of management. 
"There will be the utilization of the phy- 
sical, mental and emotional resources of 
the organization through a process of 
administration to accomplish the organiza- 



tion's aims. It will not be something that is 
tacked on, not just a department attracting 
the peripheral and nuisance activities." 

Question Period 

As an illustration of his contention that 
work was important to a human being, 
Mr. Hawkins mentioned a certain man 
whom he had known both as a union 
organizer and as a semi-skilled employee of 
a company. As an employee he had been a 
"bum" but when he became a union 
organizer he had worked seven days a 
week, 12 hours a day, ill or well, and 
thought nothing of it. Yet he was getting 
about the same pay as when he worked 
for the company. 

Referring to seniority, he said, "I think 
this is an utterly unintelligent fight between 
management and unions if you accept the 
premise that we have to get some produc- 
tivity. If on the other hand, you accept the 
premise that the thing is less work . . . that 
work is something to despise and get rid of, 
you will not agree with me." He was not 
saying that seniority was no good, but that 
the way it was used was not good. 

Answering a question, Mr. Hawkins said 
that he thought we were making a serious 
mistake in "pointing the finger at the unions 
and blaming them for all kinds of things." 
The unions existed within a social climate 
and it was our social climate, not the 
unions, that was responsible for current 
attitudes toward work as something distaste- 
ful. 

Prof. B. M. Selekman 

"Power and morality in Labour Relations" 
was the theme of the dinner speaker, Prof. 
B. M. Selekman, Kirstein Professor of 
Labor Relations at the Harvard University 
Graduate School of Business Administra- 
tion. 

We think of power as coercive power. 
There are also economic power and poli- 
tical power. In the early stages of organiza- 
tion these are the forms in which power 
appears. But reason, logic and morality 
are also most potent forms of power, which 
in later stages of development are preferred 
to the cruder forms, Prof. Selekman said. 

In some connections reason is the pri- 
mary way in which we mobilize power. But 
morality is one of the most important forms 
of power. The power of conscience haunts 
us night and day. The desire to do right 
and to avoid doing wrong, and the inner 
struggle to be right with ourselves is strong 
in all but the most immoral. Conscience is 
one of the saving graces of mankind, the 
speaker asserted. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



651 



In labour relations we should recognize 
the place of dignity, equality of opportunity 
and a system of due process by which an 
accused person is given a fair hearing. 
The objective of industrial relations should 
be justice and equity similar to that which 
prevails under the law, and this had been 
the great lack in industry until recent years. 

In earlier times industry had been sub- 
ject to the will of the owner, and in the 
United States it took bloody strikes to 
awaken industrial leaders such as the 
Rockefellers to the simple elements of 
morality in labour relations. As an out- 
come of two such strikes had come the 
recognition of human relations in two large 
companies; and the later philanthropy of 
the Rockefellers, which had led them to 
establish the Rockefeller Foundation, to 
bring about a revolution in medical educa- 
tion, and to help to expose exploitation in 
other industries stemmed from their reac- 
tions to the pricks of conscience. 

Power can be used for righteous, as well 
as for unrighteous ends, Prof. Selekman 
said. He pointed out that the rate of tech- 
nological growth has doubled itself over the 
last 15 years, or at a rate twice as fast 
as the growth of population. Do we realize 
the tremendous augmentation of power that 
technology is putting into the hands of 
management, and what are we going to 
do with this power?, he asked. 

Before the great depression in the thir- 
ties there had been hardly any union 
organization in the mass production indus- 
tries, but during that period had come 
great expansion of union power. Now the 
balance of power was shifting back from 
labour to management. The strike is becom- 
ing archaic, the speaker contended, pointing 
out that some plants, such as those in the 
chemical industry, had been kept going in 
spite of strikes with a small emergency 
force of supervisors. 

Turning to the coal industry in the 
United States, Prof. Selekman said that 
John L. Lewis had been able to obtain for 
his miners the highest wage rates ever 
paid, along with a union-administered wel- 
fare fund. But in return, the mine owners 
had been given the green light to mechan- 
ize, and as a result the number of miners 
employed in the industry had dwindled 
from 500,000 to 100,000 in 10 years. 

Owing to strikes, their supposedly adverse 
effect on the competitive position of indus- 
try, and so on, unions were now "some- 
what in the dog-house," but the revolution 
in the position of labour had been due to 
the unions. In collective bargaining the 
unions had been provided with agencies for 
remedying injustices. One reason why they 



are so solid now is that this question of 
morality has been pretty well taken care 
of, Prof. Selekman suggested. 

He thought that the greater responsibility 
rested with management, because greater 
power was in its hands, and it adminis- 
tered the changes that were taking place in 
industry. The terrible thing is that unless 
we plan for technological changes they may 
be disastrous to our society. Prof. Selekman 
pointed to the unemployed coal miners, 
auto workers and steel workers, many of 
whom, he said, will never work again at 
their old jobs. 

The speaker cited the telephone com- 
panies as an example of concerns that had 
planned for technological change. He ad- 
mitted that they had had the advantage 
of operating in a closed market under 
monopolistic conditions, and that the coal 
companies could not have done what the 
telephone companies had, to mitigate the 
effects of technological change; but it might 
be said that both they and the United 
Mine Workers could have done something 
rather than sacrifice the miners who had 
been thrown out of work by the changes. 

Companies and governments must also 
work together to lay plans for retraining 
and for relieving the distressing effects of 
technological changes. 

Now is the time to establish a code of 
ethics that we can all accept as part of our 
equipment, he urged. We need a code of 
social ethics, or we may lose to another 
system that promises these things and that 
in the short run does give security. 

The machine is taking the place of man 
and in the long run this is a good thing. 
We have the potential wealth with which 
to build a great society. "We must have the 
machine serve man, not man serve the 
machine," the speaker said. 

E. Floyd Henry 

The popular adoption of the word "auto- 
mation" has led to much confused thinking 
on the subject of technological change, and 
the many emotional connotations associated 
with it have added to this confusion, said 
E. Floyd Henry, Managing Director of 
C.M.S. Counsellors Ltd., management con- 
sultants specializing in industrial relations 
counsel and services to management. 

We have been almost drowned in the 
flood of words that have been written in 
recent years about automation and its effects 
on industrial relations. Even university pro- 
fessors have not been immune from "auto- 
mation anaesthesia," he said, and he pro- 
posed to lead his hearers through something 
of the maze of material that had been 
written on the subject. 



652 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



The literature on this subject contains a 
large body of interesting but unsupported 
ideas on the effect of technological change, 
and little research has been done in case 
studies, especially of Canadian origin, the 
speaker pointed out. 

The terms technological change and 
automation were used almost synonymously; 
yet according to some authorities automa- 
tion was an old story, while by others it 
had been called a new dimension in tech- 
nological change. The popular tendency was 
to label any modern technique of production 
as automation, but some authorities drew a 
distinction between automation and tech- 
nological change, applying a more precise 
definition to the former description. 

There is much difference of opinion about 
the effects of automation or technological 
change on manpower requirements, the 
speaker said; and some management execu- 
tives, economists and even government offi- 
cials have made misleading statements. 
Technological change will not make human 
labour superfluous, and there is evidence 
of little technological unemployment in 
Canada, Mr. Henry contended. 

Giving one firm as an instance, he said 
that in the Steel Company of Canada not a 
single employee has been laid off because 
of technological change. The Stelco agree- 
ment contains provisions regarding em- 
ployees who are rendered superfluous by 
such changes, but it has not been necessary 
to invoke them, and no grievances have 
arisen on that score. 

One popular hypothesis is that automa- 
tion increases the need for skills of various 
kinds, but the evidence suggests that sweep- 
ing statements on the subject cannot be 
supported. According to one authority, auto- 
mation does not in the long run raise skill 
requirements, although it seems to do so 
in the early stages of change. Many of the 
new machines do not seem to call for 
operators who require much training. 

Some of the unfounded statements regard- 
ing the increasing need for skill are being 
used to support a demand for grandiose 
government schemes for retraining, he said, 
and there is a lot of loose thinking in some 
management circles. Mr. Henry explained 
that he was not suggesting that more train- 
ing was not needed, but he was sceptical 
about the kind of training that would be 
done, and he thought that it was necessary 
to be careful to identify national training 
needs. 

"The more highly specialized the training 
the greater the likelihood of early obso- 
lescence," the speaker said, quoting from 
one authority. Organized labour should take 
a long look at its traditional policies with 
regard to apprenticeship. He gave instances 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3—4 



JULY 796 7 



in which unions had co-operated with em- 
ployers in the training of workers. Em- 
ployers, he thought, should not be expected 
to train workers for other employers. 

Referring to seniority rules as an obstacle 
to retraining programs, Mr. Henry asserted 
that if the unions continue to press for 
these schemes it will be difficult for them 
to give a rational defence for some of their 
seniority principles. Rigidity of seniority 
rules might mean that some displaced em- 
ployees would be unable to get employment 
after they had been retrained. Pressure by 
the unions for broader seniority provisions 
may increase difficulties of this kind, he said. 

Research is needed to determine the 
effect of technological change on industrial 
relations, both from the union and from the 
management point of view. Research of this 
kind would not only fill gaps in our know- 
ledge, but would also challenge some of our 
concepts, the speaker believed. 

The evidence does not seem to suggest 
that the main machinery of collective bar- 
gaining needs major changes, or that it will 
not continue to be an effective method of 
settlement. Mr. Henry said that he did not 
look for any significant changes in collec- 
tive bargaining as a result of technological 
change. 

Question Period 

Dr. Donald Armstrong, who led the dis- 
cussion following Mr. Henry's address, said 
that the speaker had presented the idea that 
technological change was not new and that 
some of its effects had been greatly exag- 
gerated. Unemployment was not caused by 
technological change, and it was hard to 
believe that it rendered personnel adjust- 
ment more difficult or the role of education 
more important. 

He suggested a sinister political plot to 
blame unemployment on automation and 
the lack of education. It was natural that 
the first people to be laid off should be 
those who were the least productive and 
least well educated, and it was nonsense 
to present more training as a solution to 
the unemployment problem. 

We must recognize that technological 
change is at present taking place in a 
climate of heavy unemployment, and that 
it was consequently getting the blame for 
unemployment. Under these conditions, he 
thought that the unions would become more 
militant and more hostile to technological 
change. 

Replying to a question by one of the 
delegates, Mr. Henry agreed that employers 
should plan for technological changes in 
advance, and they did so. The very nature 
of such re-organization necessitated advance 
planning. As to who should be responsible 



653 



for retraining, he said that the employers 
are doing this training. He could see some 
reason for granting severance pay, but he 
thought that it should be given in a lump 
sum, and should not go on and on. One 
problem regarding severance pay, however, 
was the tendency to go out and spend it all 
at once. 

Asked what he thought of the National 
Productivity Council and the summit con- 
ference of management and labour repre- 
sentatives called some months ago by the 
Minister of Trade and Commerce and the 
Minister of Labour, the speaker said that 
although they probably performed a useful 
role, he thought it was mainly in providing 
a political sounding board. He doubted 
their practical results and he said it would 
be interesting to know how the Produc- 
tivity Council would increase productivity. 

The discussion leader thought that re- 
training should be done in the new job, 
not in the old one. "How do you know 
how to retrain without knowing what you 
are training for," he asked. 

Mr. Henry did not agree with the charge 
made by a delegate that employers do not 
live up to their social obligations, and that 
they treat their employees in a cavalier 
way when they move a plant to a new 
locality. He had found that companies he 
had worked with had a strong sense of 
social responsibility. He did not know that 
the "runaway plant" was a big problem in 
Canada as yet. 

One of the delegates questioned the view 
that technological change had not directly 
caused unemployment. He thought that it 
had still more closed off opportunities for 
employment, and he instanced the auto- 
mobile industry and the coal mining indus- 
try as cases in point. He suggested that 
technological change had caused under- 
employment, as for example in the main- 
tenance departments of the railways. 

Mr. Henry said he did not deny that 
individuals were displaced, but he was refer- 
ring to the gross effect on employment. He 
would like to hear more about technological 
employment, instead of unemployment. 

Prof. Jack Barbash 

The trade unions are shifting to the 
recognition that job displacement as a result 
of technological change is inevitable, and 
their efforts are being directed toward eas- 
ing the effects of this displacement on the 
union and on the individual "through joint 
participation and transitional devices." This 
was the view expressed by Prof. Jack Bar- 
bash, Professor of Labor Education and 
Economics at the University of Wisconsin, 
and former Director of Research and Educa- 
tion, Industrial Union Department, AFL- 
CIO. 



The response of the unions to this situa- 
tion is taking the form of demands for 
advance notice of technological changes, 
for reduced working hours, for enlargement 
of the normal reach of seniority, for the 
protection of jobs by collective bargain- 
ing, for severance pay; or, in the case of 
the United Automobile Workers, for an 
annual wage or salary. Labour is also turn- 
ing toward legislation as an important 
means of softening the effect of job dis- 
placement, showing, in this respect, a 
striking departure from past policy. 

Management now has the initiative and 
is the challenging party, Prof. Barbash said. 
The emerging phase might be described as 
the unions contained, instead of the unions 
on the march. Labour is now placing a 
strong reliance on public policy to maintain 
a high level of employment, if not full 
employment. Collective bargaining can have 
only a "micro-effect", and government 
alone can deal with the situation on a 
"micro-effect" basis. 

The present union aim is for a limited 
welfare state approach domestically, the 
speaker said. Increased unemployment bene- 
fits and a demand for more help for de- 
pressed areas are examples of this. 

In collective bargaining, the unions are 
shifting from a "commodity" approach to 
a "welfare" approach, Prof. Barbash said. 
As an instance of this, he mentioned the 
UAW's aim of securing payment of produc- 
tion workers on a salary basis, the same as 
office workers, and unions contention that 
employment by the hour is "obsolete, 
uneconomic, irresponsible and unjust." 

This change in union policy, in regard 
to both collective bargaining and legisla- 
tion, was entirely pragmatic, the speaker 
said. Ideology played no part in it. Collec- 
tive bargaining was still the chief concern 
of the unions, but laissez faire in public 
policy was no longer accepted. 

"The most dramatic development in col- 
lective bargaining policy to ameliorate the 
impact of displacement is the adoption of 
the principle that loss of job rights can be 
liquidated by a financial settlement between 
the displaced employee and the employer," 
Prof. Barbash pointed out. 

Management on its side was demanding 
more freedom of manoeuvre in dealing with 
manpower, and this would be its quid pro 
quo in relation to the demands of the 
unions. Management was willing to pay for 
this freedom of manoeuvre through collec- 
tive bargaining, to liquidate the employees' 
interests in return for increased manoeuvre- 
ability and freedom to plan his manpower 
requirements. 



654 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



Management's position now is that the 
market can no longer sustain price increases, 
that management must assert itself, and that 
the unions must be put in their place and 
told who is boss, Prof. Barbash said. He 
found, however, little merit in the "hard 
line, ideological, upper-case management 
rights approach," by management. Any 
form of union power is in a real sense 
an invasion of management rights. But the 
workers are losing jobs, "and you can't 
expect the unions to take it lying down." 
There was no evidence, he felt, that the 
surrender of rights by the unions would 
increase management's efficiency. The hot 
breath of labour down the neck of the 
employer has been an incentive to reduce 
costs, the speaker contended. 

Prof. Barbash said that he thought he 
knew what was bothering management, but 
the right method of dealing with questions 
of management rights was to concentrate 
on specific situations, he asserted. The 
unions would not respond to arguments 
based on a general theory of management 
rights, and if they were to submit to the 
unbridled right of management to make 
changes "without references to the human 
consequences," they would be abdicating 
their responsibilities. 

Union work rule practices are not a 
critical factor, Prof. Barbash contended. 
He admitted that the unions had some- 
times held on to unreasonable work prac- 
tices, but if management wanted to get 
these changed it must deal individually with 
specific cases, and must confront the unions 
with reasons for the changes it wanted. 

The speaker took issue with those 
economists who advocated a policy of 
national wage restraint. How could such a 
policy be implemented in a market econ- 
omy, he asked. Economists should have no 
need to become emotional. "For economists 
to act like ordinary human beings seems 
like a breach of the work rules of our 
craft," he said. 

Prof. Barbash disagreed with the idea 
that industry-wide collective bargaining was 
inflationary, contending that it was no more 
inflationary than piecemeal bargaining. 

The tone of a good deal of union propa- 
ganda has more anti-boss bias than is 
necessary, and this hinders unions in their 
organizing efforts, the speaker thought. But 
the provocation has been great. "By and 
large, management circles have never pub- 
licly acknowledged the existence of the 
union in a constructive way," he said. How- 
ever, both unions and management could 
afford to discard of some of their "juvenile 
postures". 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3— 4$ 



• JULY 7967 



"My own view is that the answers to the 
labour problems caused by accelerated tech- 
nological change must begin with economy- 
wide programs. I am in general agreement 
with the view that hyper-cautious anti- 
inflationary attitudes have been responsible 
for the deterioration of our economic 
position. The economy of the United States 
has demonstrated its capacity to avoid 
major depressions. We have not been able 
to master the techniques of avoiding exces- 
sively frequent recessions," the speaker said. 

Question Period 

Management's new "hard" line is the 
result of its improved bargaining position, 
Prof. Barbash said in replying to a question 
during the discussion period that followed 
his address. It is easier for unions or 
management to adopt a statesmanlike atti- 
tude when their own position is strong, 
and the present defensive attitude of the 
unions is due to the difficulties of their 
position, he pointed out. 

Although he admitted that the impact 
of foreign competition was stronger in 
Canada than in the United States, he 
thought that too much was being made of it. 

Regarding the shorter work week as a 
means of adjusting to technological change, 
Prof. Barbash confessed that he was at 
odds with other economists. Historically, 
he said, our reaction to technological change 
has been to expand leisure time. From this 
he argued that shorter hours were needed 
to enable the slack in industry to be taken 
up. He suggested that in effect, owing to 
short working time, we may now be under 
the equivalent of a 30-hour week without 
reaping its benefits. 

As to the effect of shorter hours in 
leading to an increase in "moonlighting," 
the speaker asserted that moonlighting is 
inevitable in a free society. He thought 
that it was the result not so much of a 
desire for more money, as of a certain 
"basic poverty in our lives." Some of us 
feel disoriented if we are separated from 
our jobs, he suggested. 

Several of the economists present de- 
murred to Prof. Barbash's view of the 
shorter work week as an answer to tech- 
nological unemployment. One of them con- 
tended that structural unemployment could 
be cured by reliance on the market if fiscal 
and monetary policy were such as to pro- 
mote a full employment climate. He agreed, 
however, that public dislike of deficit 
financing and difficulties over the inter- 
national balance of payments presented a 
psychological obstacle to the implementing 
of such a policy. The unions should regard 
the question of the shorter work week as a 
matter of choice, not of necessity, he said. 



655 



Prof. Barbash admitted that he found 
little to disagree with in this view. He 
thought, however, that the shorter work 
week idea was not so catastrophic as most 
economists seemed to think. He did not 
see collective bargaining as a major factor 
in developing policy on such matters, he 
said. 

Union work rules cannot be thrown out 
overnight, and they must be dealt with 
piecemeal or they will not be dealt with 
at all, Prof. Barbash asserted. Progress 
would be made only by patient work, 
specific cases must be concentrated upon, 
and preaching on general principles would 
not get things done. 

Unions are good for management as 
well as for the employees, the speaker 
believed. Most employers, if they had their 
choice, would prefer to deal with an 
organization rather than with a rabble. 
"There can never be mutuality between the 
order-giver and the order-taker," but there 
was no need to go for the jugular. Collec- 
tive bargaining has brought law and order 



to labour relations, and has eliminated the 
"primitive savagery" of earlier times in 
the United States, he said. 

A delegate asked Prof. Barbash how he 
would feel about management's attitude to 
unions if the latter were trying to establish 
a political party that proposed to nationalize 
industry. Prof. Barb ash's reply was that 
he thought his attitude would be the same. 
In a free society, with the means of in- 
fluencing public opinion that they had at 
their command, the companies should be 
able to defend themselves against labour 
party attacks. He could think of good 
reasons against nationalization. The exer- 
cise of power has a brutalizing effect, and 
the great exaltation in a sense of ownership 
felt by unionists in countries where indus- 
tries were taken over by the government 
evaporated as soon as a supervisor said, 
"You go and do that." 

In the United States, however, the speaker 
thought that management's hostility to 
labour had mounted as a result of the 
union's actions in the political arena. 



NES Counselling and Placement in the 1960's 

Matching jobs and workers main problem when unemployment high, skilled labour 
scarce, Director of National Employment Service says. Improvements in service 
and expansion of executive and professional placement counselling planned 

To get workers into jobs they can do 
best is the best for the individual worker, 
the best for industry, and the best for the 
country, William Thomson, Director of the 
National Employment Service told the 
University Counselling and Placement Asso- 
ciation meeting in Montreal last month. 

Matching jobs and workers presents 
special difficulties at a time when, as at 
the present, shortage of skilled labour 
exists while there is a relatively high unem- 
ployment, Mr. Thomson said. 

The National Employment Service has 
had to handle a situation of either unem- 
ployment or labour shortage ever since it 
has been established, but a new situation 
faces the Service now: "There are many 
job openings which we are unable to fill 
locally, jobs which we have had to place 
into clearance . . . These are mainly profes- 
sional, managerial or skilled jobs. At the 
same time we have many, many applicants 
registered, a large proportion of them 
unskilled or semi-skilled, for whom we 
have no openings." 

Bringing most job seekers and employers 
together through local employment offices 
is desirable if a well organized labour 



Placements made by the National Em- 
ployment Service in 1960 totalled 958,000, 
W. Thomson, Director of the NES said 
during his address to the University Coun- 
selling and Placement Association. 

This total consisted of placements in 
skilled, semi-skilled, service, professional 
and managerial, sales and clerical, and other 
occupations. 

Included were youth (first-jobbers), handi- 
capped, veterans, older workers, immigrants, 
ex-prisoners, ex-service men, graduates, 
undergraduates, claimants for unemployment 
insurance benefits as well as non-claimants, 
and those employed but seeking to improve 
their positions as well as the unemployed. 

Some 30,000 placements involved moving 
workers from one part of Canada to an- 
other. 



market is to utilize effectively the existing 
manpower and to keep pace with the indus- 
trial development, Mr. Thomson added. 

It is not too difficult to get most job 
seekers to report for employment at the 
NES offices, because workers, with the 
exception of executives and professional 
workers, must register for employment as 
a condition for drawing unemployment 
insurance benefits. 



656 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



No such obligation, however, exists on 
the part of the employers. To acquaint 
them with the facilities available, NES 
employer relations officers must engage in 
salesmanship and, through periodical visits, 
solicit and obtain orders, Mr. Thomson 
explained. 

"This salesmanship must be backed by a 
high degree of 'know-how' in the filling of 
these orders. If it is not supported by 
selection work of such calibre that it is 
superior or less expensive to hire through 
NES than can be accomplished by the em- 
ployer hiring direct, then we just don't get 
the hiring business of that employer again," 
Mr. Thomson said. 

Within the general program of man- 
power development, selection and referral 
of workers to jobs on which they are most 
likely to perform with success is as impor- 
tant as training, expansion of training 
facilities, or upgrading of skills, Mr. Thom- 
son believes. 

Importance of the National Employment 
Service in this respect is underlined by the 
fact that proper selection of workers con- 
tributes to increased productivity, lowering 
of industrial costs, and subsequent improve- 
ment of Canada's competitive position 
abroad and employment situation at home. 

The efficiency of the Service depends 
largely on its being properly staffed by 
qualified placement officers who, in addition 
to making almost a million placements 
annually, handle about a quarter of a mil- 
lion counselling interviews per year. The 
importance of staffing was stressed by Mr. 
Thomson, for "if the organization is not 
properly staffed, either in number or in 
calibre, there will be little likelihood that 
most employers will make use of the serv- 
ice, and when the service is not used by 
employers, then the results will not justify 
its existence, the service will become an 
extravagance. If, on the other hand, the 
service is properly staffed, and employers 
can be supplied with the kind of help that 
will perform successfully on the job, then 
the employment service becomes a good 
investment," Mr. Thomson said. 

As to counselling, employment rather 
than educational counselling is the proper 
concern of the NES, Mr. Thomson pointed 
out. However, it is not always easy to dis- 
tinguish between the two; for example, NES 
counsellors persuade about 3,000 school 
drop-outs each year to return to school and 
finish or try to finish their training. 

Mr. Thomson noted that the increasing 
number of counselling interviews, given 
mainly to young people, indicates that NES 
is adjusting to developments in this area. 
Youth is the segment of population that 



In talking to the University Counselling 
and Placement Association, W. Thomson, 
Director of the NES, cited the estimates of 
the labour force increases made by the 
Gordon Commission on Economic Pros- 
pects. 

The estimate was that the labour force 
will increase from 6.2 million in 1959 to 
8.1 million in 1970, an increase of 31 per 
cent. 

By age group, it is estimated that the 
number of those from 14 to 24 years of 
age will increase by 51 per cent, and that 
of those from 14 to 19 will increase by 
60 per cent; the older groups of 45 to 64 
and 65 and over will rise by 30 and 32 
per cent respectively; the middle age group, 
made up of people from 25 to 44 years of 
age, will increase by only 17 per cent. 

In terms of skills, this means that in the 
span of a decade we will have an over- 
surplus of unskilled or lower skilled workers 
as represented by those in the younger age 
group; a moderate supply of the skilled in 
the upper age groups; but a shortage of 
workers in the 25 to 44 age bracket — mainly 
skilled. 



provides the greatest challenge for the coun- 
sellors and needs most assistance in em- 
ployment problems. 

"The influx of young workers and the 
finding of jobs for them would represent a 
formidable problem in itself. But to aggra- 
vate this problem, there is the matter of 
technological development in industrial 
methods and processes. The demand for 
the type of worker likely to do the job 
successfully will be such as to require much 
more in the way of education, training, 
experience, and so on — at the very time 
when the supply of workers possesses less 
rather than more of these qualifications. 

"Only one third of the jobs in our 
economy are of a semi-skilled or an un- 
skilled nature. But 70 per cent of school 
children leave school without achieving 
junior matriculation or its equivalent — in 
many cases ill equipped to compete for 
skilled or even semi-skilled occupations." 

To cope with this situation, and with the 
predicted changes in the labour force over 
the next decade, NES is undergoing and 
planning a number of important changes 
in its organization, Mr. Thomas reported. 

"In recent years, we have provided full- 
time special placement officers to some 75 
additional local employment offices where 
previously counselling of young people was 
done by officers with other responsibilities. 
We have augmented our staff of general 
placement officers by some 500 additional 
positions since 1957. Salaries of placement 
officers have been increased substantially, 
thus enabling us to raise recruitment quali- 
fications and thus ensuring a better calibre 
of personnel to carry out this important 
work." i 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



657 



Additional improvements mentioned by 
Mr. Thomson consist of stepping up NES 
over-all activities, concentrating on youth 
in need for upgraded education and skills, 
intensifying public relations and publicity 
programs, and extending communication 
facilities. 

An expansion of executive and profes- 
sional placement facilities is the next step 
planned by the NES, although the present 
demand for professional manpower is being 
met more or less adequately by the rapidly 
expanding universities. 

A growth of about 40 per cent is estimated 
for executive and professional positions 
during the next ten years but, taking into 
account retirement, wastage, migration, etc., 
the increase will possibly equal around 65 
per cent of the existing total of executives 
and professionals, Mr. Thomson said. 

In preparation for meeting this future 
need, NES plans to re-organize its execu- 
tive and professional placement service 
across the country. 

The plan calls for between 35 and 40 
key offices, each staffed with qualified 
executive and professional personnel, to 
service a number of smaller surrounding 
offices. 

A pilot study using this approach is now 
being conducted in London, Ont., and 
evaluation of its results will provide a 



basis for national implementation of the 
plan across Canada, Mr. Thomson said. 

One of the obvious requirements of the 
new plan is a substantial increase of the 
NES staff; in preparation for the planned 
re-organization, the present staff in indivi- 
dual offices has been assessed and in some 
cases increased to cope with the work 
more efficiently. Salaries also have been 
increased; and the qualifications for execu- 
tive and professional placement officers 
raised accordingly. 

"In the spring of 1959, we operated eight 
full-time placement offices at different Cana- 
dian universities. Since that time, we have 
added seven additional offices," Mr. Thom- 
son reported. 

"These seven new offices include our 
first office at a technological institute, 
namely the Southern Alberta Institute of 
Technology in Calgary. It is of interest to 
note that our full-time offices last year 
passed what we call the half-way mark, 
since these offices serve now more than 
half of the total university student popula- 
tion of the country. In addition to these 
full-time offices, we provide placement 
service to many educational institutions on 
a part-time basis." 

Mr. Thomas believes that, in view of the 
rapid acceleration in university growth, 
some of these institutions will have to be 
provided with a full-time placement service. 



U.S. Area Redevelopment Act 



Purpose of the new Act is to stimulate lasting improvements in depressed areas 
through financial aid to local economies and to create new employment through 
development of new facilities rather than by transferring jobs from other areas 



Help to chronically depressed areas suf- 
fering from persistent unemployment is the 
object of the Area Redevelopment Act, 
passed by both Houses of the U.S. Congress 
and approved by President Kennedy in May. 

The purpose of the Act is to stimulate 
lasting improvements in distressed areas 
through financial aid to local economies 
and to create new employment by develop- 
ment, expansion, and diversification of new 
and existing facilities and resources rather 
than by merely transferring jobs from one 
area of the United States to another. 

The Canadian measure with a similar 
purpose was the Special Capital Cost Allow- 
ance Program announced in the supple- 
mentary budget of December 20, 1960 
(L.G., June, p. 543). 



A new agency has been created under 
the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Com- 
merce to administer this long-range pro- 
gram, distinct from short-term anti-recession 
measures. It is intended to supplement local 
and state initiative and resources by provid- 
ing technical assistance and funds to com- 
munity leaders drafting suitable redevelop- 
ment plans for their areas. William L. Batt, 
former Pennsylvania state Secretary of 
Labor, has been appointed to head the 
agency as its first Area Redevelopment 
Administrator. 

A fund of $394 million is provided by 
the legislation, $200 million of which are 
to be spent on loans for rural and urban 
building and improvement programs, $100 
million on long-term, low-interest loans for 



658 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



development of public facilities, $75 million 
on grants for smaller communities that 
cannot afford the loans, and the rest for 
various forms of occupational training pro- 
grams, subsistence benefits for the unem- 
ployed being retrained, and research. 

Redevelopment areas are defined by the 
law as those areas where "the rate of unem- 
ployment, excluding unemployment due pri- 
marily to temporary or seasonal factors, is 
currently 6 per centum or more" and where 
the annual average rate of unemployment 
has been above the national average at least 
50 per cent for three of the preceding four 
calendar years, 75 per cent for two of the 
preceding three calendar years, or 100 per 
cent for one of the preceding two years. 

Loans can be given for the purchase or 
development of land and facilities includ- 
ing machinery and equipment, for industrial 
and commercial usage, and for the con- 
struction of new or rehabilitation of aban- 
doned buildings, as well as for conversion 
or enlargement of existing buildings. Finan- 
cial assistance is not to be extended to 
working capital or for relocation from one 
area to another. A limit of $100 million 
each is set for rural and urban areas. Finan- 
cial participation from other sources is 
required for loans to private or public spon- 
sored projects; the fund's share is limited 
to 65 per cent of the cost and the loan is 
subject to a 25-year limit including pos- 
sible extension. 

Another $100-million share of the total 
appropriation is to finance, through loans, 
the purchase or development of land for 
public facilities, to improve opportunities 



for successful establishment or expansion 
of industrial or commercial plants which 
could alleviate more than temporarily the 
unemployment or underemployment in the 
area. For a similar purpose and under 
similar terms, a grant fund of $75 million 
is available to smaller communities that 
cannot afford the loans. 

To obtain federal loans or grants under 
this Act, local groups must draw plans 
and arrange for state and local financing 
of at least some portion in most projects, 
which must also be approved by state 
development agencies and the Washington 
administrators. 

Training and retraining of the unem- 
ployed residing in a redevelopment area 
is to be financed with $4.5 million annually, 
and subsistence up to a $10-million total 
is to be distributed among the persons 
being trained, in amounts equal to the 
average unemployment compensation pay- 
ment. 

The remaining $4.5 million of the total 
Redevelopment Act appropriation has been 
set aside for financing technical assistance 
studies of depressed areas, which would 
evaluate the needs and potentialities for 
their economic growth. Private individuals, 
firms, or institutions may be contracted for 
such research. 

The Secretary of Commerce is also 
responsible for a research program on the 
causes of unemployment and underemploy- 
ment and chronic depression, and for the 
formulation and implementation of pro- 
grams to raise income levels and solve these 
conditions. 



Record Employment in Britain during 1960 

A record number of workers employed has been reported from Britain in 1960. At 
the same time, a downward trend in unemployment developed: the number of people 
out of work at the end of December was 365,000, which was 56,000 less than the 
previous year. 

The number of workers employed reached its peak in November with almost 24,000,- 
000; one third of these were women, about four million of whom were married. 
Approximately one in three of the married women in Britain is employed. 

Manufacturing industries and distributive trades expanded during the year, while 
the labour force in agriculture, which had been declining for several years, again showed 
a decrease. 

Nearly 538,000 young people under 18 left school to start work, and were readily 
absorbed in the labour market. The number and proportion of boys and girls entering 
skilled occupations also increased. 

Overtime work continued at a high level in the manufacturing industries. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



659 



Industrial Fatalities in Canada 

during the First Quarter of 1961 

Deaths from industrial accidents numbered 216 in first quarter, a decrease of 
23 from previous quarter and of 37 from first quarter of 1960. The largest 
number of fatalities occurred in transportation, storage and communication 



There were 216* industrial fatalities in 
Canada in the first quarter of 1961, accord- 
ing to the latest reports received by the 
Department of Labour. This is a decrease 
of 23 from the previous quarter, in which 
239 were recorded, including 42 in a sup- 
plementary list. In the first quarter of the 
previous year, 253 fatalities were recorded. 

During the quarter under review, there 
were four accidents each resulting in the 
deaths of three or more persons. 

On March 22, three fishing boats, the 
Muriel Eileen, Marjorie Beryl and Jimmy 
and Sisters, the crews of which totalled 17 
fishermen, were caught in a storm in the 
Emera Bank area about 110 miles southeast 
of Lockeport, N.S., and all of the men 
were drowned. 

A fishing vessel carrying eight men was 
lost at sea on February 23, off the coast 
of Vancouver, B.C. 

Seven employees of a logging company 
were drowned at Malaspina Strait, B.C., 
on February 13, while being transported by 
vessel. 

Three firemen fighting a fire in Quebec, 
Que., on March 12 were buried under tons 
of rocks when the wall of a four-storey 
building fell on them. 

Grouped by industries (see chart page 
661) the largest number of fatalities, 34, 
was in the transportation, storage and com- 
munication industry. Of these, 17 were 
in local and highway transportation, 8 in 
railway transportation and 6 in water trans- 
portation. Fatalities recorded in this indus- 
try for the same period in 1960 numbered 
45; of these, 16 were in local and highway 
transportation, 13 in railway transportation 
and 10 in water transportation. During 
1960's fourth quarter, 22 fatalities were 
recorded; of these, 7 were in local and 
highway transportation and 6 each in water 
and railway transportation. 



*See Tables H-l and H-2 at back of book. The 
number of fatalities that occurred during the first 
quarter of 1961 is probably greater than the figure 
now quoted. Information on accidents that occur 
but are not reported in time for inclusion in the 
quarterly articles is recorded in supplementary lists 
and statistics are amended accordingly. The figures 
shown include 52 fatalities for which no reports 
have been received. 



During the quarter, three groups of 
industries, logging, manufacturing and con- 
struction, recorded the same number of 
fatalities, 30. 

The 30 fatalities in logging represented 
a decrease of 2 from the 32 that occurred 
during the same period last year and an 
increase of 3 from the 27 recorded during 
the fourth quarter of 1960. 

Of the 30 fatalities recorded in manu- 
facturing, 7 were in iron and steel products, 

6 in wood products, 4 in non-ferrous metal 
products and 3 each in food and beverages 
and transportation equipment products. Dur- 
ing the same period last year, 52 deaths 
were reported; 10 of these were in iron 
and steel products, 8 in food and beverages, 
5 in non-ferrous metal products and 4 each 
in paper products and non-metallic mineral 
products. Accidents during October, Novem- 
ber and December of 1960 resulted in the 
deaths of 42 workers in manufacturing; 
12 of these were in iron and steel products, 

7 each in food and beverages and wood 
products, and six were in transportation 
equipment. 

The 30 fatalities recorded in the con- 
struction industry were distributed as fol- 
lows: 22 in buildings and structures, 3 in 



The industrial fatalities recorded in these 
quarterly articles, prepared by the Working 
Conditions and Social Analysis Section of 
the Economics and Research Branch, are 
those fatal accidents that involved persons 
gainfully employed and that occurred dur- 
ing the course of, or arose out of, their 
employment. These include deaths that re- 
sulted from industrial diseases as reported 
by the Workmen's Compensation Boards. 

Statistics on industrial fatalities are com- 
piled from reports received from the various 
Workmen's Compensation Boards, the 
Board of Transport Commissioners and 
certain other official sources. Newspaper 
reports are used to supplement these data. 
For those industries not covered by work- 
men's compensation legislation, newspaper 
reports are the Department's only source of 
information. It is possible, therefore, that 
coverage in such industries as agriculture, 
fishing and trapping and certain of the 
service groups is not as complete as in those 
industries that are covered by compensation 
legislation. Similarly, a small number of 
traffic accidents that are in fact industrial 
may be omitted from the Department's 
records because of lack of information in 
press reports. 



660 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 J 



INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA 
First Quarter of 1961 



10 20 



Transportation, Storage 
and Communication 




40 50 60 70 80 90 100 



Finance 



BY INDUSTRY 



90 100 



Collisions, Derailments, 
wrecks, etc. 

Struck by Machinery, 
moving vehicles, etc. 

Falls ana* Slips 

Caught in, On or Between 
Machinery, Vehicles, etc. 

Inhalations, Absorptions, Asphyx- 
iation and Industrial Diseases 

Conflagrations, Temperature 
Extremes and Explosions 

Over-Exertion 
Electric Current 



Miscellaneous Accidents 



Striking Against or 
Stepping on Objects . 



Source: Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 




BY CAUSE 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796! 



661 



highways and bridges and 5 in miscellaneous The cause "struck by" was responsible 

construction. For the same period last year, for 48 deaths. Of these, 24 were in the 

fatalities in this industry numbered 27: 13 category "other objects," 17 were caused 

in buildings and structures, 12 in highways by moving vehicles and 7 were the result 

and bridges and 2 in miscellaneous con- of being "struck by tools, machinery, cranes, 

struction. During 1960's fourth quarter, 47 etc." In the classification "falls and slips," 

fatalities were listed: 29 in buildings and 45 fatalities were recorded, all but two 

structures, 12 in highways and bridges and of which were caused by falls to different 

6 in miscellaneous construction. levels. 

There were 26 fatalities in the fishing Twenty-three fatalities were the result of 

and trapping industry during the quarter, being "caught in, on or between." Of these, 

an increase of 19 from the 7 recorded 10 involved machinery, 8 tractors and load- 

during the first quarter of 1960 and of mobiles and 2 automobiles and trucks. 

21 from tte 5 recorded during the fourth By province of occurrence, the largest 

Tn^analysis 1 oTthe causes of the 216 " umber of fatalities was in Ontario, where 

fatalities during the first quarter (see chart there were 75 ' In Bntlsh Columbia there 

page 661) shows that 54 (25 per cent) were 44, in Quebec 31, and in Nova Scotia 

were under the heading "collisions, wrecks, 22. 

derailments, etc."; 29 involved watercraft, During the quarter, there were 68 fatali- 

20 involved automobiles and trucks and 7 ties in January, 75 in February and 73 in 

involved tractors and loadmobiles. March. 



Engineering and Scientific Salaries in 1961: Preliminary Survey 

Half of the engineering and scientific professionals surveyed in January 1961 (L.G., 
Jan. p. 19) had salaries between $6,700 and $10,000 annually, the Economics and Research 
Branch of the Department of Labour announced in a preliminary report published in 
April. Median salary rate of the surveyed group was $8,100, while the top 10 per cent 
received more than $12,700 and the bottom 10 per cent less than $5,700 median. 

Four main fields of specialization covered by the survey were agriculture, engineering, 
natural science, and veterinary science. About 65 per cent of those who replied to the 
survey were employed in private industry, 25 per cent in all levels of government, and 
5 per cent each in university and high school teaching. 

All specializations combined had median salaries of $8,700 in universities, $8,500 
in private industry, $7,500 in high schools, and $7,400 in Government. Private industry 
paid the highest median salary, $8,600 in engineering, which also marked the highest 
median — $7,900 — in Government service. Agriculture had the highest median in univer- 
sities — $9,100; natural science brought the highest median in high schools. Except for 
engineering, universities paid the highest median rates in all specializations. 

Regional levels of salaries were computed for engineering graduates only; they reached 
the highest point in Ontario with $8,600 median and the lowest with $7,700 in Atlantic 
provinces. A sufficient sample of engineers of Canadian citizenship employed in the 
United States indicated that salary rates for this group were above the comparable medians 
for all Canadian regions. 

According to function, executive and administrative work showed the highest level of 
salary rates, with the 1920-29 graduation years in engineering at $13,600 and in natural 
science at $13,400 median. Graduates of 1950-59 registered the lowest salary rates in 
all types of positions and in both engineering and natural science. 

The survey revealed that only 1.6 per cent of engineers and scientists in Canada were 
women, and that 91.5 per cent were working for an employer, 8.2 per cent were self- 
employed, and only 0.3 per cent were unemployed. The median age of the group was 37 
years. 

A more detailed statistical report on 1961 survey results will be issued later this year. 
Copies may be obtained from the Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour. 



662 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



Civilian Rehabilitation 



Course for Occupational Therapists 



An 18-month course at Kingston helps relieve the shortage of occupational 
therapists. Study of arthritis and rheumatic diseases conducted at University 
of Toronto. In Quebec, 810 handicapped workmen can return to employment 



With the object of relieving an acute 
shortage of occupational therapists in 
Canada, the Canadian Association of Occu- 
pational Therapy established a special 18- 
month course in Kingston, Ont., in 1959. 
This was made possible with the help of 
federal-provincial rehabilitation grants pro- 
vided through the Province of Ontario. 

The number of occupational therapists 
who have been graduating each year from 
Canadian universities has not been enough 
to begin to fill even existing vacancies, and 
new programs are being hampered by a 
lack of therapists with the necessary pro- 
fessional experience. Since World War II, 
Canada has benefited by an influx of 
trained occupational therapists from other 
countries, but many of them have remained 
for only a short time, and this temporary 
relief has not prevented a continuing short- 
age of these specialists. 

Although the school is not affiliated with 
Queen's University, it is situated near the 
campus and has received a considerable 
amount of co-operation and help from the 
university. The students are enrolled extra- 
murally in anatomy and physiology courses, 
and lecturers have been obtained from 
among members of the medical profession 
affiliated with the university. 

The course consists of ten academic 
months and eight months of hospital clinical 
practice. The academic part of the course 
is divided into two periods. At the end 
of the first seven-month period the students 
leave Kingston to spend two months in 
hospital, after which they return for the 
final three months of instruction at the 
school. On the completion of this period 
they are assigned to three more hospitals to 
complete the final six months of the course. 

The two periods of hospital practice are 
spent in the occupational therapy depart- 
ments of Kingston hospitals. 

This special course is intended for per- 
sons who have had advanced education and 
who may have had several years of work- 
ing experience in some other field. For 
this reason, only 22 of the 40 applications 
first received were accepted. The first group 
of 11 were enrolled on September 23, 1959, 
and were to be ready for employment in 
April this year. The same number of stud- 
ents were enrolled for the second class in 



September 1960. Eight provinces are repre- 
sented among the students already enrolled. 
Each class included two male students, the 
first men to be trained in occupational 
therapy in Canada. It is hoped that the 
maximum enrolment of 20 students will be 
reached this autumn. 



A special unit for the study of arthritis 
and rheumatic diseases was recently estab- 
lished at the University of Toronto, with 
Dr. Wallace Graham as Director. Establish- 
ment of the unit was made possible by 
grants from the Canadian Arthritis and 
Rheumatism Society that will total $125,000 
over the next five years, President Claude 
Bissell said in making the announcement. 
Dr. Graham is a member of the university's 
teaching staff of Toronto General Hospital 
and has been Director of the Arthritis Unit 
at the Sunnybrook Veterans' Hospital for 
the past 15 years. The new rheumatic dis- 
ease unit will make use of facilities at the 
Toronto General Hospital and the Queen 
Elizabeth Hospital. 

This is the second such unit to be estab- 
lished recently through the co-operation of 
the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism 
Society, a similar unit having been opened 
not long ago at the University of British 
Columbia. 



The Quebec Workmen's Compensation 
Commission in its annual report states that 
last year 1,339 handicapped workmen 
benefitted from the work of the Rehabili- 
tation Social Service. Officers visited 2,926 
employers, and 3,700 employees at their 
homes, and made 5,255 social visits in 
hospitals in the province. Due to their 
efforts, 810 handicapped workmen were 
enabled to return to employment. 

* * * 

Plans for the establishment of a school of 
rehabilitation have recently been announced 
by the University of British Columbia. The 
school will train physiotherapists, occupa- 
tional and speech therapists, and specialists 
in physical medicine. It is expected that a 
model chronic hospital unit will be estab- 
lished that may eventually be incorporated 
into the proposed University Hospital. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



663 



Older Workers 



Employment, Retirement of Older Workers 

Canada's first conference on the employment and retirement of older workers, 
convened by Saskatchewan Aged and Long-term Illness Survey Committee, 
90 delegates from labour, management, and Government from four provinces 



Acceptance by society of the need for 
new roles for older workers will enable 
them to continue making a contribution 
to our society rather than to become "just 
consumers", Canada's first conference on 
the Employment and Retirement of Older 
Works concluded. 

The conference, held in Regina, Sask., 
last month, attracted some 90 delegates, 
representing labour, management, and gov- 
ernment departments from Alberta, Saskat- 
chewan, Manitoba, and Ontario. 

The conference was convened by the 
Aged and Long-term Illness Survey Com- 
mittee of Saskatchewan and financed by 
Eldorado Mining and Refining Limited, 
Federated Co-operatives Limited, Inter- 
continental Packers Limited, Saskatchewan 
Brewers Association Limited, and the 
Saskatchewan Wheat Pool. 

Addresses given at the conference were: 
"Hiring the Older Worker is Good Busi- 
ness," by W. G. Scott, Employment Special- 
ist of the Ontario Regional Office, National 
Employment Service, Toronto; "The Older 
Woman and the Working World" by Miss 
M. V. Royce, Director, Women's Bureau, 
Department of Labour, Ottawa; "Retire- 
ment Practices and Their Implications" by 
A. Andras, Director of Legislation Depart- 
ment, Canadian Labour Congress, Ottawa; 
and "Occupational Medicine and the Older 
Worker" by Dr. D. K. Grant, Director of 
Medical Services, The Hydro-Electric Power 
Commission of Ontario, Toronto. E. C. 
Leslie, Q.C., acted as general chairman. 

"Employment of the Older Worker — 
Problems and Possibilities" was the topic 
of the guest banquet speaker, C. E. Odell, 
Director, Older and Retired Workers De- 
partment, United Auto Workers of America, 
Detroit. Mr. Odell also acted as moderator 
for a panel discussion in which all speakers, 
group chairmen, and delegates participated. 

Conclusions reached by various groups 
at the conference included: 

Older people are not all alike, and while 
their physical capacities may be declining 
gradually, their mental capacities may re- 
main unimpaired; many conditions asso- 
ciated with physiological aging can be 
arrested and stabilized, if not reversed. 
There are also different concepts of what 
is the "good life" in the later years and 



retirement; no single answer to what older 
people should do and how they should do 
it can be found. 

Older workers should be given a chance 
to preserve their right and responsibility of 
participation in making decisions which 
affect policy and programs for older people. 
They need a decent level of income, hous- 
ing, and health security, to keep their free- 
dom of choice. 

The definition of "older workers" used at 
the conference was "those of 40 years of 
age and over." The growing ranks of this 
group add a new dimension to our popula- 
tion, but society and the public and private 
agencies seem slow to accept this fact. New 
roles for older people must be found, and 
a social climate of acceptance developed by 
the entire society. 

* * * 

The age group "over 45" includes many 
who may have been greatly affected by the 
depression in the 1930's, the Australian 
Ministry of Labour and National Service 
found when studying employment problems 
of older workers. 

The present labour force includes workers 
who, because of the depression, had limited 
education, no vocational training, and 
broken employment during their formative 
years as workers. Scarcity of jobs in which 
they could get training while employed 
confined them to the unskilled group, which 
has the highest unemployment incidence. 
Age trends to increase the degree of mar- 
ginality in these cases. 

* * * 

In administrative and executive positions, 
the problem of older workers seeking em- 
ployment appears to be not so much one 
of obtaining work as that of finding a posi- 
tion up to their expectations, sometimes 
based on an over-optimistic idea of their 
abilities and the value of their experience. 
Older workers also tend to be unmindful 
of the difficulties of taking up a respon- 
sible position in a new organization where 
the policies and methods differ from those 
to which they have been accustomed, the 
Ministry of Labour and National Service in 
Australia has found. 



664 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



Women's Bureau 



U. N. Commission on the Status of Women 

Delegates to Commission's 15th session discuss several aspects of employment 
of women; discrimination, part-time work, occupational outlook, expansion of 
job opportunities, women in teaching, tax legislation applying to working women 



At its 15th session, held at the European 
Office of the United Nations, Geneva, 
March 13 to March 30, the United Nations 
Commission on the Status of Women dis- 
cussed several aspects of women's place 
in the working world. 

Discrimination in Employment — The re- 
presentative of the International Labour 
Office reported that 34 countries had now 
ratified the Convention (No. 100) con- 
cerning equal remuneration for men and 
women for work of equal value. She also 
stated that 16 countries had ratified the 
Convention (No. Ill) concerning discrim- 
ination in employment and occupation and 
that there were good prospects that the 
number would rise to 30 in the near future. 

Although delegates noted that the general 
trend in the world was toward a fuller par- 
ticipation of women in the economic life 
of their countries, they were concerned 
about the extent to which discrimination 
still exists either openly or in a concealed 
form. They felt that married women with 
family responsibilities in particular were its 
victims. Further, the position of women in 
the labour market lacked durability in times 
of economic recession. It was therefore 
important to carry out a campaign of 
general education of public opinion in 
order to try to change social attitudes. 

A resolution was adopted inviting the 
ILO to continue its studies of the whole 
subject. The ILO was also asked to con- 
sider the extent to which discrimination 
against married women is attributable to 
the fact that the cost of social welfare 
benefits is defrayed solely by employers 
and not out of public funds, in particular 
out of existing systems of social security 
and social services. 

Part-time Work — Several delegates showed 
special interest in part-time work as a means 
of helping women who cannot find full-time 
employment or, especially those who are 
married with children, cannot undertake 
full-time work. The Commission requested 
the ILO to bring up to date its previous 
studies on part-time work for women. 

Expansion of Employment Opportuni- 
ties — In another resolution member states 
were urged to promote opportunities for 
women to obtain employment in accord- 
ance with their qualifications and abilities. 
The ILO was asked to supplement its regu- 



lar reports to the Commission on equal pay 
with information on other ILO activities 
that have a bearing on the employment of 
women, including available statistics and 
information on the work of its industrial 
committees and of the panel of consultants 
on the problems of women workers. 

Occupational Outlook for Women — For 
several years now there has been in process 
a world-wide study of the access of women 
to training and employment in professional 
and technical fields where relatively few 
women are employed. The Commission 
decided to re-examine the approach to 
these studies with a view to placing greater 
emphasis on methods found useful by 
governments and non-governmental organi- 
zations to encourage and assist the access 
of women to these fields. Hope was 
expressed that the ILO will also find it 
possible to suggest a plan for studies of 
occupational areas where large numbers 
of women are employed. 

Tax Legislation Applicable to Women — 
The delegates considered that the system 
of joint taxation of the income of husband 
and wife now practised in many countries 
results in the taxation of married persons 
at a higher rate than single persons, and 
that this discriminates against married 
women by causing a disproportionate reduc- 
tion in the value of her earnings. As a 
result, married women may be discouraged 
from seeking employment commensurate 
with their training and ability. 

In a resolution the Commission called 
upon member states to re-examine their 
taxation laws with a view to providing for 
equal treatment of men and women in 
respect to taxation of earned income. 

Women in the Teaching Profession — The 
Commission requested the Economic and 
Social Council to call upon the educational 
authorities in the member states to ensure 
a complete professional training for women 
teachers, equal pay and equal in-service 
training and promotional opportunities, and 
equal access to posts of responsibility. 

It also urged the elimination of discrim- 
ination against married women in the teach- 
ing profession by removing obstacles to 
their employment or re-employment and 
recognizing the need for maternity leave 
and family allowances for women teachers 
who are mothers. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



665 



From the Labour Gazette, July 1911 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Most Canadian centres busy and wage increases frequent and substantial in June 
—1911. Montreal plasterers win eight-hour day. Ottawa brewery workers gain 
reduction in hours to 55 a week, Hamilton brewery workers to 50 hours a week 



Most Canadian centres reported "active" 
employment conditions and frequent and 
substantial wage increases in June 1911. 
Increases of 10 per cent or more were 
fairly common, the Labour Gazette for 
July of that year stated. 

In Montreal, 500 plasterers received an 
increase that brought their hourly rate to 
45 cents from 40 cents, and 1,500 carpen- 
ters a general increase of 10 per cent to 
bring their average rate to 33 cents an 
hour from 30 cents. Besides the wage in- 
crease, the plasterers had their hours re- 
duced from nine to eight a day effective 
September 1. 

Carpenters in Hamilton had their wages 
increased from 35 to 40 cents an hour, 
300 being affected. In Saint John, N.B., 50 
labourers employed by the City gained an 
increase from $1.50 to $1.75 a day after 
a brief strike. 

On the West Coast, 100 labourers em- 
ployed by a construction company had 
their wages increased to $2.75 from $2.50 
a day, blacksmiths employed by the same 
company got an increase to $3.75 from 
$3.50 a day, drillers an increase to $3.25 
from $3 a day, and cement workers an 
increase to $3.50 from $3.25. 

Some increases were smaller, 40 brick- 
layers and masons in St. Thomas, Ont., 
getting an increase of 2 cents an hour that 
brought their weekly wage to $22.68 from 
$21.60. Conductors and motormen in Guelph 
received an advance of 1 cent an hour, 
which brought their wages from a range of 

15 to 18 cents an hour to a range of from 

16 to 19 cents. 

The maximum salaries of six teachers of 
the Collegiate Institute in Sarnia were in- 
creased to $1,800 from $1,600, to $1,600 
from $1,500, and to $1,200 from $1,000 a 
year. 

In Ottawa 34 brewery workers received 
an increase to $13 from $12 a week, dating 
from July 1, and it was agreed that their 
hours should be reduced from 60 to 55 
a week with effect from the following 
January 1. In Hamilton, 85 brewery work- 
ers got the same increase with reduction in 
hours from 59 to 50 a week. 



In a survey of the state of employment 
in Canada during the month of June, based 
on the reports of correspondents of the 
Labour Gazette, employment conditions 
in 16 industries and 49 cities were described 
by the terms: active, very active, quiet, 
very quiet. In the great majority of places 
and industries the descriptions "active" or 
"very active" appeared in the table showing 
the state of employment that appeared in 
the July 1911 issue. 

Only in the fishing industry did the 
description "quiet" appear as often as that 
of "active." In lumbering, three of the 17 
places from which reports were received 
said "quiet," the others reporting "active," 
with one "very active." In the building 
trades, with all 49 places reporting, Van- 
couver, and Fort William and Port Arthur 
said "very quiet"; Halifax, Newcastle, Kings- 
ton, Moose Jaw, and Lethbridge said 
"quiet." Eight places reported "very active," 
and the other 34 places said "active." In 
other industries, all but a few places re- 
ported "active" or "very active." 

The Gazette stated that the Canadian 
Northern Railway Company expected to 
add between 700 and 800 miles of new 
branch lines to its system in the three 
Prairie Provinces during 1911. 

The report of a conciliation board that 
investigated disputes between four boot and 
shoe manufacturers and their employees in 
the province of Quebec was published in 
the Gazette of July 1911. Regarding one 
of the disputes the report had the following 
to say: "The dispute arose as a result of 
the introduction of a new machine for 
pressing heels. With the old machine the 
plaintiff worked for 10 cents per case. The 
new machine requiring two operations in- 
stead of one, he asked 20 cents per case. 
After having heard the evidence and 
examined the working of the two machines 
we have concluded that the work is about 
the same: a little longer with the new 
machine, but on the other hand less dan- 
gerous. Charles Garneau should be paid 12 
cents per case for the two operations on 
the new machine, or, should he prefer, 
$10 per week. . ." 



666 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



INTERNATIONAL 
LABOUR ORGANIZATION 



7th Session, Inland Transport Committee 

Adopts two series of conclusions, on general conditions of work of raiiwaymen 
and on social consequences of changing techniques in railway and road transport 



The Inland Transport Committee of the 
International Labour Organization ended 
its Seventh Session with the adoption of 
two series of conclusions and 10 resolutions. 
The Committee met from May 8 to 19 at 
ILO headquarters in Geneva. 

The first series of conclusions concerned 
the general conditions of work of railway- 
men; the second, the social consequences 
of changing methods and techniques in 
railway and road transport. Most of the 
resolutions had to do with social problems 
in the transport industry. 

The 27 countries members of the Com- 
mittee were represented by 206 Govern- 
ment, Employers' and Workers' delegates 
and technical advisers. The United Arab 
Republic and Luxembourg, which are not 
members of the Committee, sent observers, 
as also did the United Nations Economic 
Commission for Europe, the European Con- 
ference of Ministers of Transport, the 
European Economic Community and 
seven international professional organiza- 
tions of employers and workers. 

The Canadian delegation was as follows: 

Government Delegates — G. R. Currie, 
Industrial Relations Officer, Department of 
Labour (Head of Delegation); and P. C. 
Cohen, Chief of Manpower Training 
Research Section, Economics and Research 
Branch, Department of Labour. 

Worker Delegates — Roger Melancon, 
Vice-President, Brotherhood of Railway 
Carmen of America, Montreal; and W. G. 
McGregor, Canadian Legislative Repre- 
sentative and Chief Agent, Brotherhood of 
Railroad Trainmen, Ottawa. 

Employer Delegates — G. A. Richardson, 
General Secretary, The Railway Association 
of Canada, Montreal; and Frank McCallum, 
President, Prairie Automobile Transport, 
Ltd., St. Boniface, Man. 

Conditions of Work of Raiiwaymen 

The conclusions adopted by the Com- 
mittee in the matter of working conditions 
of raiiwaymen included the following: 



— Railway undertakings are in the fore- 
front of economic and social life and of 
national defence. 

— The development of technical progress 
and the concept of public service require, 
for the satisfactory operation of railway 
systems, an increasingly specialized staff 
motivated by a profound sense of responsi- 
bility toward undertakings and users. 

— The general conditions of work of 
raiiwaymen should ensure for them a rea- 
sonable standard of living, stability of 
welfare, and social security for themselves 
and their families. 

— Many railway systems are in financial 
difficulties, frequently as a result of public 
service commitments, such as the need to 
maintain services on certain uneconomic 
lines or the obligation of transporting all 
kinds of freight. This should not be a reason 
for maintaining general conditions of work 
below a reasonable standard. 

— In order to ensure the future of rail- 
ways and the availability of capital for 
their operation and expansion there should 
be understanding between railway admin- 
istrations and workers' organizations, and 
joint efforts should be undertaken to com- 
pensate for the cost of improvements in 
conditions of work by higher output and 
efficiency. 

— Industrial relations between railway 
administrations and workers' organizations 
should be created, maintained or developed; 
and procedures of negotiations, conciliation 
or arbitration should be promoted within 
the appropriate bodies in a spirit of co- 
operation in keeping with ILO standards. 

The Committee also set out general prin- 
ciples for the development of permanent 
standards to determine the conditions of 
work of raiiwaymen. These principles have 
to do with hours of work, rest periods and 
holidays, staff welfare, and consultation 
between railway administrations and 
workers' organizations. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



667 



Social Consequences of Technical Progress 

The Committee's conclusions concerning 
the social consequences of changing methods 
and techniques in rail and road transport 
reflected a desire to create a harmonious 
social balance in rail and road transport 
at a time of profound technological trans- 
formation. 

Regarding railways, the Committee took 
into account a number of important 
changes, among them: 

— the change from steam to electric and 
diesel traction; 

— the improvement in the capacity and 
specialization of rolling stock; 

— improvements in signalling; 

— the elimination or curtailment of serv- 
ices, lines or tracks; 

— the improved operation of marshalling 
yards, often with the automatic sorting of 
the wagons; 

— mechanical equipment for the handling 
of goods. 

In road transport, the main changes noted 
by the Committee were those arising from 
the use of improved methods and pro- 
cedures, the development and use of im- 
proved equipment, and the improvements 
in roads themselves. 

The Committee recognized, in the light 
of the views expressed by the Government, 
Workers' and Employers' representatives, 
"that in certain circumstances technological 
changes in the rail and road transport 
industries involved problems for affected 
workers." 

Regarding measures to deal with such 
problems, the Committee observed that the 
solution would call for a measure of co- 
operation on the part of representatives of 
governments and employers and the workers 
themselves. The Committee also noted that 
the solution was complicated by the fact 
that there were marked differences in the 
forms of transport, in the scale of opera- 
tions and the economic and social conditions 
prevailing in the different countries. 

The Committee held that it was desira- 
ble, in the interests of the workers, for the 
representatives of governments, employers 
and workers to "endeavour to work out 
reasonable arrangements for the protection 
of the interests of the workers whose posts 
become redundant as a result of techno- 
logical change." 

The measures recommended by the Com- 
mittee had to do with advanced planning, 
information and consultation, security of 



employment, reductions in staff, termina- 
tion of employment, training, and promotion 
of health and safety. 

Resolutions 

The Committee adopted 10 resolutions on 
questions not included in the agenda. 

In a resolution on ILO technical assist- 
ance, the Committee invited the Governing 
Body of the ILO to request the Director- 
General, in developing the operational acti- 
vities of the Organization: 

— to take into account the need to assist 
developing countries in building up suitable 
machinery for promoting joint consultation 
between representatives of employers and 
workers with a view to improving the well- 
being of the workers, the prosperity of the 
industry and of the community in general; 

— to use the available means for the im- 
provement of poor conditions of work which 
so often lead to industrial conflicts, thus 
hampering the harmonious development of 
the economy in general and of the trans- 
port industry in particular; 

— to invite governments, in appropriate 
cases, to consult the national organizations 
of employers and workers concerned when 
formulating requests for technical assist- 
ance; 

— to encourage requests for assistance 
from the International Labour Organization 
in elaborating machinery for the proper 
settlement of industrial problems in essen- 
tial transport industries. 

Other resolutions adopted by the Com- 
mittee had to do with labour inspection in 
road transport, the co-ordination of trans- 
port, civil liability of transport workers, 
safety and health of dock workers, voca- 
tional training and inland transport in 
developing countries, and limitation of loads 
carried by one man. Finally, two resolutions 
contained suggestions concerning the com- 
position of the Inland Transport Commis- 
sion and the agenda of its eighth session. 

In November 1959, the membership of 
the Inland Transport Committee was in- 
creased from 26 to 27: Argentina, Australia, 
Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, 
China, France, the Federal Republic of 
Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Federa- 
tion of Malaya, Mexico, Morocco, The 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakis- 
tan, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, 
the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom and the 
United States. 



668 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 J 




The 7th Regional Conference of American States Members of the ILO, held at Buenos 
Aires, April 10-21, was attended by 162 delegates and technical advisers from 21 American 
countries. The Canadian delegation is shown here with the President of the Conference, 
Dr. Guillermo Julio Acuna Anzorena, Minister of Labour of Argentina: (left to right) 
P. M. Draper, President, Pressure Pipe Co., employers delegate; Donald MacDonald, 
Secretary-Treasurer, Canadian Labour Congress, workers delegate; Dr. Anzorena; Dr. W. R. 
Dymond, Director, Economics and Research Branch, Department of Labour, head of the 
delegation and Government delegate; A. F. MacArthur, Commisssioner, Unemployment 
Insurance Commission, Government delegate; and W. N. Lawton, of the Canadian 
Embassy staff in Buenos Aires, adviser to the Government delegate. 



Cost of Social Security in 41 Countries 

Canadian expenditures on social security benefits as percentage of national 
income rose from 7.0 to 8.5 per cent between 1949 and 1957, ILO inquiry finds 



Canadian social security benefit expen- 
ditures as a percentage of national income 
rose from 7.0 per cent in 1949 to 8.5 per 
cent in 1957, it is shown in a comparative 
statistical inquiry into the cost of social 
security in 41 countries just published by 
the International Labour Office.* The new 
inquiry, the fourth of its kind, is more 
comprehensive than any of its predecessors. 

During the same period, the index 
(1955=: 100) of annual average benefit 
expenditure per head of total population, 
adjusted according to the cost-of-living 
index, rose from 66 to 98. 



*The Cost of Social Security, 1949-1957. Geneva: 
The International Labour Office, 1961. Price: $3. 



In its introduction to the inquiry, the 
Office notes with satisfaction a constant 
increase in the number of countries provid- 
ing full data in response to its requests. 

The first inquiry prepared by the Office, 
published in two parts in 1952 and 1953, 
covered 24 countries; the second, published 
in 1955, covered 30 countries; and the 
third, published in 1958, covered 32 coun- 
tries. 

These continuing inquiries have two 
fundamental objectives. 

The first is to present a consolidated 
statement of the financial operations of all 
social security schemes existing in individual 
countries and coming within the scope of 
the inquiry. The second is to compare the 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



669 



distribution of the cost of social security One clue to the progress of social secur- 
between the different sources of revenue ity systems in various countries is provided 
and the economic incidence of social secur- by a table that gives, along with other 
ity in the different countries, and to deter- information, social security expenditures ex- 
mine the trends in social security costs pressed as percentages of national income, 
during the period covered by the inquiry. Even when allowances are made — as the 

For the purposes of these inquiries, the introduction warns they must be — for varia- 

national social security system of a country bles that sometimes diminish the compara- 

is taken as consisting of compulsory social tive value of the figures given in the inquiry, 

insurance, certain voluntary social insur- the table may still be regarded as containing 

ance schemes, family allowance schemes, some va \{^ indications of growth, 

special schemes for public employees, pub- AnQther ^ of ^ ILQ . m ive§ 

he health services, public assistance, and . . , -. ,./ 

benefits granted to war victims. the annual avera § e ben , efit expenditure per 

The substance of the new inquiry is to head of the . tota * Potion To show the 

be found in its 110 pages of basic and movement in the real value of benefit 

comparative tables. These constitute the expenditure per head, the figures have been 

richest mine of consolidated information adjusted in accordance with the cost-of- 

on social security costs currently available. living indexes. 



British Unions Report on Effects of Automation in Offices 

Electronic computers in offices bring about a changed pattern of employment, but 
do not necessarily result in making the staff redundant, a recent survey by British unions 
revealed. 

The study was conducted by the Staff Association representing some 9,000 clerical 
workers at the London County Hall, on the effects of a new electronic computer installed 
in the County Hall offices. The Association, affiliated with the Trades Union Congress, 
submitted a report on its findings to the National Federation of Professional Workers which 
gathers information on automation in offices from different unions. 

The London County Hall Staff Association found that, after the computer had been 
introduced, the number of new machine operators, supervisory staff, and new adminis- 
trative and operational posts compensated for the reduction in conventional machine- 
operator and clerical jobs. 

A smooth transition from the old to the new system was made possible by an early 
exchange of ideas and consultations between the management and employees, and was 
stressed by the report as necessary for successful change in operation. 

Similar results were reported by two unions organizing non-manual workers on 
British railways, the National Union of Railwaymen and the Transport Salaried Staffs 
Association. 

Early consultations between unions and management were stressed by both of them, 
to provide for any staff displaced from their jobs by electronic devices to be absorbed 
in other posts without reduction in salary or status. One side-effect of office automation 
noted by the unions was that it sometimes leads to improved job values among the lower 
ranks of staff. 

A report on a computer installation which resulted in a substantial staff reduction 
was received from the Clerical and Administrative Workers' Union. When the National 
Coal Board decided to automatize one of its area offices, the union and the management 
worked out in advance a redundancy agreement providing for all workers affected by 
the change in operational procedures to receive a three-month notice of possible 
redundancy. 

In addition, the agreement provided for employees with three to five years of service 
to receive eight weeks' extended service, and those with more than five years of service 
to receive 30 weeks' extended service. 

During the change-over period, restricted recruitment made it possible to transfer 
staff from offices affected by computer operations to other branches. 

The Trades Union Congress interprets this experience with office automation in 
Britain as an indication of what procedures are to be followed by white-collar workers' 
unions in coping with problems created by electronic office equipment. 

670 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



TEAMWORK 
in INDUSTRY 



Neither company nor union has to relin- 
quish or suspend any of its prerogatives in 
order to practise joint consultation at the 
plant level. Co-operation between labour 
and management involves no loss of rights 
and diminution of strength on either side. 
These sentiments were expressed recently 
by management and union representatives 
at The Weatherhead Company of Canada, 
Limited, in St. Thomas, Ont., manufac- 
turers of automatic screw machine products. 

"Neither of us — union or company — is 
soft," declared personnel and production 
service manager Lawrence Morley, "but 
we do believe in a common effort to solve 
our common production problems." 

His view was endorsed by tool crib 
attendant Alfred Barrett, president of Local 
1804, International Association of Machin- 
ists. "We may disagree plenty," Mr. Barrett 
added, "but at least we can sit down and 
talk about it. We have built up a lot of 
respect for each other." Mr. Barrett also 
claims that one way to keep labour-manage- 
ment meetings lively is to have them follow 
the monthly union meeting. Problems or 
complaints that come up during the local's 
monthly meetings and cannot be resolved 
on the spot are likely to find their solution 
at the LMC meeting next day. 

"We have more items on our agenda 
today than when the committee started in 
1954," stated Mr. Morley. "We don't 
have trouble getting topics for discussion." 
Human relations, production, employee 
safety, scrap, incentive plans and joint com- 
munication are regularly reviewed. He 
revealed that company and union have 
been to arbitration only twice in 23 years. 
"I give part of the credit to good labour- 
management communications," he said. 

Mr. Morley looks upon L-M committees 
as a "natural" for keeping company and 
union representatives up to date on each 
other's thinking. Any industry, he believes, 
faces many small labour management prob- 
lems daily — problems that are unavoidable 
and "can't wait". Weatherhead's employees 
know what to do when they encounter 
something of this nature: Report it to the 
department's LMC representative. Exper- 
ience has taught that the committee will 
deal with the matter speedily and effec- 
tively. 



Larger problems too can be handled by 
the committee in such a way as to minimize 
friction and prevent otherwise sound rela- 
tions from deteriorating. "Slack production 
periods, an impending layoff, the installation 
of a high protection safety program in one 
department — all demand explanation," said 
Mr. Morley. "Our custom is to discuss 
them well in advance with labour-manage- 
ment committee representatives. The union 
members carry the information back to 
their respective departments and also to 
their local meetings. There is a close bond 
between management and the union here," 
he continued. "There has to be. We are 
dependent on each other — and we all know 
it." 



Labour-management co-operation, mutual 
trust and understanding have brightened 
the future for residents of Collingwood, 
Ont. To enable the management of Colling- 
wood Shipyards to remain in a competitive 
position for future bidding on shipbuilding 
contracts, members of Local 20, National 
Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers 
of Canada (CLC) agreed during recent 
collective bargaining negotiations to a hold- 
the-line policy on wages. Reported person- 
nel manager Gordon Braniff: "The com- 
pany was thus enabled to bid for and 
successfully obtain orders to build three 
new vessels — two in the 400-foot class, one 
in the 700-foot class." 



Forty-eight "worthwhile accomplishments" 
in three years is the proud boast of the 
labour-management Mutual Interests Board 
at North Western Pulp and Power Ltd., 
Hinton, Alta. These developed out of sug- 
gestions submitted by members of the 
company's 600-man work force who pass 
their ideas along to departmental represen- 
tatives serving on the board. To show its 
appreciation of the board's contribution, 
the company recently played host to its 13 
members at a dinner. Union representatives 
are members of Local 855, International 
Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite and Paper 
Mill Workers (CLC). 



Establishment of Labour-Management 
Committees is encouraged and assisted by 
the Labour-Management Co-operation Serv- 
ice, Industrial Relations Branch, Department 
of Labour. In addition to field representa- 
tives located in key industrial centres who 
are available to help both managements and 
trade unions, the Service provides various 
aids in the form of booklets, posters and 
films. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



671 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for two days during May. The Board issued 
two certificates designating bargaining 
agents, rejected one application for cer- 
tification and denied one request for 
consent under Section 7 (4) of the Act to 
the making of an application for certifica- 
tion before the expiry of ten months of 
the term of the existing collective agree- 
ment. During the month the Board received 
ten applications for certification and 
allowed the withdrawal of two applications 
for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on 
behalf of a unit of marine engineers em- 
ployed by The Commercial Cable Com- 
pany aboard the cable ship Cable Guar- 
dian, operating out of Halifax, N.S. (L.G., 
May, p. 470). The National Association 
of Marine Engineers of Canada, Inc. (Great 
Lakes and Eastern District) had inter- 
vened. 

2. Canadian Air Line Pilots Association, 
on behalf of a unit of pilots-in-command 
and co-pilots employed by TransAir Lim- 
ited, Winnipeg, Man., in its "Mainline 
Division" (L.G., April, p. 369). 

Application for Certification Rejected 

General Truck Drivers' Union, Local 938, 
and Transport Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers' Union, Local 106, of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of Amer- 
ica, applicant, and Asbestos Transport Ltd., 
Richmond County, Que., and Toronto, Ont., 
respondent (L.G., June, p. 566). The appli- 
cation was rejected because it was not 
supported by a majority of the employees 
eligible to cast ballots in the representation 
vote conducted by the Board. 



Request for Consent under Section 7 (4) Denied 

Amalgamated Association of Street, 
Electric Railway and Motor Coach Em- 
ployees of America, Local 591, applicant, 
Hull City Transport Limited and Hull 
Metropolitan Transport Limited, Hull, Que., 
respondents, and The Hull City Transport 
Employees' Union, intervener (L.G., May, 
p. 470). The Board found that there was 
a collective agreement between the two 
companies and the intervener and denied 
consent to the making of an application 
for certification before the expiry of ten 
months of the term of the agreement. 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 501, on 
behalf of a unit of regular employees 
classified as checkers, mechanics, drivers, 
shedmen and janitors employed by the 
Canadian Stevedoring Company Limited on 
the Terminal Dock at Vancouver, B.C. 
(Investigating Officer: G. H. Purvis). 

2. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 501, on 
behalf of a unit of dock machine operators 
employed by the Empire Stevedoring Com- 
pany Ltd. on the CPR Dock at Vancouver, 
B.C. (Investigating Officer: G. H. Purvis). 

3. National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians, on behalf of 
a unit of employees employed by Channel 
Seven Television Ltd. at Station CJAY-TV 
in Winnipeg, Man. (Investigating Officer: 
J. S. Gunn). 

4. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of unlicensed personnel employed 
aboard vessels owned or operated by the 
Northwest Shipping Co. Ltd., Vancouver, 
B.C. (Investigating Officer: G. H. Purvis). 

5. Line Drivers, Warehousemen, Pickup 
Men & Dockmen's Union, Local No. 605, 
and Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen 



This section covers proceedings under the Industrial Relations and Disputes Investi- 
gation Act, involving the administrative services of the Minister of Labour, the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, and the Industrial Relations Branch of the Department. 



672 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



& Helpers, Local 514, of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America, 
on behalf of a unit of drivers, mechanics 
and warehousemen employed by Van- 
couver Alberta Freightlines Ltd., operating 
in or out of its terminals at Vancouver, 
B.C., and Edmonton, Alta. (Investigating 
Officer: G. H. Purvis). 

6. International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers, Local Union No. 2096, on behalf 
of testers and utility men employed by the 
Eastern Telephone and Telegraph Company 
at Sydney Mines and Hardwood Hill, N.S., 
Spruce Lake, N.B., and Clarenville, Nfld. 
(Investigating Officer: D. T. Cochrane). 

7. International Brotherhood of Teams- 
ters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, Local 519, Warehousemen 



and Miscellaneous Drivers, on behalf of 
a unit of employees of Middup Moving & 
Storage Limited, Scarborough, Ont. (In- 
vestigating Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

8. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of electrical employees employed 
by the Canadian National Railways in the 
office of the General Material Supervisor 
at Moncton, N.B. (Investigating Officer: 
H. R. Pettigrove). 

9. Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District, on be- 
half of a unit of marine engineers employed 
by the National Harbours Board aboard 
the tugs Glenkeen and Sir Hugh Allan 
operating in Montreal Harbour (Investigat- 
ing Officer: C. E. Poirier). 



Scope and Administration ot Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board, in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on Sep- 
tember 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investigation 
Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certificates 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are contained in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, shipping, 
interprovincial railways, canals, telegraphs, 
interprovincial and international steamship 
lines and ferries, aerodromes and air trans- 
portation, radio broadcasting stations and 
works declared by Parliament to be for the 
general advantage of Canada or two or 
more of its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if they 
so desire, may enact similar legislation for 
application to industries within provincial 
jurisdiction and make mutually satisfactory 
arrangements with the federal Government 
for the administration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for application for consent to 
prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certi- 
fication of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it by 
the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: (1) 
Certification and other Proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board, and 
(2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the De- 
partment of Labour are stationed at Vancou- 
ver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Fredericton, Halifax and St. John's, New- 
foundland. The territory of four officers 
resident in Vancouver comprise British 
Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon and 
Northwest Territories; two officers stationed 
in Winnipeg cover the province of Saskat- 
chewan and Manitoba and Northwestern 
Ontario; four officers resident in Toronto 
confine their activities to Ontario; five 
officers in Montreal are assigned to the 
province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 J 



673 



10. The Association of Employees of 
Asbestos and Eastern Transport Ltd., on 
behalf of a unit of employees of Asbestos 
Transport Limited and Eastern Transport 
Limited, operating in and out of Asbestos, 
Montreal, Quebec City, Victoriaville and 
Sherbrooke, Que., and Toronto, Ont. (In- 
vestigating Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

Applications for Certification Withdrawn 

1. National Syndicate of Maritime Work- 
ers of Lake Saint John, applicant, and 



Price Brothers & Company, Limited, Que- 
bec, Que., respondent (L.G., Nov. 1960, 
p. 1140). 

2. International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers, Local 424, applicant, and North- 
land Utilities Ltd., and wholly-owned sub 
sidiaries, Northland Utilities (B.C.) Ltd. 
and Uranium City Power Co. Limited 
Edmonton, Alta., respondents (L.G., Jan. 
p. 45). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officer Appointed 

During May, the Minister of Labour 
appointed a conciliation officer to deal with 
the dispute between: 

Boyles Bros. Drilling (Alberta) Ltd., 
Edmonton, Alta. (Yellowknife Branch) and 
Western District Diamond Driller's Union, 
Local 1005 of the International Union of 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (Concilia- 
tion Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Vancouver Wharves Limited, Van- 
couver, and Local 512 of the International 
Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 
(Conciliation Officer: G. R. Currie) (L.G., 
June, p. 568). 

2. Beaver Dredging Co. Ltd., Toronto, 
and Seafarers' International Union of 
North America, Canadian District (Con- 
ciliation Officer: Remi Duquette) (L.G., 
June, p. 568). 

3. Harbour Development Limited, Saint 
John, N.B., and Seafarers' International 
Union of North America, Canadian Dis- 
trict (Conciliation Officer: Remi Duquette) 
(L.G., June, p. 568). 

4. Lakehead Terminal Elevators Asso- 
ciation (Fort William and Port Arthur) 
and Local 650 of the Brotherhood of Rail- 
way and Steamship Clerks, Freight Han- 
dlers, Express and Station Employees (Con- 
ciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough) (L.G., 
June, p. 568). 

5. Rio Algom Mines Limited, Panel 
Division (office and technical employees), 
Elliot Lake, Ont., and Local 5980 of the 
United Steelworkers of America (Concilia- 
tion Officer: F. J. Ainsborough) (L.G., 
June, p. 568). 



6. Shell Canadian Tankers Limited (M.V. 
Western Shell and M.V. Tyee Shell), Van- 
couver, and Canadian Merchant Service 
Guild, Inc. (Conciliation Officer: D. S. 
Tysoe) (L.G., June, p. 568). 

7. Westward Shipping Limited (M.V. B.C. 
Standard and M.V. Standard Service), Van- 
couver, and Canadian Merchant Service 
Guild, Inc. (Conciliation Officer: G. R. 
Currie) (L.G., June, p. 569). 

8. The Shipping Federation of Canada, 
Inc., Montreal, and Local 1552 of the 
International Longshoremen's Association 
(shipliners) (Conciliation Officer: Remi 
Duquette) (L.G., June, p. 569). 

9. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 
(Commercial Products Division, Ottawa) 
and The Ottawa Atomic Workers Union, 
Local No. 1541 of the Canadian Labour 
Congress (Conciliation Officer: T. B. Mc- 
Rae) (L.G., June, p. 569). 

10. Canada Steamship Lines Limited, 
Montreal, and Brotherhood of Railway and 
Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Ex- 
press and Station Employees (Conciliation 
Officer: Remi Duquette) (L.G., May, p. 
472). 

11. Westward Shipping Limited, Van- 
couver, and Marine Engineers, Local 425 
of the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers (Concilia- 
tion Officer: G. R. Currie) (L.G., May, 
p. 472). 

12. Shell Canadian Tankers Limited 
(M.V. Western Shell and M.V. Tyee Shell), 
and National Association of Marine Engi- 
neers of Canada, Inc. (Conciliation Officer: 
D. S. Tysoe) (L.G., May, p. 472). 



674 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 196 J 



Conciliation Boards Appointed 

1. Federal Commerce and Navigation 
Company Limited, Montreal, and Seafarers' 
International Union of North America, 
Canadian District (L.G., May, p. 472). 

2. Canadian National Railways (Atlantic, 
Central and Western Regions) and Brother- 
hood of Locomotive Engineers (no Con- 
ciliation Officer appointed previously). 

3. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(Atlantic, Eastern, Prairie and Pacific Re- 
gions and Quebec Central Railway Com- 
pany) and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers (no Conciliation Officer appointed 
previously). 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

1. The Board of Conciliation and Investi- 
gation established in April to deal with a 
dispute between The Shipping Federation 
of Canada, Inc. (Port of Montreal) and 
Local 375 of the International Longshore- 
men's Association (L.G., June, p. 569) was 
fully constituted in May with the appoint- 
ment of the Honourable Mr. Justice Roger 
Ouimet, Montreal, as Chairman. Mr. Justice 
Ouimet was appointed by the Minister on 
the joint recommendation of the other two 
members, R. G. Chauvin and Louis La- 
berge, both of Montreal, who were pre- 
viously appointed on the nomination of the 
Federation and the union, respectively. 

2. The Board of Conciliation and Inves- 
tigation established in April to deal with 
a dispute between Shell Canadian Tankers, 
Limited, Vancouver, and Seafarers' Inter- 
national Union of North America, Cana- 
dian District (L.G., June, p. 569) was fully 
constituted in May with the appointment 
of R. J. S. Moir, Vancouver, as Chairman. 
Mr. Moir was appointed by the Minister 
on the joint recommendation of the other 
two members, K. R. Martin and G. White- 
ford, both of Vancouver, who were pre- 
viously appointed on the nomination of 
the company and the union, respectively. 

3. The Board of Conciliation and Inves- 
tigation established in April to deal with a 
dispute between B.C. Air Lines Limited, 
Vancouver, and Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway, Transport and General Workers 
(L.G., June, p. 569) was fully constituted 
in May with the appointment of Reg Ather- 
ton, Vancouver, as Chairman. Mr. Atherton 
was appointed by the Minister in the absence 
of a joint recommendation from the other 



two members, C. Gordon Ballentine and 
H. B. Hodgins, both of Vancouver, who 
were previously appointed on the nomina- 
tion of the company and the union, respec- 
tively. 

Conciliation Board Reports Received 

1. Tippet-Richardson (Ottawa) Limited, 
Ottawa, Ont, and Canadian Brotherhood 
of Railway, Transport and General Workers 
(L.G., May, p. 473). The text of the report 
is reproduced below. 

2. Trans-Canada Air Lines, Montreal, 
Que., and Canadian Air Line Flight Attend- 
ants' Association (L.G., March, p. 257). 
The text of the report is reproduced below. 

Settlement Reached following Board Procedure 

Canadian National Railways; Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company; Toronto, Hamil- 
ton and Buffalo Railway Company; Ontario 
Northland Railway; Algoma Central and 
Hudson Bay Railway; Midland Railway of 
Manitoba and Negotiating Committee re- 
presenting the Associated Non-Operating 
Unions (L.G., Oct. 1960, p. 1030). 

Disputes Lapsed 

1. D. S. Scott Transport, London, Ont. 
(Vancouver Terminal) and Line Drivers, 
Warehousemen, Pickup Men and Dockmen's 
Union, Local No. 605 of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America 
(L.G., Sept. 1960, p. 923). 

2. Gulf Islands Navigation Limited, Van- 
couver, and Seafarers' International Union 
of North America, Canadian District (L.G., 
Sept. 1960, p. 923). 

3. Tank Truck Transport Ltd., Point 
Edward, Ont., and Locals 938 and 880 of 
the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America (L.G., Oct. 1960, p. 1029). 

4. J. Sherman & Sons, Limited, and 
Local 880, International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America (L.G., Oct. 1959, p. 
1054). 

5. Quebec North Shore and Labrador 
Railway Company, Sept lies, Que., and 
Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (L.G., May 
1960 p. 467). 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796? 



675 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Tippet-Richardson (Ottawa) Limited, Ottawa, Ont. 

and 

Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, Transport and General Workers 



This Conciliation Board was appointed 
under the provisions of the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act upon 
application of the Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway, Transport and General Workers, 
established by order of the Minister of 
Labour on February 27, 1961 and its Chair- 
man was appointed on March 24, 1961. 
Upon application by the Chairman, the 
Minister granted an extension of the time 
in which the Board may submit its report 
to May 1, 1961. A further extension was 
subsequently granted to May 15, 1961. 

The Board held three meetings with the 
parties (hereafter referred to as the Union 
and the Company) in an effort to arrive 
at a satisfactory agreement. A number of 
the points that were at issue have been 
resolved, but the Board regrets that it must 
report that it has proved impossible to 
find a basis for full agreement between the 
parties to the dispute. 

The unresolved points of issue between 
the parties are concerned with the pay 
scale, overtime pay rates, welfare contri- 
butions by the Company, the guarantee of 
a minimum work week, the provision of 
coveralls for certain employees, and the 
check-off collection of union dues. The heart 
of the dispute seems to us to centre on 
pay scales, welfare benefits, overtime pay, 
and the check-off. On all of these issues, 
the position of the Company was that it 
would make no concession of any kind. 
Efforts of this Board to find some com- 
promise proved unsuccessful because the 
Company was unwilling to move at all from 
its present practices and the Union was 
unwilling to agree to a contract on such a 
basis. 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with a dispute between the Canadian 
Brotherhood of Railway, Transport and 
General Workers and Tippet-Richardson 
(Ottawa) Limited, Ottawa, Ont. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of Professor H. Scott Gordon, of Ottawa. 
He was appointed by the Minister on the 
joint recommendation of the other two mem- 
bers, Harry G. Williams and Clifford A. 
Scotton, both of Ottawa, nominees of the 
company and union, respectively. 

The Report is reproduced here. 



The existing hourly pay scale of the 
Company, and the Union's proposal, are 
shown in the following table. 



Warehouseman . . . 

Packer 

Driver (City) 

Driver (Highway) 

Crater 

Helpers 



Present 

Company Union 

Rates Proposal 

1.53 1.58 

1.58 1.63 

1.55 1.60 

1.60-1.63 1.75 

1.60 1.65 

1.45 1.50 



It will be seen from this table that the 
Union's proposal was for an increase of 
5 cents in the hourly rate in all categories 
except highway drivers, in which category 
it proposed an increase of 12 to 15 cents. 

The Company's present welfare contribu- 
tion amounts to $3.65 per month for mar- 
ried employees and $1.58 per month for 
single men. In addition the Company pays 
a pension contribution of 4 per cent of 
pay for all employees having three years 
or more of service. At the present time 
this pension contribution is paid for seven 
of the Company's twenty-four employees. 
The Union's proposal for welfare contri- 
butions amounted to a total of $5.30 per 
month per employee for hospital and 
medical insurance payments. (This was a 
reduction from its previous proposal, which 
aggregated $10.00 per month.) Presumably 
the Union expected the Company to con- 
tinue its present pension fund contributions. 

The Union proposed a pay rate of time 
and one-half for all time worked in excess 
of eight hours in any one day and all time 
worked in excess of forty-four hours in any 
week. The Company does not now pay 
extra for overtime and declined to make 
any change in this practice. 

The Board was unable to bring the par- 
ties to agreement on the questions of 
regular pay scales and welfare contribu- 
tions. The Company pointed out that its 
rates are now as high as other firms 
carrying on similar business in the Ottawa 
area. Yet it is quite clear that pay rates 
in this industry are very low. The demand 
for services in this industry is irregular 
and it appears that the workmen employed 
can expect annual earnings at these pay 
scales in the region of $2,500 per annum, 



676 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



or very little more at best. When one con- 
siders that the work involved is physically 
hard and also involves some degree of 
responsibility, since much of it must be 
done away from the Company's premises, 
the remuneration appears to be distressingly 
low. Comparison with rates of pay in com- 
parable occupations in the Ottawa region 
and elsewhere (as shown by official statis- 
tics) also suggests that pay scales in this 
industry are very low. 

The Union pointed out that the proposed 
contract was expected to run for a period 
of one year, and therefore should embody, 
as a minimum, the average pay rates the 
Company expected to pay over that period. 
By refusing to consider any increase at all, 
the Company implies that it expects no 
rise to take place in the prevailing pay 
scales in this industry during the next 
year. The Union pointed out that pay 
scales have been rising in this industry in 
recent years and may reasonably be ex- 
pected to continue to do so. It should be 
noted that the Union's proposed pay scales 
involve increases of very modest sums, 
amounting to little more than the increases 
that appear to have been taking place in 
the industry as a normal trend. The 
Union's final proposals for welfare contri- 
butions also seem to this Board to be 
quite modest. 

In making its judgment on this matter, 
the Board has also to take into account 
that on November 23, 1960 the Company's 
pay scales were raised by approximately 
25 cents an hour on the average. This may 
be viewed in two ways: (a) it may be that 
the Company stands firm against any in- 
crease now because it so recently gave a 
substantial increase; or (b) the increase 
given by unilateral action on the part of 
the Company, shortly after the Union had 
succeeded in establishing itself in this firm 
but before collective bargaining commenced 
(certification was granted on November 14, 
1960), may be interpreted to reflect a desire 
on the Company's part that its employees 
should ascribe any betterment in their pay 
rates to the good-will of the Company 
rather than to the existence or activities of 
the Union. 

It is the opinion of this Board that a 
paramount consideration in the mind of the 
Company in negotiating with the Union 
has been to give the Union no grounds on 
which it could justify its existence to its 
members as an effective agent for their 
betterment. The Company has been willing 
to compromise on minor issues but has 
remained inflexible on those which touch 
its employees' interests most directly. 



Our opinion on this matter is reinforced 
by the Company's firm refusal to accept any 
provisions having to do with union security. 
The Union's proposals on this score were 
substantially modified during our hearings 
and ended with, in effect, two requests: 

(a) that the Company deduct from wages 
and remit to the Union, dues for all em- 
ployees covered by the agreement, whether 
or not they be Union members; and (b) 
that the Company inform new employees 
that the Brotherhood is the certified bar- 
gaining agent and that it inform the Union 
of the names and addresses of new em- 
ployees. The Company refused to accept 
these specific proposals, declined to sug- 
gest any alterations in them, and indeed 
indicated that it could not accept any 
provision of any kind which required it to 
collect union dues. In our opinion, the 
main reason why the Company refused to 
consider dues collection is the same as the 
reason why it remained unmoved on the 
issues of pay scales and welfare benefits — it 
wishes to do nothing that would have the 
effect of strengthening the Union. 

It is necessary for us to say something 
in addition concerning the issues of over- 
time pay rates and a minimum work week. 
The Company impressed upon us three 
facts: (a) that the demand for its services 
and therefore its need for labour varies 
enormously from one period to another; 

(b) that it tries as much as possible to give 
its employees work in slack periods by 
employing them on various maintenance 
jobs; (c) that the rates the company can 
charge on a large part of its services are 
fixed by a By-law of the City of Ottawa 
and therefore make it difficult for firms 
in the moving industry to pay special over- 
time rates. 

The Board finds these arguments con- 
vincing. We wish, however, to say that we 
are doubtful as to the wisdom of city by- 
laws of the kind that is in force in the 
City of Ottawa. This By-law was undoubt- 
edly passed as a protection for the pur- 
chasers of movers' services. However, it 
apparently provides this protection only at 
the expense of the workmen who are 
engaged in this industry. To protect con- 
sumers who may use these services perhaps 
at most only a few times in a decade, by a 
rule which works to the detriment of those 
who make a meagre livelihood as regular 
workmen in this industry, seems to us to 
be both unwise and unjust. 

This Board is, however, not of the view 
that the issues of overtime and guaranteed 
minimum work week would have proved 
ultimately insoluble. Nor do we feel that 
the question of providing coveralls for 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3—5 



• JULY 7 96 J 



677 



certain workmen would have been difficult 
to settle. The hearings were forced to 
conclude without agreement between the 
parties because of the issue of pay, welfare 
benefits, and collection of Union dues by 
the Company. No compromise of any kind 
appeared to be possible on these issues. 

It is the opinion of the Chairman and 
Mr. Scotton that the Company must bear 
the bulk of the blame for failure to reach 
agreement. Mr. Williams is of the opinion 
that the Union must also share the blame 
for failure to reach agreement, especially 
in view of its insistence that the check-off 
article be included in the agreement. In 
the Board's unanimous view, our hearings 
indicate that the Company apparently not 
as yet accepted the fact that it should be 
prepared to deal with the Union open- 
mindedly on all issues. 

This Board feels that the final proposals 
of the Union concerning pay scales and 
welfare benefits were reasonable and jus- 
tified. We do, however, appreciate the real 
difficulties that are in the way of granting 
special rates of overtime pay in this indus- 
try. On the issue of union security the 
Chairman and Mr. Scotton feel that the 
Union's final proposal was a moderate one 
that any employer should find acceptable. 

The Board's recommendations, then, are 
as follows. We unanimously recommend 
(a) that the pay scales should be raised 
by 5 cents per hour in all categories; (b) 
that the Company should contribute to 
employee health and medical plans a total 
sum of $5.30 per month for each regular 
employee; (c) that no special rates of over- 
time pay should be instituted. A majority 
of this Board (the Chairman and Mr. Scot- 
ton) recommend further, (d) that the Com- 
pany should agree to collect Union dues by 
pay deduction, to inform new employees 
that the Brotherhood is the constituted 
bargaining agent, and to inform the Union 
of the names and address of new employees. 
Mr. Williams is opposed in principle to the 
check-off system. 

A Comment on the Conciliation Process 

While not wishing to go beyond its 
proper terms of reference, this Board feels 
drawn to comment upon an important 
aspect of the conciliation process as we 



have observed it operating in the present 
case. The Company was represented in our 
hearings by an agent, not by a senior 
officer with authority to make decisions 
for the Company in respect to the matters 
in dispute. There is, of course, nothing 
wrong in a party to a labour dispute 
appointing an agent to represent it before 
the Board of Conciliation. If, however, that 
agent is given explicit instructions by his 
principal to make no concession of any 
kind on the important matters in dispute, 
it is difficult to see how the intent of the 
legislation establishing the conciliation pro- 
cess can be properly fulfilled. 

As we understand it, the object of the 
conciliation process is to produce condi- 
tions in which the parties to the dispute 
may engage in fruitful efforts of mutual 
persuasion and bargaining. We feel that 
these conditions are impossible to achieve 
if one (or both) of the parties to the dis- 
pute is represented by an agent who has 
no freedom to permit himself to be per- 
suaded, and has no authority either to give 
concessions or to trade one concession for 
another. This Board feels that a party that 
sends its agent before a conciliation board 
with such inflexible prior instruction is, in 
effect, frustrating the intent of the legisla- 
tion. We feel also that an agent who 
accepts such instructions and appears before 
a conciliation board without in fact having 
any power at all to bargain on the import- 
ant matters in dispute has unwisely accepted 
a commission from his principal which 
prevents him from fulfilling his real respon- 
sibilities under the Act. 

In the present case, the agent of the 
Company was clearly labouring under such 
rigid instructions that no proper bargaining 
between the parties was in fact possible. 
In brief, this Conciliation Board does not 
feel that what took place at its hearings 
was a true conciliation process within the 
spirit and intent of the Act. 
May 10, 1961 

(Sgd.) H. S. Gordon, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) Harry G. Williams, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Clifford A. Scott an, 

Member. 



678 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Trans-Canada Air Lines 

and 

Canadian Air Lines Flight Attendants Association 



The Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion which you established to deal with the 
above dispute and which was composed of 
Mr. Justice Andre Montpetit, as chairman, 
of Mr. Robert E. Morrow, Q.C., as the 
Company's nominee and of Mr. Harry 
Crowe, as the Association's nominee, hereby 
wishes to submit its report and recommen- 
dations. 

Our Board held public sittings on Feb- 
ruary 27 and 28 and on April 5 and 6, 
1961. On April 7, it also held a private 
sitting with only two representatives of 
each of the parties hereto being present 
and it then explored the possibilities of 
a compromise settlement. Nothing was 
obtained thereby. 

Fourteen distinct proposals (ten from 
the Association and four from the Com- 
pany) pertaining to the renewal of their 
collective labour agreement were sub- 
mitted to us. 

The principal issue was the request of 
the Association for additional air hour 
credits for work performed on DC-8 and 
Vanguard aircraft. 

Flight attendants' wages are determined 
by the number of hours flown or credited 
in a month and their working schedule is 
governed by the number of hours flown or 
credited in a month (or quarter in the case 
of overseas operations). 

The present salary schedule can be 
described either as an hourly rate with a 
monthly guarantee of 70 hours, or as a 
flat monthly salary with a pro-rata paid 
for all hours flown in excess of 70. As 
variation from the monthly "salary" is 
the norm, the former would appear to be 
the more justifiable description of the salary 
schedule. 

The Association requested that piston air- 
craft (including the Viscount, Super Con- 
stellation, DC-3 and North Star) be rated 
at a speed of 300 m.p.h., DC-8 at 550 
m.p.h. and the Vanguard at 425 m.p.h., and 
that on the DC-8 and Vanguard each hour 
flown and credited would be credited as 1 
hour and 25 minutes for the DC-8 and 1 
hour and Hi minutes for the Vanguard. 

This proposal was worded as follows: 
"When a flight attendant flies equipment 
that has a pegged speed in excess of 300 
m.p.h., he will be credited with an addi- 
tional minute per hour flight time credit 



for each 10 m.p.h. in excess of 300 m.p.h., 
such credit to be for flight time limitation 
and pay purposes." 

The proposal of the Association resulted 
from the introduction into service of the 
DC-8 and Vanguard, and the Association's 
claim is that these aircraft have the follow- 
ing effect upon working conditions: 

(a) The increased speed of the aircraft 
results in more trips and faster trips, and 
thus has the effect of increasing the total 
duty time and layover time in proportion 
to the flight time (including credits) upon 
which pay is based; 

(b) The cumulative effect of work load 
and increased trips on high speed aircraft 
increases fatigue; 

(c) The withdrawal from service of 
the Super Constellation (L-1049), which 
offered the most desirable working condi- 
tions, and its replacement by aircraft with 
the disadvantages in (a) and (b) which 
were claimed to exist, adversely affected the 
application of the seniority system and the 
distribution of its benefits. 

Although there was a high incidence of 
contradiction of fact between the two par- 
ties before the Board, there appeared to 
be agreement on three essential matters: 

(a) The speed of the aircraft under con- 
sideration was acknowledged to be 300 
m.p.h. for piston aircraft, 425 m.p.h. for 
the Vanguard and 550 m.p.h. for the DC-8; 

(b) The increased speed of the new 
aircraft constitutes a problem, although the 



During May, the Minister of Labour 
received the report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with a dispute between the Canadian 
Air Line Flight Attendants Association and 
Trans-Canada Air Lines. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of the Honourable Mr. Justice Andre Mont- 
petit of Montreal. He was appointed by 
the Minister on the joint recommendation 
of the other two members, Robert E. Mor- 
row, Q.C., Montreal, and Harry S. Crowe, 
Ottawa, nominee of the company and union, 
respectively. 

The majority report, which under the 
provisions of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, constitutes the 
report of the Board, was submitted by the 
Chairman and Mr. Crowe. The minority 
report was submitted by Mr. Morrow. 

The majority and minority reports are 
reproduced here. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3— 5h 



• JULY 7967 



679 



exact nature of the problem and how to 
resolve it was not agreed upon; 

(c) The Super Constellation, which is 
being replaced, generally had the most 
desirable working conditions. 

Much of the time of the Board was spent 
examining evidence of the Company pur- 
porting to show that DC- 8 aircraft did 
not appreciably alter the relationship be- 
tween flight time — the basis of pay — and 
total hours of work, and evidence of the 
Association purporting to show that the 
new aircraft did alter the relationship 
appreciably. The evidence of both parties 
in this category, presented in "blocks" or 
monthly work schedules of Flight Attend- 
ants, suffered from the defect of being 
selective and incomplete. 

It was not logically possible, however, 
to escape the conclusion that in a com- 
parison of working conditions on piston and 
jet aircraft, if the monthly hours of flight 
are taken as a constant factor for the com- 
parison, and if the non-flight duty is a 
function of the number of trips, then the 
increased number of trips with the faster 
aircraft must increase the proportion of 
total work time to paid flight hours, includ- 
ing credits. In addition, the Company has 
found it necessary to increase by 25 per 
cent the ground duty time prior to each 
DC-8 flight. 

Considerable evidence was advanced by 
the Association on the subject of cumula- 
tive fatigue of flight attendants on jet 
aircraft. The Company disputed this con- 
tention as a point of fact, but aside from 
asking the Board to consider the opinion 
of a medical doctor employed by an Ameri- 
can airline, it did not seek to dispute the 
contention with contradictory evidence or 
testimony. 

Three courses for recommendations sug- 
gested themselves: 

1. To offset what appeared to be the 
undeniable problem of the increased amount 
of total duty time and layover time in 
relationship to the flight hours which are 
the basis of payment, pay differentials 
would appear to be a solution, insofar as 
pay was the issue; 

2. To counter the effect of cumulative 
fatigue associated with the faster aircraft, 
and to offset the increased hours of work 
resulting from the increased number of 
trips with the faster aircraft, a reduction 
in flight hours would appear to be a solu- 
tion; 

3. To preserve the benefits of the senior- 
ity system, a resolution which attempted to 
produce identical working conditions on all 



aircraft, even if that were possible, should 
not be sought, but in the interest of giving 
the employees a vested interest in the fruits 
of progress and technological development, 
a recommendation could be made which 
permitted preferable working conditions on 
the newest and fastest equipment. 

It appeared that the desired result of 
each of these three courses could be 
achieved by the single device of applying 
the principle involved in the Association's 
request, but with a greatly reduced incre- 
ment in flight time credit for flight hours on 
the faster equipment. 

Consequently we recommend (Mr. Mor- 
row dissenting) that a new clause be added 
to the agreement as follows: 

When a flight attendant flies equipment that 
has a speed in excess of 300 m.p.h., he will 
be credited with an additional minute per 
hour flight time credit for each 25 m.p.h. in 
excess of 300 m.p.h., such credit to be for 
flight time limitation and pay purposes. For 
the purpose of this clause the DC-8 will be 
regarded as having a speed of 550 m.p.h. and 
Vanguard as having a speed of 425 m.p.h., and 
any new jet or turbo prop aircraft put into 
service as having a speed equal to the mean 
cruising speed ascribed to it by I.C.A.O. 

This clause shall be applied retroactively 
to the introduction into service of the 
DC-8 and Vanguard. 

The issue second in importance before 
the Board was the Association's request for 
an increase in one year of 15 per cent of 
all wage rates. 

The Association argued that the airline 
industry is one of increasing productivity, 
and that this was particularly true in 
Canada, where the load factor, as one 
indicator, is relatively high. Nevertheless, 
as the Company's representatives main- 
tained, productivity is not subject to easy 
measurement, and wage determination in- 
volves a number of factors. 

We recommend (Mr. Morrow dissenting) 
an increase in all wage rates of 5 per 
cent retroactive to October 1, 1960, which 
will be the date of commencement of an 
eighteen-month agreement. 

On the other issues, we recommend: 

(a) that no changes be made in the 
wording of Article 6 (B) 6; 

(b) that no changes be made to the 
present flying time credits related to "on 
duty ground time"; 

(c) that priority passes be granted to 
employees who are called upon to dead- 
head provided that this improvement does 
not interfere with Company revenue and 
the necessary travel required in the opera- 
tions of the Company; 

(d) that the flight attendants who have 
completed five (5) years or more but less 



680 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



than fifteen (15) years of continuous serv- 
ice by December 3 1 of each year be granted 
three (3) weeks, twenty-one (21) consecu- 
tive calendar days, vacation leave with pay 
and those who have completed fifteen (15) 
years or more of continuous service by 
December 31 of each year be granted four 
(4) weeks, twenty-eight (28) consecutive 
calendar days, vacation leave with pay 
(Mr. Morrow dissenting); 

(e) that provision be made for the check- 
off of union dues after three (3) months 
service; 

(f) that pass privileges be granted to the 
Association's bargaining representatives pro- 
vided (a) that the necessary approval (if 
any has to be obtained) be obtained from 
the Air Transport Board and (b) that the 
said pass privileges be extended only in 
cases where the said representative is en- 
gaged in activities on behalf of TCA 
employees; 

(g) that no changes be made to the 
present definition of the "Overseas clause"; 

(h) that flight attendants who wish to 
exchange a trip (even if it involves moving 
"guaranteed days off") may be allowed 
to do so, provided (a) the matter is cleared 
by the Base Supervisor and (b) it does not 
exceed one exchange per month; 

(i) that no changes be made to letter of 
understanding No. 1 dealing with trips' 
exchange; 

(j) that the Company make provision to 
protect female employees from failure to 
have transportation during night hours and 
that transportation allowances otherwise be 
not granted; 

(k) that no changes be made to article 
5 — 2c for the time being; 

(1) that no changes be made to article 
6 (B) 4; 

The whole respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) Andre Montpetit, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) H. S. Crowe, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Robert E. Morrow, 

Member. 

Montreal, May 9th, 1961. 

MINORITY REPORT 

Robert E. Morrow, Q.C., the Company's 
nominee, hereby dissents from the report of 
the honourable Mr. Justice Andre Mont- 
petit, Chairman, and Mr. Harry Crowe, 
Association nominee, in respect of matters 
hereinafter referred to. 

1. Jet Speed Clause. It is not contended 
by either party that speed of an aircraft 



alone creates unfavourable working con- 
ditions and speed itself is not, therefore, in 
issue. What is in issue are the results of 
increasing speed. In the majority report, 
the conclusion is drawn that jet aircraft 
in a given number of hours of flight will 
make more trips per month than slower 
piston aircraft and that, therefore, the flight 
attendants make more trips per month 
flying jet aircraft than flying piston air- 
craft, thereby suffering a deteriorated work- 
ing condition. 

This conclusion, however, cannot be 
drawn because of the block system under 
which the flight attendants work. The flight 
attendants fly on a so-called block system, 
whereby the best combination of flight trips 
are combined, taking into account efficiency 
of Company operations, crew rest periods, 
crew bases, lay-over times and other work- 
ing conditions. The result of a transfer 
from piston aircraft to jet aircraft for a 
given flight attendant could be that that 
particular flight attendant would fly a block 
pattern resulting in fewer trips per month 
in jet aircraft. The converse could equally 
be true. The number of trips flown per 
month is only one of several factors deter- 
mining working conditions and must be 
considered together with those other factors 
such as length of trips, lay-over time, rest 
periods, numbers of landings, extent of 
passenger service and others. 

Before the Board the Company produced 
a selected pattern of blocks for both piston 
and jet aircraft which demonstrated that 
the introduction of jet aircraft did not 
deteriorate working conditions in the light 
of all factors. 

There was no factual evidence by the 
union to disprove the conclusions which 
may be drawn from the blocks selected by 
the Company or other evidence to demon- 
strate deteriorated jet working conditions in 
support of claim for decreased hours and 
incremental pay on that type of aircraft. 

Some evidence was made to the effect 
that working at high altitudes was a factor 
causing fatigue and, from this, the infer- 
ence made that as jets operated at high 
altitude there was created an additional 
fatigue factor. In fact, jet aircraft by pres- 
surization maintain a lower cabin altitude 
than piston aircraft and, accordingly, the 
increased altitude fatigue factor cannot 
exist. On the contrary, the smoother and 
quieter operation of jets would tend to 
decrease fatigue. 

It is the opinion of the Company's 
nominee that the introduction of jet equip- 
ment by the Company in service is being 
used by the union as a device to decrease 
working hours and increase pay without 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



681 



there being justifying increased work fac- 
tors. This conclusion is even more forcibly 
drawn in respect of the turbo-prop Van- 
guard aircraft, in respect of which the work- 
ing conditions were not examined before 
the Board in any degree. 

The recommendation of this dissenting 
report is that no clause be added to the 
employees' agreement providing for incre- 
mental pay or decrease in working hours 
in respect of particular aircraft flown. 

2. Pay Increase. Considering that the 
Company is experiencing a loss operation 
aggravated by the introduction of new 
aircraft to meet its competitive require- 
ments and in the light of current economic 
trends in the Canadian economy, it is the 
opinion of the dissenting member that pay 
increase should be restricted to 2£ per cent 
applicable to all flight attendants, com- 
mencing with the beginning of 1961 and, 
in the absence of the introduction of new 
factors during 1961, with a similar increase 
commencing in 1962. 

3. Vacations. It was established before 
the Board that the Company has a paid 
vacation program for all of its employees 
which compares favourably with the best 
industries in Canada and there appears no 
justification for increasing vacation periods 
at this time, particularly for a group which 
enjoys, through working schedules, a large 
number of days off in each month. 

4. Aircraft Speeds. It is stated in the 
majority report that there was agreement 



to the effect that the DC- 8 has a speed of 
550 miles per hour and the Vanguard a 
speed of 425 miles per hour. These speeds 
are not agreed to by the Company and 
the actual speeds of the aircraft are, in 
fact, difficult to determine and average far 
less than those figures. The speed of an 
aircraft between any two points is governed 
by many factors, including the distance 
between the two points, the altitude at 
which a flight is flown, traffic congestion, 
weather and other factors. The advantages 
of the high cruising speed of jet aircraft 
are not fully realized on normal operations, 
particularly on short legs where the jet 
is required to climb to and descend from 
high altitude, sometimes with adverse 
weather and traffic factors. 

In the event that speed were a factor 
for the purposes of establishing work con- 
ditions and pay, the speed of aircraft 
would have to be a matter negotiated be- 
tween the Company and the flight attend- 
ants, taking into account the variable factors 
which exist in respect of various Company 
routes. 

In other respects the Company's nominee 
concurs with the report of the Honourable 
Mr. Justice Andre Montpetit and Mr. 
Harry Crowe. 

The whole respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) Robert E. Morrow, 
Member. 

Montreal, May 11th, 1961. 



Canadian Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1 
Releases Decisions in Four Recent Cases 



The Canadian Railway Board of Adjust- 
ment No. 1 has released its decisions in 
three cases heard on April 11 and in one 
case heard on May 9. 

The first case concerned deadheading 
payments claimed by two yard helpers. The 
second dispute arose from a freight-train 
crew's disagreement with the company's 
definition of "straight-away service" when 
a turnaround and passing through the home 
terminal was included in the run. In the 
third case, a brakeman claimed as an extra 
trip his service on a diesel unit and car 
combination run from terminal to round- 
house. The dispute in the last case con- 
cerned a brakeman's claim for runaround 
when a brakeman's assignment was filled 
by a yard helper when no spare men were 
available on the brakemen's spare board. 



The employees' contention was sustained 
in the first two cases; the company's con- 
tention was modified in the third and sus- 
tained in the fourth dispute. 

Summaries of the four cases, Nos. 756 
to 759, are given below. 

Case No. 756 — Dispute between Cana- 
dian National Railways (Great Lakes Re- 
gion) and Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
over deadheading payments claimed by 
yard helpers. 

Two junior yard helpers on the spare 
board at Stratford were assigned to tem- 
porary vacancies for which no applications 
were received when advertised. Both these 
vacancies were at stations subsidiary to 
Stratford, one at Guelph and one at Kit- 
chener. Both yardmen on this temporary 



682 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



assignment claimed deadheading payment 
for time between Stratford and Kitchener 
and Stratford and Guelph, but the Company 
declined their claims. 

The employees contended they were 
ordered by the Railways to deadhead for 
relief purposes at a station subsidiary to 
their assigned terminal, and therefore were 
entitled to deadheading allowances under 
an article of the agreement that provides 
for deadheading payments in connection 
with relief work not claimed by workmen 
on seniority basis but assigned by the order 
of the Company. 

The company contended that, as the 
vacancies were filled according to an article 
of the current agreement that dealt with 
the filling of temporary vacancies for which 
no applications had been received, the 
travelling involved was not "ordered by the 
company" but resulted from mandatory 
application of the seniority rules. In these 
circumstances, the employee is bound by 
the seniority rules to accept the assignment. 

Because the wage agreement clearly 
stipulates that payment for deadheading 
will not be made when a temporary vacancy 
is bid for but will be made when men are 
ordered to fill a temporary vacancy, an 
adverse ruling by the board would open 
the way for employees to force payment 
for deadheading by boycotting advertise- 
ments for undesirable vacancies at subsid- 
iary stations, the company contended. 

The Board sustained the contention of 
the employees. 

Case No. 757 — Dispute between Canadian 
National Railways (Great Lakes Region) 
and Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen over 
separate trip claims by a conductor and 
crew assigned to freight service. 

An assignment for two conductors and 
four brakemen in daily freight service from 
Capreol to South Parry via Lowphos was 
advertised and filled. Local employee repre- 
sentatives protested prior to the effective 
date and suggested an alternative assign- 
ment. However, the work was started and 
subsequently the conductors and crew sub- 
mitted claims for two separate trips, one 
from their home terminal, Capreol, to 
Lowphos Mine and back, the other one 
from Capreol to South Parry. The company 
declined these claims. 

The employees contended that the assign- 
ment as set up by management was a 
combination of turnaround and straight- 
away service: Capreol to Capreol via Low- 
phos Mine being a turnaround, Capreol to 
South Parry, straightaway. Because an 
article of the current agreement does not 
provide for a call based on a combination 



of the two, but only for either straight- 
away or turnaround service, the employees 
should be paid for each trip separately, on 
the basis of two separate days or time 
claims. 

The company contended that there was 
no violation of the article cited, and based 
its interpretation of "straight-away" on 
another article, which applies this term to a 
train picked up at the initial terminal, cars 
being picked up and/or set off at inter- 
mediate points, and train delivered at the 
final terminal. The term "turnaround" 
applies to a train picked up at the initial 
terminal, with cars being picked up and/or 
set off at intermediate points, and train 
delivered at the away-from-home terminal 
on the outward trip, with the procedure 
reversed on the return trip. 

Therefore, the company said, the trip 
Capreol - Lowphos - South Parry was a 
straight-away movement, as the crew picked 
up its train at Capreol, set off and picked 
up cars at Lowphos, and was not again 
required to stop except for orders, at Capreol 
until the train reached its final terminal at 
South Parry. In addition, the article cited 
applies only to trainmen in pool or irre- 
gular freight service and not to assigned 
freight crews who have bid in and accepted 
assignments as outlined in the bulletin. 

The contention of the employees was 
sustained. 

Case No. 758 — Dispute between Canadian 
National Railways (St. Lawrence Region) 
and Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, 
over a brakeman' s claims for extra service 
when required to accompany diesel units 
with car attached from terminal to round- 
house. 

The head-end brakeman on the regularly 
assigned crew on a train between Toronto 
and Montreal was required, on several occa- 
sions, to accompany the diesel units to 
which a dynamometer car was attached, to 
the roundhouse. The diesel units with the 
attached car had been part of his train; 
the distance from Bonaventure Freight 
Terminal to the Turcot Roundhouse is 
approximately 2 miles, entirely within the 
switching limits of Montreal terminals. The 
brakeman claimed 100 miles each trip. The 
company reduced his time claims to the 
actual time utilized. 

The employees' contention was that this 
trip to the roundhouse was an extra trip 
ordered after completion of his regular 
assignment. 

An article of the current agreement states 
that trainmen called for extra service after 
completion of their regular assignment will 
be paid for such extra service not less than 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



683 



a minimum day at the schedule rate of 
pay under the conditions applicable to serv- 
ice performed. 

The company contended that, rather than 
by the article cited by the employees, this 
case is covered by another article, which 
provides that trainmen who remain on duty 
after the crew as a unit has been released, 
when special service such as accompanying 
the locomotive to the roundhouse is re- 
quired, be paid on the minute basis; such 
time is not to be used to make up the 
basic day. 

In this case, the brakeman's services were 
required because, on each occasion, the 
dynamometer car and diesel units had to 
be delivered to the shop track as one unit 
connected by electric wires and cables for 
testing purposes. The company further 
pointed out that, in similar cases, all other 
brakemen performed the same service and 
were paid according to the article it had 
cited, with no exceptions. 

The Board stated that, as the movement 
of the dynamometer car resulted from its 
not being detachable from the diesel units, 
it was an exceptional movement and not of 
a nature specifically contemplated in the 
agreement. Payment in this case was there- 
fore to be based on the nearest comparable 
move described in the agreement (without 
establishing a precedent to affect other ter- 
minal movements). In view of these special 
circumstances, the Board decided, the brake- 
man's payment should include the time 
required to return to Bonaventure freight 
terminal where caboose was tied up. 

Case No. 759 — Dispute between Canadian 
National Railways (Great Lakes Region) 
and Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
over a brakeman's runaround claim for 
service assigned to a yard helper. 

The brakeman assigned to trains between 
London and Windsor, home terminal Wind- 



sor, learned about a vacancy for brakeman 
on another train which was ordered at 
Windsor for 9:00 p.m. As his regular assign- 
ment was not due to leave until 3:30 a.m. 
the following morning, he notified the 
crew clerk that he would be available to fill 
the vacancy. However, the brakemen's spare 
board was exhausted and a yard helper 
was taken from his regular assignment to 
fill the vacancy. This happened twice, and 
the brakeman submitted a claim for run- 
around service on both occasions on the 
basis that he should have been considered 
available. The company turned down both 
his claims. 

The union contended that a regular man 
holding seniority in the required group 
should be used rather than a man from 
another assignment and different group to 
fill a vacancy for which no spare men are 
available. Therefore, the yard man should 
not have been assigned after the crew 
clerk had been notified of a brakeman's 
availability for service to which entitled. 

The company contended that, according 
to the article that defines rules for running 
of assigned crews in case the trains may 
be late or ahead of time, this case does not 
constitute runaround service. Further, an- 
other article states that a regularly assigned 
trainman cannot be considered available 
for service except on his regular assign- 
ment, and in such case is not permitted to 
vacate temporarily his assignment if it 
appears advantageous to him to do so. 

The company also cited the Board's 
General Statement in Case No. 681 (L.G., 
1957, p. 743), which rules that "assigned 
men not being obligated to accept service 
other than to which assigned, they cannot 
claim penalties when not called for service 
to which they are not assigned." 

The employees' contention was not sus- 
tained. 



GNP For the 1st Quarter 



Gross national product was at a season- 
ally adjusted annual rate of $36,012 million 
in the first quarter of 1961, reports DBS. 

A slight slack in the pace of economic 
activity was associated with a sharp drop 
in business outlays for new plant and 
equipment which had been moving upward 
in the preceding two quarters. There was 
also a small decline in personal expenditure 
on consumer goods and services and a shift 
to neutral position in business inventories 



which had shown a small accumulation in 
the final quarter of 1960. 

These downward tendencies were largely 
offset by outlays for new housing, recovery 
in exports of goods and services, and 
continued strength in government expendi- 
ture. 

The 1.2 per cent decline in GNP reflected 
an unusually sharp increase in dividends 
paid abroad in the first quarter of 1961, 
which are excluded from it. 



684 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



LABOUR LAW 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 



British Columbia Court of Appeal restores 17 certification orders, Supreme 
Court rules determination of seniority rights within union's sole jurisdiction. 
Arbitration awards quashed by Ontario and New Brunswick courts. In Ontario, 
High Court distinguishes between "interlocutory" and "interim" injunctions 



In British Columbia, the Court of Appeal 
restored 17 certification orders previously 
quashed by the trial judge, and ruled that 
Section 12 (12) of the Labour Relations 
Act did not limit the discretionary powers 
of the Board in determining a unit "appro- 
priate for collective bargaining" and in 
certifying a union as a bargaining agent. 

The B.C. Supreme Court ruled that the 
determination of seniority rights was a 
domestic problem within the sole jurisdic- 
tion of a union and the court could not 
interfere with the union's decision in this 
respect taken in conformity with the union's 
constitution. 

In Ontario, the Court of Appeal quashed 
an arbitration award and upheld the right 
of management to retire employees at age 
65, holding that the right was not impaired 
by the provisions of the collective agree- 
ment. 

The Ontario High Court ruled that the 
Judicature Act, as amended in 1960, does 
not prevent the court from issuing an order 
to continue an injunction until the trial or 
final disposition of the case. 

In New Brunswick, the Appeal Division 
of the Supreme Court, by applying the 
Arbitration Act to the arbitration of a 
labour dispute under a collective agreement, 
quashed an arbitration award because of 
a failure of the arbitrators to take the oath 
as prescribed under that Act. 

British Columbia Court of Appeal . . . 

. . .allows the appeal from the decision of the trial 
court that quashed 17 certification orders 

On February 7, 1961, the British Colum- 
bia Court of Appeal restored the Labour 
Relations Board's orders certifying Local 
138 of the Brotherhood of Painters, Decora- 
tors and Paperhangers of America as bar- 
gaining agent for units of employees of 



some 17 painting firms. The trial judge had 
quashed these orders on the ground that the 
Board exceeded its jurisdiction when cer- 
tifying a union in respect of a geographical 
area where the employers were not at that 
time engaged in operations (L.G., April, 
p. 375). 

The judgment of the Court of Appeal was 
delivered by Chief Justice DesBrisay, who 
recalled that the Board certified Local 138 
for the employees of each of the 17 em- 
ployers "employed as painters, decorators, 
paperhangers, wood-finishers, mastic appli- 
cators, building cleaners (steam or other 
process) and sandblasters in British Colum- 
bia, other than Kitimat, Kemano, Prince 
George and Dawson Creek and that part 
of Vancouver Island South of Port Alice." 

The trial judge, quashing these certifica- 
tions, held that jurisdiction of the Board 
to grant certification of virtually province- 
wide scope to any union must derive from 
the discretionary power vested in the Board 
by Section 12 (12) of the Labour Relations 
Act; that such discretionary power of the 
Board is subject to and governed by the 
opening words of subsection 12, namely: 
"where an employer has separate opera- 
tions in progress in different parts of the 
province"; and that the evidence presented 
to the Court negated the existence of the 
conditions precedent upon which the dis- 
cretionary power of the Board must depend. 

Chief Justice DesBrisay noted that none 
of the employers had separate operations 
in progress in different parts of the province 
at the time the certifications were granted. 
In his opinion, the whole question before 
the Court was whether or not Subsection 
12 is a limiting or a permissive section. 
Section 12 (12) reads as follows: 

Where an employer has separate operations 
in progress in different parts of the Province, 



This section, prepared by the Legislation Branch, reviews labour laws as they are 
enacted by Parliament and the provincial legislatures, regulations under these laws, and 
selected court decisions affecting labour. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3—6 



• JULY 7967 



685 



if an application for certification of a trade- 
union for a unit is made, the Board may, if 
in its opinion the circumstances warrant such 
action, certify a trade-union for the unit in all 
the operations of the employer throughout the 
Province. 

The Chief Justice held that Subsection 
12 was intended to confer on the Board 
special or additional powers in relation to 
an application where the special circum- 
stances referred to therein exist. In his 
opinion, Subsection 12 does not limit the 
powers of the Board as defined in Section 
10 and Section 12 (1) and (4) of the Act. 
When Local 138 applied for certification, 
the duty of the Board was to determine 
whether each of the units was one "appro- 
prite for collective bargaining." The Board 
had found that each was so appropriate and 
the matter was finally and conclusively 
decided under Section 65 (1) (i) of the 
Act, which reads: 

If in arty proceeding before the Board a 
question arises under this Act as to whether . . . 
a group of employees is a unit appropriate for 
collective bargaining . . . the Board shall decide 
the question, and its decision shall be final 
and conclusive. 

The Court allowed the appeal and 
restored the certification orders. Re Labour 
Relations Board and Brotherhood of Paint- 
ers, Decorators and Paperhangers of Amer- 
ica, Local 138, (1961), 34 W.W.R., Part 8, 
p. 383. 

British Columbia Supreme Court... 

. . .rules court cannot interfere with decision arrived 
at in accordance with union constitution 

On March 13, 1961, Mr. Justice Sullivan 
of the British Columbia Supreme Court 
ruled that the Court could not interfere 
with a decision or internal management of 
a union acting within its powers as defined 
by the union's constitution. 

Pacific Press Limited had a collective 
agreement, dated July 25, 1960, with Local 
25 of the Vancouver Pressmen's Union, a 
subordinate of the International Printing 
Pressmen and Assistants' Union of North 
America. The agreement contained a "closed 
shop" provision, under which the employer 
agreed to employ in its press rooms only 
members of Local 25 and the local agreed 
to furnish enough competent men to fulfil 
the employer's requirements. Seniority 
rights of employees were to be determined 
by the union; an employee's seniority status 
with the company was not relevant. 

Prior to June 15, 1957, there existed in 
Vancouver three separate chapels of news- 
paper pressmen, all of them comprising the 
membership of Local 25. One of such 
chapels was composed of pressmen em- 
ployed by The Sun, a second of pressmen 



employed by The Province and the third 
of pressmen employed by The News Herald. 
About June 15, 1957, the News Herald 
ceased to be published and the employees 
of that newspaper lost their employment. 
However, as members of Local 25, they 
were permitted to place their name at the 
bottom of the seniority lists of the Sun and 
Province chapels. 

About the same time, the Sun and 
Province, up till then separately owned and 
operated, were acquired by the Pacific Press 
Limited, which now publishes both these 
papers. In anticipation of this transfer of 
ownership, a special meeting of the mem- 
bers of Local 25 was convened on June 7, 
1957, and a majority of its members passed 
a resolution as follows: "That Province 
and Sun Chapels remain as is, with Herald 
men in seniority placing cards in either 
chapel." A dispute regarding seniority rights 
between the members of Sun chapel and 
members of Province chapel followed and 
efforts to work out a compromise failed. 

On October 25, 1958, a general meeting 
of Local 25 took place and a resolution 
was passed to the effect that "all merger 
plans and discussions be ended and that 
separate chapels remain as at present." This 
majority decision of the members of Local 
25 was appealed by the members of Prov- 
ince chapel to the President of the Inter- 
national Printing Pressmen and Assistants' 
Union of North America. The appeal was 
denied. Afterwards the members of Province 
chapel appealed the decision of the Inter- 
national President to the directors of the 
international body and that appeal was dis- 
missed on February 9, 1960 on the ground 
that, according to the provisions of the 
union constitution, the subject matter of 
the dispute was one "solely within the 
prerogative of the local union." 

Against this decision of the international 
directors, the members of Province chapel 
then took final appeal to the convention 
floor of an international convention of the 
parent body held in New York in October 
1960. The convention dismissed the appeal 
on the ground that the matter in dispute 
was one to be settled by reference to local 
by-laws, the international constitution and 
the democratic process of majority rules. 
Some members of the Province chapel chal- 
lenged the ruling of the union's convention 
in court action. 

In Mr. Justice Sullivan's opinion, there 
was nothing in the material before him that 
could justify the intervention or interference 
of the court with the decision so arrived at 
or otherwise with the internal management 
of a union acting within its powers. In 
particular, Mr. Justice Sullivan stressed that 



686 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



calculation of seniority is a domestic prob- 
lem within the sole jurisdiction of Local 
25 and is governed by the constitutional 
provisions of the international union, by 
which the members of Local 25 are bound 
so long as they choose to retain and enjoy 
membership in the international union. It is 
not for the court, Mr. Justice Sullivan 
added, to offer any gratuitous indication of 
its opinion regarding the decisions of union 
officials or tribunals acting within the scope 
of an exclusive authority, the validity of 
which the members of Local 25 could not 
question. Griffiths, Hall and Holmes v. 
Pacific Press Ltd. and Vancouver Printing 
Pressmen's Union No. 25, Canadian Labour 
Law Reports, May 19, 1961, para. 15,351. 

Ontario Court of Appeal . . . 

...quashes an arbitration award and upholds a 
company's right to retire employees at age 65 

On December 16, 1960, the Ontario 
Court of Appeal, by a majority decision, 
quashed an arbitration award and held 
that a company's policy of compulsory 
retirement of employees at age 65 was a 
function of management not expressly 
restricted by the terms of a collective agree- 
ment but, on the contrary, was implied in 
the provisions of the agreement. 

A collective agreement between Sand- 
wich, Windsor and Amherstburg Railway 
Co. and a union provided in Section 46, 
entitled "Pensions," that "whenever the 
company retires an employee because of 
old age and /or sickness which renders him 
physically unfit or unqualified for the 
job . . . the company will recommend to the 
Ontario Municipal Board that its approval 
be granted permitting the company to pay 
such employee ... a pension" based on a 
certain formula. A second clause of the 
section contained certain exceptions, among 
them a provision excluding employees with 
less than 19 years service or who were 
retired before age 65; and a third clause 
obligated the company, on the union's 
request, to give careful consideration to 
any special cases where retirement was 
necessary and the person could not come 
"within the foregoing provisions of this 
section." 

The company unilaterally adopted a 
policy of compulsory retirement of em- 
ployees at age 65, a policy that was chal- 
lenged by the union. 

The Board of Arbitration held that the 
effect of Section 46 of the agreement was to 
constitute a pension plan and it was not 
open to the company unilaterally to alter 
a provision of the pension plan as set out 
in Section 46; the resolution of the com- 
pany prescribing a compulsory retirement 



age of 65 generally applicable to the em- 
ployees was such unwarranted alteration. 

The company challenged the arbitration 
award in certiorari proceedings. Mr. Justice 
Spence dismissed the application, however, 
and upheld the award as being within the 
provisions of the collective agreement. He 
accepted the principle that retirement of 
employees at any particular age is a func- 
tion of management, and the question was 
whether or not that function of manage- 
ment was in any way cut down or taken 
away from the employer by reason of the 
provisions of the collective bargaining 
agreement. In particular, the question was 
whether or not the company was prohibited 
from putting in force the resolution it had 
adopted by necessary implication from the 
terms of Section 46 of the agreement. Mr. 
Justice Spence thought that the necessary 
implication was, from the language used, 
that the company was not to retire em- 
ployees unless, through old age or sickness, 
they were rendered incapable. 

The ruling of Mr. Justice Spence was 
appealed by the company. In the Court of 
Appeal, Mr. Justice Aylesworth (with whom 
Mr. Justice Gibson concurred) agreed with 
Mr. Justice Spence that as a matter of 
principle the retirement of employees at 
any particular age was a function of man- 
agement. Also, he was in agreement that 
the collective agreement did not prohibit in 
precise terms that which was done by the 
company. However, he disagreed with Mr. 
Justice Spence when the latter held that 
the company was prohibited by necessary 
implication from the terms of Section 46 
from adopting a rule requiring its em- 
ployees to retire at age 65. 

In Mr. Justice Aylesworth's opinion, to 
interpret the provisions of the collective 
agreement as was done by a majority of 
the arbitrators and by Mr. Justice Spence, 
was to add words and a meaning to Section 
46 that were not apparent from a fair and 
full reading of that section and that could 
not be added thereto under the principle 
of "necessary implication." 

The construction given by the arbitration 
tribunal and Mr. Justice Spence was as 
though after the words "whenever the com- 
pany retires an employee because of old 
age and/or sickness which renders him 
physically unfit or unqualified for the job 
employed at by this company" appear the 
words "and the company agrees it will not 
retire an employee for any other reason." 

Mr. Justice Aylesworth was of the opinion 
that to adopt a rule or regulation for com- 
pulsory retirement of all employees at age 
65 was not violation of Section 46 but, on 
the contrary, was the exercise of a right of 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3—6* 



• JULY 7967 



687 



management that was not infringed upon 
or taken away or affected by Section 46 
of the collective agreement. 

The Court of Appeal, by a majority deci- 
sion, allowed the appeal and upheld the 
company's right to retire employees at 65. 

Mr. Justice McGillivray, dissenting, was 
of the opinion that Section 46 of the agree- 
ment established a retirement and pension 
scheme, the provisions of which implied 
that there would be no retirement on 
grounds other than old age or sickness 
which rendered employees incapable of 
doing their jobs. Re Sandwich, Windsor and 
Amherstburg Railway Co. et al (1961), 26 
D.L.R. (2), Part 10, p. 704. 

Ontario High Court... 

. . .makes distinction between "interloctory" and 
"interim" injunction under Ontario Judicature Act 

On November 14, 1960, Chief Justice 
McRuer of the Ontario High Court ruled 
that Section 17 of the Judicature Act as 
amended in 1960 refers only to an "interim 
injunction" in limiting the duration of an 
injunction to four days and does not restrict 
the power of the court to issue an "inter- 
locutory" injunction under Section 16 to 
continue until trial or other disposition of 
the case. 

Acting on an application to continue an 
injunction against picketing, Chief Justice 
McRuer considered the proper construction 
of Sections 16 and 17 of the Judicature Act. 

Section 16 reads, in part, as follows: 

S. 16 (1) ... an injunction may be granted . . . 
by an interlocutory order of the court in all 
cases in which it appears to the court to be just 
or convenient that the order should be made; 
and any such order may be made either uncon- 
ditionally, or upon such terms and conditions 
as the court shall deem just; and if an injunc- 
tion is asked, either before, or at, or after 
the hearing of any cause or matter, to prevent 
any threatened or apprehended waste or tres- 
pass, the injunction may be granted . . . 

Section 17 of the Act, before the 1960 
amendment, read as follows: 

S. 17 (1) In this section "labour dispute" 
means any dispute or difference between an 
employer and one or more employees as to 
matters or things affecting or relating to work 
done or to be done by the employee or em- 
ployees or as to the privileges, rights, duties or 
condition of employment of the employee or 
employees. 

(2) An ex parte interim injunction to restrain 
any person from doing any act in connection 
with any labour dispute shall not be for a 
longer period than four days. 

According to the Chief Justice, Section 
16 conferred on the court the power to 
make an interlocutory restraining order 
before the action had been tried and the 
merits of the case determined. 



Section 17 dealt with a certain type of 
interlocutory order, i.e., an ex parte interim 
injunction, that is, an interim injunction 
made without notice to the opposite party 
and to be in force for a specific period not 
exceeding four days. 

By an amendment in 1960, Section 17 
was repealed and replaced by another sec- 
tion, of which the relevant subsections read 
as follows: 

S. 17 (2) An interim injunction to restrain 
a person from any act in connection with a 
labour dispute shall be granted only upon at 
least two days' notice to the person or persons 
to be affected thereby and shall not be for a 
longer period than four days. 

(3) An interim injunction under subsection 
2 may be granted ex parte where the court 
is satisfied that a breach of the peace, injury to 
the person or damage to property has occurred 
or an interruption of an essential public serv- 
ice has occurred or is likely to occur. 

It was argued before the court that the 
effect of the new subsections 2 and 3 is 
to deprive the court of power to make 
any order to continue an injunction until 
the trial or final disposition of the action 
but in all cases the court is restricted to 
an interim order lasting not more than 
four days. 

Chief Justice McRuer did not accept this 
construction of Section 17. Such a construc- 
tion, in his opinion, would lead to absurd- 
ity. It would mean that in a case where 
an employer and owner of property has 
come to the court to restrain a mass assault 
on his property arising out of a labour 
dispute and has shown a good case, he 
must go back to court every four days for 
a protecting order until the action has been 
tried and judgment for a permanent injunc- 
tion given. 

The Chief Justice pointed out that there 
are three sorts of interlocutory restraining 
orders that a court may make: an interim 
order made ex parte and for a specific time 
only; an interim order made on notice but 
for a specific time, often in order to give 
the opposite party an opportunity to pre- 
pare a reply; and an order restraining the 
defendant until the trial or other disposition 
of the action. 

Referring to the 1960 amendment, and 
relying on various authorities, the Chief 
Justice noted that the word "interim" in 
the legal sense has a well-established usage. 
It connotes a definite period of time with a 
fixed beginning and ending. It may well be 
that the words "interim" and interlocutory" 
are used interchangeably but, in his opinion, 
they are not strictly interchangeable. The 
term "interlocutory injunction" comprehends 
any order for an injuncion made before 
the final disposition of the case. Strictly 
speaking, an order to continue an injunction 



688 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



until the trial of an action should not be 
referred to as an "interim injunction." On 
the other hand, an injunction to be con- 
tinued to a named date, which is auto- 
matically dissolved on that date unless con- 
tinued by a further order of the court, is 
accurately and precisely described as an 
"interim injunction." 

In Chief Justice McRuer's opinion, the 
word "interim" used in Section 17 of the 
Act should be interpreted as applying only 
to those injunctions granted pending the 
trial but in force only until a day named. 
When the ends of justice are better served 
by making an order limited to four days, 
the court may always do so, while, on the 
other hand, if no useful purpose can be 
served by making such an order, the court 
may issue an order to continue the injunc- 
tion until the trial or final disposition of 
the case. It would require, the Chief Justice 
added, the clearest of language to deprive 
the court of the power to exercise its 
discretion in such cases. Century Engineer- 
ing Co. Ltd. v. Greto et al (1961), 26 
D.L.R. (2d), Part 5, p. 300. 

New Brunswick Supreme Court (Appeal Division) 

. . . quashes arbitration award because arbitrators 
did not take oath prescribed by Arbitration Act 

On October 17, 1960, the New Bruns- 
wick Supreme Court (Appeal Division) 
ruled that the Arbitration Act of the prov- 
ince applies to the arbitration of labour 
disputes under a collective agreement com- 
ing within the Labour Relations Act, and 
the failure of the arbitrators to take the 
oath prescribed by Section 10 of the Arbi- 
tration Act invalidated their award. 

Atlantic Sugar Refineries Limited and 
Local 443 of Bakery and Confectionery 
Workers International Union of America, 
in October 1959, entered into a collective 
agreement that provided for settling disputes 
through arbitration procedure. The agree- 
ment provided that upon the written re- 
quest of either party a board of adjustment 
would be established to arbitrate any dis- 
agreement between the company and the 
union regarding the meaning and application 
of the agreement, except the matters re- 
served exclusively to management. The 
agreement provided for the selection of 
three members of the board of adjustment, 
whose majority decision was to be final and 
binding. It provided also for the expenses 
and remuneration of the arbitrators, but 
there was no provision regarding the taking 
of an oath. Article 4 of the agreement 
stipulated the sole right of the company to 
manage the business and direct the working 



forces and provided that all functions not 
specifically restricted by the clauses of the 
agreement were the right of management. 

Prior to the conclusion of the collective 
agreement, the company was gradually re- 
placing the employees serving as the guards 
at the main gate to the company's premises 
by personnel of the Corps of Commis- 
sionnaires. The usual number of gatemen 
had been seven. At the date of the collec- 
tive agreement, only three gatemen were 
employees of the company. A few weeks 
later, two of these retired on superannuation 
and their jobs were taken over by Corps 
personnel. The union objected, claiming 
that under the collective agreement the 
company was obligated to appoint successors 
from among its own employees and that 
the company's arrangements with the Corps 
violated the agreement. The dispute was 
submitted to arbitration and, in due time, 
a board of adjustment was established to 
settle the dispute. After some delays, the 
arbitrators concluded their inquiry and ren- 
dered a majority award. 

The company applied to the Appeal 
Division of the Supreme Court of the 
province to set aside the award. The appli- 
cation was made under Section 17 (2) of 
the Arbitration Act, which reads: "Where 
an arbitrator or umpire has misconducted 
himself, or an arbitration or award has been 
improperly procured, the Court may set 
the award aside." 

One of the alleged errors advanced by 
the company was failure by the arbitrators, 
before proceeding, to take the oath pres- 
cribed by Section 10 of the Arbitration Act. 
Admittedly, no oath was taken, but the 
union contended that the provisions of 
Section 10 did not apply to the type of 
arbitration under review. 

The Arbitration Act purports to apply to 
every submission to arbitration by act of 
parties. Section 1 (g) provides that "In 
this Act, unless the context otherwise re- 
quires, 'submission' means a written agree- 
ment to submit present or future differences 
to arbitration, whether an arbitrator is 
named therein or not." Section 3 further 
provides that the Act applies "to every 
arbitration under any Act as if the arbitra- 
tion were pursuant to a submission, except 
in so far as this Act is inconsistent with 
the Act regulating the arbitration or with 
any rules or pr^sedure authorized or recog- 
nized by that Act." 

Claiming that the Arbitration Act does 
not apply to labour arbitration, the union 
relied on Section 18 of the Labour Relations 
Act, which provides that every collective 
agreement shall contain a provision for 
final settlement without stoppage of work, 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



689 



by arbitration or otherwise, of all differences 
concerning the meaning or violation of the 
agreement; where a collective agreement 
does not contain a provision for final settle- 
ment of differences, the Board shall, upon 
application of either party, by order pres- 
cribe a provision for final settlement which 
shall be deemed to be a term of the collec- 
tive agreement and binding on the parties to 
the collective agreement; and that every 
party to and person bound by the agreement 
shall comply with the provision for final 
settlement of the disputes. 

Chief Justice McNair, who delivered the 
judgment of the Court, noted that the 
Labour Relations Act contains no other 
provisions, procedural or otherwise, relat- 
ing to the arbitration of disputes arising out 
of a collective agreement. Moreover, it con- 
tains no provision, such as is found in 
other provincial legislation, excluding in 
any such arbitration the application of the 
Arbitration Act or any of its provisions. 

The union submitted that Section 18 of 
the Labour Relations Act creates a statutory 
arbitral tribunal to which the parties to a 
collective agreement are compelled to resort 
for the final settlement of differences con- 
cerning the meaning or violation of the 
agreement and the proceedings of such a 
tribunal are not ordinarily subject to control 
by the courts. 

The Chief Justice did not accept this 
argument. In his opinion, Section 18 of 
the New Brunswick Labour Relations Act 
does not compel resort to arbitration nor to 
a tribunal created by statute. Any clause 
providing for settlement of disputes, whether 
by arbitration or some other procedure, and 
whether inserted in the agreement by the 
parties or written into it by the Labour 
Relations Board (following an application 
by either party), rests not on a statutory 
but on a purely consensual basis. There- 
fore, the question before the court to decide 
was simply whether Section 10 of the 
Arbitration Act applied to arbitration pro- 
ceedings for settlement of a dispute as to 
the meaning or violation of a collective 
agreement within the scope of the Labour 



Relations Act, when the agreement was 
silent on the question and there was no 
statutory provision to the contrary. 

The union claimed that the Legislature, 
when enacting the Arbitration Act, intended 
to restrict its application only to arbitra- 
tions of the conventional type relating to 
commercial transactions or to matters in- 
volving ordinary legal rights or obligations 
and did not intend to apply it in the field 
of modern labour legislation as embodied 
in the Labour Relations Act concerned with 
matters of social rather than legal implica- 
tions. Relying on Section 3 of the Arbitra- 
tion Act, the union claimed that the entire 
Act was inconsistent with the Labour Rela- 
tions Act and its provisions were inapplic- 
able to arbitration proceedings involving 
labour-management disputes. In answer, the 
company relied on the precise and explicit 
language of Section 10 of the Arbitration 
Act, which reads: 

S. 10 (1) Every arbitrator or umpire before 
proceeding to try the matter of any arbitration 
shall take and subscribe the following oath 
before any person authorized to administer 
affidavits; 

I (A. B.) do swear that I will well and 
truly try the matters referred to me as provided 
by the submission in the matter of (...)» and 
a true and impartial award make in the 
premises, according to the evidence and my 
skill and knowledge. So help me God. 

(2) Where the arbitration is by virtue of 
An Act of the Legislature and a special oath 
is therein set out to be taken by the arbitrators, 
the special oath shall be used and not the 
oath as set out in this section. 

In the opinion of Chief Justice McNair, 
the language of Section 10 is clear and 
unambiguous and applies to the arbitration 
proceedings under review. It was a condi- 
tion precedent to the exercise of jurisdiction 
by the arbitrators that they take and sub- 
scribe the prescribed oath. The failure of 
the arbitrators to do so rendered their 
award invalid. The Court set aside the 
arbitration award. Re Atlantic Sugar Re- 
fineries Ltd. and Bakery and Confectionery 
Workers International Union of America, 
Local No. 443, (1961), 27 D.L.R., (2) 
Part 4, p. 310. 



690 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 

Minimum wage, vacation with pay and hours of work orders revised in Alberta. 
First apprenticeship regulations for machinist trade are issued in Manitoba 



In Alberta, new general minimum wage 
orders set a minimum weekly wage of $34 
for full-time employees over 19 years in 
centres with a population of over 5,000 and 
of $30 elsewhere in the province. The new 
part-time rate for adult workers is 85 cents 
in the larger centres and 75 cents in the 
smaller places. The revised general vaca- 
tion order provides for a two-week vaca- 
tion after a year's service. The new hours 
of work order extended the 44-hour week, 
previously limited to the four largest cities, 
to all places with a population of over 
5,000. 

In Manitoba, apprenticeship regulations 
for the machinist trade provided for the 
certification of tradesmen, made it com- 
pulsory for learners 16 to 21 years to regis- 
ter with the director of apprenticeship, and 
provided for voluntary registration of learn- 
ers over 21 years. 

The new fair wage schedule for Manitoba 
construction workers set higher minimum 
rates for some occupations. 

Other regulations deal with pressure ves- 
sel welders in Alberta, procedures of the 
British Columbia Labour Relations Board, 
the licensing of Newfoundland logging 
camps, hours of bus and truck drivers in 
Prince Edward Island, and industrial camps 
in Quebec. 

Alberta Boilers and Pressure Vessels Act 

Alberta has issued new regulations, effec- 
tive May 1, 1961, relating to pressure vessel 
welders under the Boilers and Pressure 
Vessels Act. Gazetted April 29 as Alberta 
Regulation 103/61, they rescind Alta. Reg. 
92/57, originally approved by O.C. 442 
of 1956 (L.G. 1956, p. 880). 

The new regulations adopt the following 
codes, and amendments, when approved by 
the Chief Inspector, as standards governing 
pressure vessel welders and welding: C.S.A. 
B51 — 1960 Code for the Construction and 
Inspection of Boilers and Pressure Vessels; 
the 1959 edition of the A.S.M.E. Boiler 
and Pressure Vessel Code, as follows: Sec- 
tion I, Power Boilers; Section IV, Low 
Pressure Heating Boilers; Section V, Minia- 
ture Boilers; Section VIII, Unfired Pressure 
Vessels; Section IX, Welding Qualifications; 
and the American B31 Code for Pressure 
Piping. 



Provision is made for Grade "A" and 
Grade "B" Pressure Vessel Welders Certi- 
ficates, as previously, but they now restrict 
the holder to manual welding. In addition, 
there is a new Machine Welding Operator's 
Certificate which authorizes the holder to 
operate machine or automatic welding 
equipment. The operator of semi-automatic 
arc-welding equipment must hold a Grade 
"B" Certificate. 

In accordance with a new provision, the 
Chief Inspector may grant appropriate cre- 
dit to a candidate for a Grade "A" Certifi- 
cate who, in other jurisdictions, has obtained 
experience equivalent to that required by 
these regulations. 

The regulations now require all manual 
welders to pass an initial performance 
qualification test, for all welding positions, 
which meets the requirements of Section 
IX, A.S.M.E. Boiler and Pressure Vessel 
Code. Requirements in respect of the re- 
newal of performance qualifications are 
also set out. 

The Inspector conducting welding tests 
must now issue Performance Qualification 
Cards, giving details of the test which the 
welder has passed to establish his qualifi- 
cations. 

Manufacturers and contractors working 
on boilers and pressure vessels are obliged 
to assign to each pressure vessel welder in 
their employ a number, letter or symbol to 
identify the welder's work. 

Alberta Labour Act 

Two new general minimum wage orders, 
an hours of work order and a revised 
general vacation order issued by the Alberta 
Board of Industrial Relations were gazetted 
as Alta. Reg. 113/61 to 116/61 on May 15 
to go into force on June 1. 

The new minimum wage orders, which 
replace four orders issued in 1956, set a 
minimum weekly wage of $34 for full-time 
employees over 19 years in places with a 
population of over 5,000, and of $30 in the 
small centres. Under the four previous 
orders, which differentiated between male 
and female employees, the minimum weekly 
wage in places with a population of over 
5,000 was $30 for men and $28 for women. 
In the rest of the province the minimum 
adult rate was $26 for men and $24 for 
women. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



691 



The new hours of work order reduced 
the work-week from 48 to 44 hours in 
places with a population of over 5,000, 
replacing a 1952 order which set a 44-hour 
standard for the cities of Edmonton, Cal- 
gary, Lethbridge and Medicine Hat. 

The revised general vacation order pro- 
vides for an annual paid vacation of two 
weeks after a year's employment instead of 
a vacation of one week after a year's 
service and two weeks after a second year. 
Minimum Wages 

Together the two new minimum wage 
orders, No. 1 (1961) and No. 2 (1961), 
cover all employees in the province within 
the scope of the Alberta Labour Act except 
the following: persons subject to another 
order fixing different minimum rates or 
exempting certain employees from minimum 
wage provisions; workers governed by an 
industrial standards schedule; apprentices 
working under an apprenticeship contract 
approved by the Board of Industrial Rela- 
tions; persons hired for casual, seasonal 
or temporary work in any industry by 
another than the employer engaged in such 
industry; and persons engaged by a contract 
approved by the Board and paid on a 
commission basis or paid a stated salary 
payable by the week, month or year. 

Although dropping the sex differential, 
the new orders continue to distinguish 
between employees whose regular work- 
week is 40 hours or more and those who 
normally work less than 40 hours a week, 
setting weekly rates for the former and 
hourly rates for the latter. Lower full-time 
and part-time rates are also set for em- 
ployees 18 to 19 years and for those under 
18 years. Previously, special rates were set 
for male employees 18 to 19, 17 to 18 and 
under 17, and also for female employees 
with less than three months experience. 
Full-time Employees 

As has been indicated, the minimum now 
payable in places with a population of 
over 5,000 to full-time employees over 19 
years of age, including persons paid on a 
commission or piecework basis, is $34 a 
week. Full-time employees 18 to 19 years 
must now receive at least $30 a week and 
those under 18 years at least $26. 

In the smaller centres, the minimum pay- 
able to adult workers who regularly work 
40 or more hours a week is $30. Employees 
18 to 19 years of age are to be paid at 
least $26 a week and those under 18 at 
least $22. 

Part-time Employees 

The minimum wage now payable in the 
larger centres to adult workers whose regu- 
lar work-week is less than 40 hours is 85 



cents an hour. Part-time workers in the 
18 to 19 age-group are to be paid at least 
75 cents an hour and those under 18 at 
least 65 cents. 

In places with a population of less than 
5,000 the minimum wage for a part-time 
worker over 19 years of age is 75 cents an 
hour. The rates for those under 19 are 65 
cents and 55 cents, depending on the age- 
group. 

Daily Guarantee 

The daily guarantee provision is un- 
changed, providing that a worker who is 
employed for less than four consecutive 
hours a day is to receive at least four 
hours pay at the minimum part-time rate 
for his classification. As before, a meal 
period of one hour or less may not be 
counted as part of the four consecutive 
hour period. 

Overtime and Public Holidays 
As under the previous orders, the mini- 
mum payable for overtime is one and one- 
half times the regular rate. 

Also, the orders again forbid an employer 
to reduce the wages of an employee who 
normally works 40 or more hours a week 
below the prescribed minimum wage by 
making a deduction for time not worked 
on a statutory holiday if his establishment 
is not open for business on that day. 

Pieceworkers 

Following previous practice, the orders 
continue to stipulate that the wages of piece- 
workers and persons paid wholly or partly 
on a commission basis must be adjusted so 
that no employee may receive less than the 
prescribed minimum. The period of adjust- 
ment may be no longer than one month, 
however. 

Deductions 

The orders place the same limitations as 
formerly on deductions that may be made 
from minimum wages for board and lodg- 
ing. The maximum deductions permitted 
are: $4.50 for 21 meals in a seven-day 
week; $4 for 18 meals in a six-day week; 
25 cents for single meals; $1.50 for a full 
week's lodging and 25 cents per day where 
lodging is furnished for less than a week. 
No charge may be made for meals not con- 
sumed. 

The prohibition against deductions for 
uniforms or breakages, which previously 
applied only to women, now applies to men 
as well. No employer may reduce an em- 
ployee's wages below the prescribed mini- 
mum wage by making a deduction for 
furnishing, repairing or laundering a uni- 
form or a special article of wearing apparel 



692 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J 96 1 



required by the employer or for accidental 
breakages by an employee of any article 
belonging to the employer. 

Hours of Work 

The new hours of work order, No. 22 
(1961), which places a 44-hour weekly limit 
on hours in centres with a population of 
over 5,000, will affect employees in places 
such as Bowness, Camrose, Grande Prairie, 
Jasper Place and Red Deer, where the 48- 
hour weekly limit set by the Act was pre- 
viously in effect. However, it will not result 
in reduced hours for employees in Edmon- 
ton, Calgary, Lethbridge or Medicine Hat, 
as the 44-hour standard has been in effect 
in these cities since 1952. The daily limit 
remains eight hours, the same as for the 
rest of the province. 

The new order covers all employees 
within the scope of the Labour Act, includ- 
ing employees in hospitals and nursing 
homes, a group previously exempted. The 
only exclusions are persons governed by 
another order or workers covered by a 
collective agreement or an industrial stand- 
ards schedule, who will be exempted until 
the next anniversary date of the agreement 
or schedule following the effective date of 
this order (June 1). 

In line with the usual practice, some 
exceptions are provided for. In cases where 
the new weekly limit is impractical, the 
44-hour week may be averaged over a four- 
week period, provided weekly hours do not 
exceed 48 in any one week. 

In the small centres, the weekly limit 
on hours remains 48 hours as provided in 
the Labour Act. 

Vacations with Pay 

As indicated above, the new general 
vacation order, No. 5 (1961), makes it 
mandatory for an employer to give each 
of his employees an annual vacation of two 
weeks after a year's employment with pay 
at the rate of four per cent of regular earn- 
ings during the vacation year. Three other 
provinces, British Columbia, Manitoba and 
Saskatchewan, require employees to be given 
a two-week vacation after a year's service. 

The revised order has substantially the 
same coverage as the previous one, applying 
to all persons subject to the Labour Act 
except the following: (1) persons employed 
for eight hours or less in a week; (2) real 
estate agents and salesmen licensed under 
the Real Estate Agents' Licensing Act; (3) 
persons holding a certificate under the 
Alberta Insurance Act; (4) persons regis- 
tered under the Investment Contracts Act 
(a group not previously listed); (5) bond 
and stock salesmen registered under the 
Securities Act, 1955; (6) commercial travel- 



lers paid exclusively upon a commission 
basis; (7) employees subject to a special 
vacation order setting out vacation require- 
ments for a particular employment (coal 
miners, employees in the highway, pipeline 
and heavy construction industries and per- 
sons in the building construction industry); 
(8) employees exempted by a special order 
of the Board. 

As well as extending the vacation period, 
the revised order has also changed the 
period of service held to constitute a year's 
employment. A year's employment is no 
longer defined as continuous employment 
for a period of one year from the em- 
ployee's date of employment comprising not 
less than 225 days of actual work. Instead, 
the term "a year's employment" now means 
12 consecutive months from the date em- 
ployment actually began or from the date 
on which an employee became entitled to 
an annual vacation under any custom, 
agreement or contract of employment which 
ensures the employee vacation benefits com- 
parable to those in the order and each 
subsequent year thereafter. In addition, an 
employee is now required to have worked 
not less than 90 per cent of the regular 
working days in the establishment or of the 
days scheduled to work if a part-time em- 
ployee. The order further provides that an 
employee's vacation period must now be 
counted as days worked when calculating 
his entitlement to vacation in the following 
year. 

As before, the order stipulates that if a 
statutory holiday on which the employer's 
place of business is closed occurs during the 
vacation period, the employee must be 
allowed an additional day with pay immed- 
iately after his vacation. 

Instead of being given pay in lieu of a 
vacation as formerly, an employee who has 
been employed for a year but has not met 
the prescribed work requirements must now 
be given a vacation calculated on a pro 
rata basis. 

A vacation, as before, must be given in 
one unbroken period within 12 months 
after the date the employee becomes en- 
titled to it. If a date is not mutually agreed 
upon, the employer must give the employee 
at least one week's notice of the date of 
commencement of vacation. A new pro- 
vision states that an employer may, on the 
request of the employee, give to an em- 
ployee a vacation during the year in which 
it accrues. 

As previously, vacation pay must be 
given in one amount at least one day prior 
to the date of commencement of the vaca- 
tion. Normally, vacation pay must now be 
based on four per cent of the employee's 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



693 



regular pay (including vacation pay) for 
normal hours of work during the vacation 
year. 

However, if a vacation is given during 
the year in which it accrues, an employee 
must receive vacation pay equal to four 
per cent of his regular pay for the 12 
months immediately preceding his annual 
vacation. Where an annual vacation is given 
in the first year of employment, the em- 
ployer must pay to the employee the equiv- 
alent of two weeks' wages calculated on 
his average earnings for the period of em- 
ployment. 

The regulations again specify that where 
an employer makes deductions for board or 
lodging or both from an employee's wages, 
regular pay must include the cash value of 
such deductions. 

Employees are again entitled to vacation 
pay on termination of employment but the 
30-day qualifying period previously in effect 
has been dropped. An employee whose 
services are terminated before he becomes 
eligible for an annual vacation must receive 
an amount equal to four per cent of his 
regular pay for the period of employment. 
An employee who is entitled to a vacation 
but has not taken it must be paid, on 
termination, his vacation pay plus an 
amount equal to four per cent of his regu- 
lar pay since he last became entitled to an 
annual vacation. 

As has been the case, nothing in the 
order affects any provision in any agree- 
ment or contract of service or any custom 
that ensures to any employee more favour- 
able vacation benefits than those provided 
in the order. Similarly, less favourable pro- 
visions are again declared to be null and 
void. 

British Columbia Labour Relations Act 

Regulations under the British Columbia 
Labour Relations Act governing the pro- 
cedure of the Labour Relations Board were 
gazetted as B.C. Reg. 55/61 on April 20. 
The regulations, which are more detailed 
than formerly, take into account some of 
the 1961 amendments to the Act. Among 
other new rules are provisions dealing with 
settlement votes, mailed votes and applica- 
tions to alter pay rates and applications for 
conciliation services. A number of new 
forms are also prescribed. 

One of the new provisions sets out the 
procedure to be followed when an employer 
seeks permission to alter rates of pay or 
conditions of employment while an agree- 
ment is being negotiated. In such cases an 
employer must apply to the Chief Execu- 
tive Officer of the Board, who will then 



notify the other party or other persons 
affected of the proposed changes. Within 
five days, the parties notified must submit 
their observations to the Chief Executive 
Officer, who will refer them to the Minister, 
who may issue regulations as provided in 
the Act. 

Applications to alter pay rates or condi- 
tions of employment when an application 
for certification is under consideration must, 
as before, be submitted to the Registrar. 

Under the revised regulations, when an 
application to decertify a union has been 
received, the Registrar must now notify 
the employer and the employees as well as 
the certified trade union concerned. All 
parties are given 10 days in which to sub- 
mit their observations. 

One of the 1961 amendments intended 
to encourage early settlement of strikes 
and lockouts authorized the Minister of 
Labour to direct that a settlement offer 
made by either party be put to a vote of 
the employers or employees affected. The 
regulations provide that such proceedings 
may be initiated by filing with the Chief 
Executive Officer an application on the 
prescribed form setting out the particulars 
of the settlement offer. The Chief Execu- 
ive Officer may refer the application to a 
conciliation officer for investigation, which 
must include discussion of the settlement 
offer with both parties to the dispute. In 
his report, the conciliation officer must 
state the result of his investigation and may 
include any recommendation he considers 
appropriate regarding the taking of a vote. 
After considering the conciliation officer's 
report, the Minister may, if he believes that 
the offer would have a reasonable oppor- 
tunity of resolving the dispute, direct that 
a settlement vote be taken. In such cases, 
the party making the offer must supply the 
returning officer with printed copies of the 
offer in such number and in such form as 
the returning officer considers necessary for 
purposes of the vote. 

The rules regarding a settlement vote are 
the same as for a representation vote or 
for a pre-strike or pre-lockout vote. The 
Minister (the Board in the case of a repre- 
sentation vote) may appoint a returning 
officer, who, among other duties, must fix 
the date, time and place for taking the vote, 
determine the form of the ballot, invite 
the trade union and employer affected to 
appoint scrutineers, obtain from the em- 
ployer a certified list of employees in the 
unit on a specified date and settle the list 
of eligible voters in accordance with the 
regulations. When a mailed vote is being 
conducted, the returning officer must, in 
addition to his other duties, forward with 



694 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



each ballot a letter setting out the infor- 
mation upon which the vote is being held 
and instructions for voting and must also 
designate the time and place for counting 
the ballots. 

In the case of a representation vote, all 
employees in the unit on the date of appli- 
cation for certification will be counted 
eligible voters unless the Board orders other- 
wise or the employees are absent from work 
during working hours and do not cast their 
ballots. 

When a decertification vote is being held, 
the voters' list must include all employees 
in the unit on the date determined by the 
returning officer, except where the Board 
decides otherwise. 

Where a pre-lockout or a pre-strike vote 
or a settlement vote is being conducted, all 
employees in the unit on the date fixed 
by the returning officer are eligible to vote. 

Collective agreements, constitutions and 
by-laws required to be filed under the Act 
will be open to inspection at the Depart- 
ment's offices in Victoria. 

Manitoba Apprenticeship Act 

Regulations under the Manitoba Appren- 
ticeship Act setting out requirements for 
apprenticeship in the machinist trade were 
gazetted March 25 to take effect from date 
of publication. The machinist trade was 
declared an apprenticeable trade in 1959 
and these are the first special rules to be 
issued for the trade. 

In the regulations, the term "machinist 
trade" covers all work carried on by machin- 
ists or automotive machinists. 

By "automotive machinist" is meant a 
person who, as a result of study and exper- 
ience with automobiles, trucks and auto- 
motive equipment, is able to perform skilled 
manual work, fabricating and repairing 
metal parts; to do machine work, bench 
hand work and flan assembly; to shape, 
turn, bore, grind, plane and finish metal 
parts and generally to produce highly skilled 
work at a journeyman level. 

To qualify as a machinist under these 
regulations a person must be able to per- 
form the following operations: (1) turn a 
block of metal into a precise machine part 
or tool by using hand or machine tools to 
cut, shave or grind a block of metal to the 
required shape and size, or to drill, bore 
or broach holes in it; (2) read and use 
blueprints and plan work procedure; (3) 
select suitable metal stock and lay out 
work with precision instruments; (4) set 
up work in machines, selecting proper tools 
for each operation; (5) operate machine 
tools, including engine lathes, milling 
machines, drill presses and broaching 



machines, in proper sequence to complete 
the machining of a block, checking dimen- 
sions with required frequency and adjusting 
speeds; (6) fit and assemble parts; (7) 
design dies, tools, jigs and work-holding 
fixtures; (8) generally to produce highly 
skilled work at a journeyman level. 

The regulations make provision for grant- 
ing certificates of qualification to persons 
with experience in the trade who have not 
served a formal apprenticeship. Any person 
28 years or over who submits testimonials 
certifying that he has worked as a machinist 
or an automotive machinist for seven or 
more years prior to March 1, 1961 may be 
granted a certificate of qualification upon 
passing an examination approved by the 
trade advisory committee. If an applicant 
applies within 90 days from March 25, 
1961, he may not be required to try an 
examination or may be exempted in part. 

A candidate who fails an examination 
may be given an appropriate standing as 
an apprentice and, if not already registered, 
may register as an apprentice and complete 
his training under the Apprenticeship Act 
and this regulation. 

Under the new regulations it is now 
mandatory for persons between 16 and 21 
years who are presently learning the trade, 
whether under a training agreement or not, 
to register with the Director of Apprentice- 
ship as an apprentice. In future, every 
person under 21 years who enters the 
machinist trade must enter into an appren- 
ticeship agreement within three months. 

Registration is voluntary for persons 
over 21 years both in the case of those 
presently learning the trade and those who 
enter later. Unless rejected by the trade 
advisory committee for "adequate assigned 
reasons," learners over 21 years may be 
registered with the Director of Apprentice- 
ship. 

The minimum educational requirement 
for an applicant for apprenticeship in the 
machinist trade is Grade IX or its equiva- 
lent but the committee may give preference 
to persons with Grade X standing or 
higher. 

The term of apprenticeship is five years, 
including the probationary period. However, 
if an apprentice has attended an approved 
technical school or has had previous exper- 
ience in the trade, the term of apprentice- 
ship may be reduced by the apprenticeship 
board on the recommendation of the com- 
mittee. Also, an apprentice who has com- 
pleted his technical educational training and 
has been recommended by his employer 
may, with the approval of the committee, 
be given his final examination at the end 
of his fourth year of apprenticeship. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



The ratio of apprentices to journeymen 
is one to five except that an employer who 
employs at least one journeyman or is 
himself a journeyman may engage one 
apprentice. An apprentice employed tem- 
porarily to learn a branch of the trade not 
carried on by the employer to whom he 
is apprenticed need not be counted when 
determining the quota. 

Apprentices are required to attend the 
prescribed educational classes, which must 
include instruction in courses recommended 
by the committee and approved by the 
board. However, if an apprentice has com- 
pleted a six-month course relating to the 
machinist trade in the Manitoba Technical 
Institute or other course approved by the 
Director, he may be exempted from attend- 
ing some of the classes upon the recom- 
mendation of the committee and the appren- 
ticeship board. 

An employer is obliged to give every 
apprentice such instruction and practical 
training in all branches of the trade as is 
deemed necessary by the trade advisory 
committee to develop a practical and skilled 
journeyman. He must also submit an annual 
progress report to the committee and a 
final report when requested by the board. 

On completing his term of apprentice- 
ship, an apprentice who has attended the 
prescribed educational classes and passed 
the trade tests and examinations set by the 
committee will be granted a certificate upon 
payment of the required fee. 

In line with the usual practice, the regula- 
tions stipulate that an apprentice must be 
paid a specified percentage of the prevail- 
ing journeyman's rate. During the first six 
months the rate is 40 per cent, increasing 
by five per cent every six months until 
the tenth six-month period, when the mini- 
mum payable is 85 per cent of a journeyman 
machinist's wage. 

With two exceptions, the hours of appren- 
tices are the same as those currently 
worked by journeymen employed by the 
same employer. One exception is that male 
employees under 17 years are not per- 
mitted to work more than 48 hours in any 
week. The other: no female apprentice, 
regardless of age, may work more than 44 
hours in any week except in accordance 
with the Employment Standards Act and 
the Minimum Wage Regulations. 

Manitoba Fair Wage Act 

The annual fair wage schedule fixing 
minimum wages and maximum hours of 
work at regular rates for certain Manitoba 
construction workers was gazetted May 6 
to remain in force from May 1, 1961 until 



April 30, 1962. The majority of rates are 
the same as in the previous schedule, 
although a few were increased, the most 
common increase being 10 cents an hour. 
There were no changes in hours. 

As previously, the fair wage schedule is 
in two parts. Part I applies to private con- 
struction work costing more than $100 in 
Greater Winnipeg or in any city or town 
with a population of 2,000 or more or in 
any other part of the province designated 
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council and 
to Public Works contracts. Part II, as 
before, applies to public highway, road, 
bridge or drainage construction projects 
outside the city of Winnipeg authorized by 
the Minister of Public Works. 

Part I, as previously, contains two sets 
of minimum rates, Zone "A" rates and Zone 
"B" rates, which cover 27 occupations, 
including licensed tradesmen, skilled and 
unskilled labourers, truck drivers and watch- 
men. Zone "A" rates, which, except in a 
few cases are higher than Zone "B" rates 
and are for the most part based on a 40- 
hour week, apply to public and private 
construction work in Winnipeg and a 30- 
mile radius. Zone "B" rates, which with 
one exception are based on a regular work- 
week of 48 hours and are generally lower 
than Zone "A" rates, apply to public con- 
struction work elsewhere in the province 
and to private construction work in places 
with a population of 2,000 or more (Bran- 
don, Dauphin, Flin Flon, Minnedosa, Nee- 
pawa, Portage la Prairie, Steinbach, Swan 
River and The Pas). 

As previously indicated, the majority of 
the rates set are the same as those in the 
previous schedule. However, some Zone "B" 
rates were increased, thereby reducing the 
differential between the two zones and in 
a few cases higher rates were set for occu- 
pations where it has been the practice to 
set the same rate for both zones. 

One change was made in the classifica- 
tion of workers. The category lathers now 
has three subdivisions: (1) journeymen 
lathers engaged in metal lathing work com- 
monly known as "furring and suspension 
lathing"; (2) journeymen lathers engaged 
in nail or plaster board lathing who apply 
an average of at least 40 bundles of plaster 
board lathing per eight-hour day; (3) 
journeymen lathers who apply fewer than 
40 bundles of plaster board lathing in eight 
hours of work. The rates for persons in the 
first two subdivisions are the same, $2.65 
an hour in Zone "A" and $2.35 in Zone 
"B". The minimum hourly wage for lathers 
in the third subdivision is $2.35 an hour 
in Zone "A" and $2.10 in Zone "B". As is 



696 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



the case in most occupations, the Zone "A" 
rates are based on a 40-hour week and the 
Zone "B" rates on a 48-hour week. 

As has been indicated, in a few occupa- 
tions rates were raised in both zones. The 
rates for marble setters were increased by 
10 cents to $2.35 an hour in Zone "A" and 
$2.10 in Zone "B". The rate for sheet 
metal workers was raised from $2.40 to 
$2.50 in Zone "A" and from $2.05 to $2.25 
in Zone "B". The minimum hourly wage 
now payable to terrazzo and oxychloride 
workers is $2.35 in Zone "A" and $2.10 in 
Zone "B". 

Higher minimum rates were established 
also for a few occupations where it has 
been the practice to set the same rates in 
both zones. The rate for bridge, structural 
and ornamental ironworkers was increased 
from $2.60 to $2.80 an hour. In both zones 
the minimum for elevator constructors was 
raised to $2.71 an hour and that of their 
helpers to $1.90. The rate for plate glass 
and metal setters is now $1.95 an hour. 
The minimum payable in both zones to 
miscellaneous glass setters or to persons 
who install weatherstripping is now $1.74 
instead of $1.69 an hour as formerly. While 
rates are the same in both zones, the 
regular work-week for these workers 
remains 40 hours in Zone "A" and 48 in 
Zone "B" except in the case of ironworkers, 
whose regular work-week is 40 hours 
regardless of location. 

In several categories, Zone "B" rates 
were raised but Zone "A" rates were not 
changed. The minimum for journeymen 
asbestos workers was raised from $2.05 to 
$2.15 in Zone "B" and that of first class 
improvers from $1.80 to $1.85, while in 
Zone "A" the rate for the first category 
remains $2.40 an hour and for the second 
$2.05 an hour. In Zone "B" the rate for 
bricklayers and stone masons and for plas- 
terers was increased from $2.35 to $2.45 
an hour. In Zone "A" the minimum for 
these tradesmen is the same as last year, 
$2.70 an hour. 

The rates in Part II are the same as 
last year, ranging from $1 an hour for 
watchmen and flagmen to $2.15 an hour 
for carpenters. The most common rate is 
$1.40 an hour and is the minimum rate 
payable to truck drivers and certain tractor 
operators. As in other years, employees 
engaged in public highway, road, bridge or 
drainage projects outside the Winnipeg area 
are permitted to work up to 120 hours in 
a two-week period at straight-time rates, 
the only exception being carpenters, whose 
minimum wage rate of $2.15 an hour is 
based on a 48-hour week. 



Newfoundland Logging Camps Act, 1960 

Newfoundland has issued the Licensing 
of Logging Camps Regulations, 1961, under 
the Logging Camps Act, 1960. They were 
gazetted May 23. 

The new regulations provide that no 
person may operate a logging camp or a 
small logging camp without a licence for 
it, and that no person may apply for a 
licence unless the camp meets the standards 
set out in the Act and the regulations issued 
under it. 

Licences are issued by the Minister of 
Mines, Agriculture and Resources on pay- 
ment of a fee of $10 for a permanent 
logging camp and $2 for a non-permanent 
camp. All licences expire on March 31 next 
after issue, unless sooner revoked. They 
must be posted in a conspicuous place in 
the camp. 

The Minister or his representative may 
revoke or suspend a licence if a camp is 
operated contrary to the Act or the regula- 
tions. The officer making the suspension, 
however, must inform the operator of the 
reason for, and duration of, the suspension. 
When a licence has been revoked, no person 
may apply for a new licence for that camp 
until after March 31 following the revoca- 
tion. 

Ontario Energy Act 

In Ontario, the regulations governing the 
production, distribution and consumption of 
gas and oil, issued under the Energy Act, 
were revised. O. Reg. 100/61, gazetted May 
6, amends O. Reg. 1/61 (L.G., Mar., p. 
272). It deals mainly with safety matters. 

The new regulation, revoking an existing 
provision with a similar purpose, exempts 
appliances for the use of natural or manu- 
factured gas in one-family and two-family 
dwellings from a provision added to the 
Act at this last session, which requires that 
the installation, repair, service or removal 
of any gas appliance may be done only 
by, or under the supervision of, a registered 
gas fitter. Appliances for the use of lique- 
fied petroleum gas are also exempted from 
this new amendment to the Act. 

A qualified gas fitter employed in an 
institution or commercial or industrial un- 
dertaking may now be registered as a main- 
tenance gas fitter to install, repair, service 
or remove gas appliances, or to supervise 
these operations, in the buildings of his 
employer. 

The regulations now provide that any 
person with appropriate qualifications may 
be registered as a pipeline inspector. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



697 



A fee of $5 for examination and any 
certificate of registration of a gas fitter, 
maintenance gas fitter or pipeline inspector, 
or for the renewal of such a certificate, 
has been set. 

Prince Edward Island Motor Carrier Act 

Regulations under the Prince Edward 
Island Motor Carrier Act were gazetted 
May 20, repealing regulations published in 
January 1960. Among other provisions, the 
regulations lay down rules regarding extra- 
provincial carriers and hours and qualifica- 
tions of drivers. 

All public motor trucks engaged in extra- 
provincial operations must be licensed under 
the Motor Vehicle Transport Act of Canada. 
Such licences are issued by the Prince 
Edward Island Public Utilities Commis- 
sion, which, under the Motor Vehicle 
Transport Act of Canada, is authorized to 
issue licences to extra-provincial carriers 
on the same terms as to local carriers. 

The regulations stipulate that no motor 
carrier or other person owning, controlling, 
managing or driving a public motor bus 
or truck may drive or permit a person to 
drive more than 10 hours in any 24-hour 
period. They further provide that no person 
may drive a public passenger bus or public 
motor truck after having worked at other 
employment during the day when, by so 
doing, his total period of employment or 
work as a driver or otherwise exceeds 12 
hours in any 24-hour period. For purposes 
of this provision, time occupied riding in 
a bus or truck as a helper, relief driver or 
otherwise will be considered as driving time 
but time spent resting or sleeping in a 
properly equipped berth or bunk on a 
vehicle will not be counted. 



Every holder of a motor carrier licence 
must keep a record of the hours worked by 
bus drivers. Every truck driver is required 
to keep an accurate record of his hours of 
work. Such records must be made available 
for inspection by a peace officer or officer 
of the Public Utilities Commission upon 
request. 

The Commission may require a bus driver 
or a truck driver to undergo a physical 
examination at any time, in which case the 
driver may not drive a bus or truck nor 
may the carrier permit him to drive unless 
he has filed with the Commission a certifi- 
cate from a duly qualified medical practi- 
tioner certifying as to his physical fitness. 

The regulations further provide that no 
person may drive a public bus or truck 
unless he has at least one year's experience 
in driving motor vehicles extending through- 
out four seasons of the year. 

Quebec Public Health Act 

The regulations concerning sanitary con- 
ditions in industrial camps, issued under 
the Quebec Public Health Act (L.G. 1950, 
p. 1922), have been amended by O.C. 635, 
gazetted May 20. 

The amendment forbids batching camps, 
which are defined as camps where workers 
make out alone, without a cook, foreman 
or anyone to see to the maintenance of the 
place. 

Another new provision prohibits super- 
imposed bunks in any new construction 
which serves as a dormitory in camps. The 
Director of the Division of Industrial Hy- 
giene, however, may grant a delay until 
August 1, 1961 to allow employers to con- 
form with this provision in respect of dor- 
mitories already built. 



United States Fair Labor Standards Act 



An amendment to the United States 
Fair Labor Standards Act raising the mini- 
mum hourly wage and extending coverage 
was signed by President Kennedy on May 5 
to go into force on September 3. 

The Fair Labor Standards Act, the 
federal wage-hour law, was enacted in 1938 
as a counter-depression measure. With 
certain exceptions it applies to employees 
engaged in interstate commerce, in the 
production of goods for such commerce or 
in any closely related occupation. It not 
only sets a federal minimum wage but 
also requires the payment of time and one- 
half the regular rate after 40 hours in a 
week and restricts child labour. 



The minimum wage was originally set 
at 25 cents an hour, with provision for an 
increase to 30 cents in 1939 and to 40 
cents in 1945. In 1949, the minimum hourly 
rate was increased to 75 cents effective from 
January 25, 1950, but at the same time 
coverage was reduced. A 1955 amendment 
raised the minimum to $1 an hour, effec- 
tive March 1, 1956, but left the coverage 
unchanged. 

In his message to Congress on February 
2 on his program for economic recovery 
and growth, President Kennedy recom- 
mended improvements in the Fair Labor 
Standards Act, stating: 

I urge the Congress to raise the minimum 
wage immediately to $1.15 and to $1.25 within 



698 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



two years. This will improve the incomes, 
level of living, morale, and efficiency of many 
of our lowest-paid workers, and provide incen- 
tives for their more productive utilization. 
This can actually increase productivity and 
hold down unit costs, with no adverse effects 
on our competition in world markets and our 
balance of payments. More than four-fifths 
of those commodities affected by either export 
or import trends are produced by industries 
which would not be significantly affected by a 
moderate increase in the minimum wage. The 
proposed new coverage is basically in retail 
trade and services, which are not affected by 
shifts in international trade. Moreover, exper- 
ience with previous minimum wage increases 
indicates little effect on prices . . . 

The 1961 amendment represents a com- 
promise between a broader Bill approved 
by the Senate and the Kitchin-Ayres Bill 
passed by the House of Representatives 
after it had rejected the administration bill. 

The Senate Bill, which also had the 
support of the administration, would have 
raised the minimum wage of presently 
covered workers to $1.15 an hour with a 
further increase to $1.25 in two years and 
would have extended coverage to about 
4,000,000 additional employees. It would 
also have established a $1 minimum for 
newly covered workers with provision for 
increases to $1.25 in four years and for 
graduated decreases in maximum straight- 
time hours. 

The Kitchin-Ayres Bill also proposed to 
raise the minimum wage of presently 
covered employees from $1 to $1.15 an 
hour but did not provide for future in- 
creases and would have brought only 
about 1,400,000 additional employees within 
the scope of the Act. It would have pro- 
vided a $1 minimum wage but no overtime 
compensation for newly covered employees. 

The compromise measure establishes a 
minimum wage of $1.15 for presently 
covered workers effective September 3, with 
provision for an increase to $1.25 in two 
years. It also extends coverage to about 
3,624,000 additional workers, the bulk of 
them in the retail and service trades. Newly 
covered employees are to be paid $1 an 
hour with increases to $1.25 over a five- 
year period. Employers of newly protected 
workers are also allowed five years in 
which to adjust to the 40-hour work week 
on a downward graduating scale. 

Coverage 

The original basis of coverage has been 
retained, which means that employees in- 
dividually engaged in commerce or in the 
production of goods for commerce will 
continue to be protected unless specifically 
exempt. In addition, the 1961 amendment 
expands coverage, for the first time since 
the Act became law in 1938, by introducing 



a new concept of coverage, the enterprise 
concept, and by narrowing or eliminating 
some of the exemption provisions. 

In the amended Act a new term, "enter- 
prise", has been introduced, which means 
the related activities performed (either 
through unified operation or common con- 
trol) by any person for a common business 
purpose. It includes all such activities 
whether performed in one or more estab- 
lishments or by one or more corporate or 
other organizational units but does not 
cover the related activities performed for 
such an enterprise by an independent con- 
tractor. The amended Act also makes it 
clear that a small local independent busi- 
ness not in itself large enough to come 
within the new coverage is not subject 
to the Act because it has certain dealings 
with a large enterprise. 

Under the new enterprise concept of 
coverage, the application of the Act is now 
extended, within certain limits, to the fol- 
lowing categories of enterprises which have 
employees engaged in commerce or in the 
production of goods for commerce: 

1. Enterprises with one or more retail 
or service establishments, if the enterprises 
have an annual gross volume of sales of 
$1,000,000 or more (exclusive of certain 
excise taxes) and have purchased or re- 
ceived goods for resale that have moved 
across state lines (not in deliveries from 
the reselling establishment) which amount 
in total annual volume to $250,000 or more; 

2. Urban or interurban transit companies 
with an annual gross volume of sales of 
$1,000,000 or more (exclusive of certain 
excise taxes); 

3. Construction enterprises with an an- 
nual gross volume of business of not less 
than $350,000; 

4. Gasoline service establishments with 
an annual gross volume of sales of $250,- 
000 or more (exclusive of certain excise 
taxes). 

In addition, the amended Act extends 
coverage to establishments in any enterprise 
not included in any of the four categories 
listed above that has employees engaged 
in commerce or in the production of goods 
for commerce if the annual gross volume 
of sales of the enterprise is $1,000,000 or 
more. This last provision was designed to 
prevent the continuance of a situation in 
which some employees in an establishment 
were protected while others who worked 
side by side were not. 

Stores in which the only employees are 
the owner or persons standing in the rela- 
tionship of parent, spouse or child of the 
owner are specifically excluded from the 
new coverage provisions. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



699 



As has been indicated, changes in the 
exemption provisions also brought addi- 
tional employees under the Act. The former 
minimum wage and overtime exemption 
for employees engaged in a local retailing 
capacity was dropped and the exemption 
for switchboard operators in small exchanges 
was narrowed. 

The exemption for employees of retail 
and service establishments doing more than 
50 per cent of their business within the 
State was modified to set out four instances 
in which such employees are exempt. 
They are now exempt from the minimum 
wage and overtime provisions if their 
establishment is not in one of the newly 
covered enterprises referred to above. They 
are also exempt if their establishment is 
part of a covered enterprise but does not 
itself have sales of over $250,000 annually; 
is a hotel, motel, restaurant, motion picture 
theatre, an amusement or recreational 
establishment operating on a seasonal basis; 
or is a hospital, an institution for the sick, 
aged, mentally ill or defective or a school 
for handicapped or gifted children. 

Employees in laundry and dry cleaning 
establishments, which the Senate Bill pro- 
posed to cover, continue to be exempt. Other 
categories of employees that remain exempt 
from the minimum wage and overtime pro- 
visions include: employees engaged in a 
bona fide executive, administrative or pro- 
fessional capacity or as outside salesmen, 
agricultural workers, fishermen and persons 
engaged in offshore processing of seafoods, 
employees of taxicab operators, logging 
crews of 12 or fewer employees, persons 
employed by small newspapers and em- 
ployees of small telegraphic agencies in 
exempt retail or service establishments. 

The 1961 amendments also exempted 
from the minimum wage and overtime pro- 
visions country elevators with not more 
than five employees, and retail or service 
establishments primarily engaged in food 
or beverage service on the premises or in 
specified catering activities. A similar 
exemption was provided for employees in 
establishments engaged in selling automo- 
biles, trucks or farm implements. 

A number of employees who were pre- 
viously exempted from both the minimum 
wage and overtime provisions are now 
given minimum wage protection but con- 
tinue to be exempt from the Act's overtime 
requirements. These include: seamen em- 
ployed on American vessels, employees of 
urban and interurban transit companies and 
employees of gasoline service stations. 

Subject to certain qualifications, over- 
time exemptions are also set out for the 
following: announcers, news editors and 



chief engineers of radio and television 
stations in cities of specified population; 
employees of certain independent local 
bulk petroleum products distributors, if 
the annual sales of the enterprise do not 
exceed $1,000,000, and, under specified 
conditions, local delivery drivers and driv- 
ers' helpers who are compensated on the 
basis of trip rates or other delivery pay- 
ment plan. 

The former overtime exemption for cer- 
tain motor carrier, air carrier, railroad and 
pipeline employees is retained. 

The seasonal overtime exemption for 
employees engaged in processing and can- 
ning of agricultural commodities was re- 
duced. 

Another 1961 amendment allows an over- 
time exemption for commission employees. 
An employer is not obliged to pay over- 
time to an employee in a retail or service 
establishment if the employee's regular rate 
of pay exceeds one and one-half times the 
minimum hourly rate applicable to him and 
more than half his compensation for a 
representative period (not less than one 
month) comes from commissions on goods 
or services. 

Minimum Rates 

As has been indicated, the minimum wage 
for the estimated 23.9 million workers now 
protected by the $1 rate will be increased 
to $1.15 on September 3 and to $1.25 an 
hour in two years. Both the House and 
Senate Labor Committees reported that in 
making their recommendations they had 
considered the current economic situation 
and such factors as: (1) trends in the 
relationship of the minimum wage level to 
average hourly earnings in manufacturing; 
(2) changes in the cost of living and in 
productivity since the effective date of the 
1956 increase to $1 an hour; (3) the annual 
income required to maintain a minimum 
standard of living; and (4) the impact of 
the proposed minimum rates as compared 
with the impact of the 1956 increase. The 
Senate Committee also considered the im- 
pact on employment, on prices and on 
foreign competition. 

Because a majority of the newly covered 
enterprises are in the retail and service 
industries where wages are relatively low, 
the amended Act provides for a gradual 
application of minimum wage standards. 
The minimum for newly covered workers 
will be $1 an hour the first three years 
after the effective date of the 1961 amend- 
ments, $1.15 during the fourth year and 
$1.25 thereafter. 



700 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



A further amendment gives the Adminis- 
trator authority to issue regulations pro- 
viding for the employment of full-time 
students at subminimum rates outside 
school hours in a retail or service estab- 
lishment, provided that such employment 
is not the type ordinarily given to a full- 
time employee. As in the case of learners, 
apprentices and messengers, special certi- 
ficates will be issued and limitations as to 
time, number, proportion and length of 
service imposed. 

As well as establishing new minimum 
rates, the 1961 amendment also modified the 
definition of wage. Under the Act, it has 
been permissible for an employer to include 
in wages the reasonable cost, as deter- 
mined by the Administrator, of furnishing 
the employee with board, lodging or other 
facilities customarily furnished by such 
employer to his employees. A new proviso 
has been added giving the Secretary of 
Labor authority to determine the fair 
value of facilities furnished by the em- 
ployer on the basis of average cost to the 
employer or to groups of employers simi- 
larly situated, or average value to groups 
of employees, or other appropriate mea- 
sures of fair value. Another provides that 
the cost of board, lodging or other facilities 
must not be included as part of wages if 
excluded by a bona fide collective bar- 
gaining agreement. 

Two-step increases are also provided for 
presently covered employees in Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands, where minimum 
wage rates are established by wage orders 
issued by the Secretary of Labor on the 
recommendation of tripartite industry com- 
mittees. Existing wage rates are to be 
increased by 15 per cent within 60 days 
after the effective date of the 1961 amend- 
ments or one year after the effective date 
of the most recent wage order, whichever 
is later, unless an appeal is made. Two 
years after the 15-per-cent increase has 
become effective, rates are to be further 
increased by an amount equal to 10 per 
cent of the rate or rates in effect when the 
1961 amendments came into force. 

Either of the percentage increases re- 
ferred to above may be superseded by the 
rates prescribed in a wage order issued by 
the Secretary on the recommendation of a 
review committee. Such a committee may 
be appointed on the application of employ- 
ers employing a majority of employees in 
an industry. If, after considering the finan- 
cial data and other information submitted 
with the application, the Secretary believes 
that the percentage increases will substan- 
tially curtail employment in the industry he 



may appoint a review committee, which 
may recommend a rate or rates in lieu of 
the applicable percentage increase. 

The Act further provides no special 
industry committee may hold any hearing 
within one year after a minimum rate for 
such an industry has been recommended to 
the Secretary by a review committee. 

Minimum rates for newly protected 
workers in Puerto Rico and the Virgin 
Islands are to be established by wage 
orders recommended by special industry 
committees appointed by the Secretary of 
Labor within 60 days after the enactment 
of the amendments. 

Maximum Hours 

The 40-hour work week standard for 
employees now protected by the Act has 
been retained. 

No maximum hours requirements are 
established for newly covered workers for 
the first two years so that employers may 
make the initial adjustment to the $1 mini- 
mum wage before being required to pay 
a premium rate for overtime hours. Newly 
protected workers must be paid one and 
one-half times their regular rates of pay 
after 44 hours during the third year, after 
42 hours during the fourth year and after 
40 hours thereafter. 

Child Labour 

The prohibition against the employment 
of oppressive child labour has been extended 
to newly covered enterprises. 

Other Provisions 

In addition to raising the minimum wage 
and expanding coverage, the amending Act 
also introduced several other new features. 
One new provision reflects the concern felt 
by some members of Congress about the 
upward trend in imports of types of pro- 
ducts produced in the United States by 
relatively low-wage firms. It directs the 
Secretary to make investigations whenever 
he has reason to believe that in any 
industry under the Act the competition 
of foreign producers has resulted or is 
likely to result in increased unemployment. 
If he finds that increased unemployment 
has in fact resulted or is likely to result 
he must make a full and complete report 
of his findings to the President. In this 
report he may include pertinent informa- 
tion on the increased employment resulting 
from additional exports in any industry 
under the Act. 

Another new provision requires the Secre- 
tary to study the complicated system of 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



701 



exemptions now available under the Act require the payment of minimum wages 
for handling and processing of agricultural and overtime not paid in compliance with 
products, as well as the complex problems the law except where an employee has re- 
involving rates of pay of employees in quested such action. According to the 
hotels, motels, restaurants and other food House Labor Committee, this limitation 
service enterprises presently exempted from impeded the Secretary in his efforts to 
the Act. When he makes his annual report enforce the Act, since many employees who 
to Congress in January 1962, giving his were not paid in accordance with the law 
evaluation of minimum wages, he must were hesitant about requesting legal action 
include a special report containing the against their employers. The amended Act 
results of this study, together with recom- authorizes the federal courts, in injunction 
mendations for further legislation to sim- proceedings brought by the Secretary of 
plify and remove inequities in the applica- Labor, to order the payment of the actual 
tion of these exemptions. amount of unpaid minimum wages or 
Two other amendments were designed to overtime compensation. However, once a 
establish a more effective method of en- complaint is filed by the Secretary, the 
forcing an employee's rights. Until now, employee is now prohibited from initiating 
the Secretary has had no authority to a private action to recover the amount due. 



Trade Analyses Published by the Department of Labour 

These analyses consist of an orderly listing of the essential operations that a 
fully trained journeyman should be able to perform and also the items of related 
knowledge that facilitate the doing of those operations. 

The following analyses are available at 50 cents per copy (except the Machinist, 
which is $2.50) from: The Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, 
Ont. 

Year of Catalogue 
Issue No. 

Analysis of the Carpentry Trade* 1955 L39-155 

Analysis of the Bricklaying Trade (out of print) 1956 L39-256 

Analysis of the Machinist's Trade* 1956 L39-356 

Analysis of the Plastering Trade 1956 L39-456 

Analysis of the Plumbing Trade 1956 L39-557 

Analysis of the Motor Vehicle Repair Trade (Me- 
chanical)* 1957 L39-657 

Analysis of the Sheet Metal Trade 1957 L39-757 

Analysis of the Motor Vehicle Trade (Body) .... 1958 L39-858 

Analysis of the Electrical Construction Trade .... 1958 L39-958 

Analysis of the Painting and Decorating Trade .... 1959 L39-1059 

Analysis of the Heavy Duty Repair Trade 1959 L39-1159 

Analysis of the Welding Trade 1959 L39-1259 

Analysis of the Steamfitting and Air Condition- 
ing Trade 1960 L39-1360 

Analysis of the Commercial Cooking Trade .... 1960 L39-1460 

Analysis of the Toolmaking Trade 1960 L39-1560 

Analysis of the Radio & TV Servicing Trade .... 1960 L39-1660 
Analysis of the Refrigeration and Air Condition- 
ing Trade 1961 L39-1760 

Analysis of the Linemen Trade (Electrical Utility) t 



♦Under Revision — a new edition being prepared. 
tTo be issued in 1961. 



702 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers, such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal industries, 
increase in area population, influence of 
weather conditions, and the general employ- 
ment situation. 

Claimants should not be interpreted either 
as "total number of beneficiaries" or "total 
job applicants". 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Number of claimants for unemployment insurance benefit at end of April down 
125,000 from month earlier total but virtually unchanged from April 1960 total, 
statistics* show. Fewer initial and renewal claims during April than March 

Claimantst for unemployment insurance 
benefit on April 28 numbered 713,100; 
this was a decline of 125,000 from the 
March 31 total of 838,000 but virtually 
unchanged from last year's April 29 count 
of 714,900. 

Regular claimants on April 28 totalled 
466,400, a decrease of 106,000 from the 
end of March and of 19,900 from the 
figure on April 29, 1960. 

Seasonal benefit claimants numbered 
246,800 on April 28 as against 265,800 on 
March 31; one year ago, their number 
was 228,600. 

At the end of April the average claimant 
had been on continuous claim 14.5 weeks; 
for males the average was 14.2 weeks and 
for females 15.4 weeks. Almost one quar- 
ter of claimants had been reporting con- 
tinuously for more than 20 weeks, as of 
April 28. This proportion was higher for 
females than for males: 30 per cent of 
women and only 22 per cent of men were 
thus classified. 

Initial and Renewal Claims 

A total of 209,600 initial and renewal 
claims was filed during April, almost 
50,000 fewer than in March and 5,000 
below the 214,600 claims filed in April 
1960. 

About one half of the 144,000 initial 
claims filed in April was estimated to be 
from claimants terminating regular benefit 
and requesting re-establishment of credits, 
under regular or seasonal benefit. About 



•See Tables E-l to E-5 at back of this issue. 

tA claimant's unemployment register is placed in 
the "live file" at the local office as soon as the 
claim is forwarded for computation. As a result, 
the count of claimants at any given time inev- 
itably includes some whose claims are in process. 
During the seasonal benefit period, claims in process 
are classed as regular until the computation of their 
contribution credits indicates otherwise. 



80 per cent of these would be granted an 
extension under the seasonal benefit § pro- 
visions, Class B. 

Beneficiaries and Benefit Payments 

The average weekly estimate of benefi- 
ciaries in April was 708,200, compared with 
807,100 in March and 732,900 in April 
1960. 

Benefit payments amounted to $64.5 mil- 
lion in April as against $85.2 million* 
during March and $61.8 million during 
April 1960. 

The average weekly benefit was $23.98 in 
April, $23.99 in March, and $22.18 in 
April 1960. 

Insurance Registrations 

This year the annual renewal of insur- 
ance books took place during May. Con- 
sequently, the usual statistics on the number 
of insurance books and contribution cards 
issued to employees for the month ending 
April 30, 1961 are not available. These 
figures will again be available as of May 
31, 1961 and, being cumulative, they will 
include all new entrants to the insured 
population from April 1, 1961. 

§Seasonal benefit Class A is inoperative on claims 
filed after March 31; however, claimants terminat- 
ing on regular and unable to re-establish under the 
regular provisions would qualify automatically for 
seasonal benefit Class B. 

*In order to obtain a fiscal year balance on pay- 
ments, the March data include supplementary pay- 
ments which, in other months, would be included 
in the month following. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



703 



On April 30, 1961, registered employers 
numbered 332,394, an increase of 399 since 
March 31, 1961. 

Enforcement Statistics 

During April, 7,657 investigations were 
conducted by enforcement officers across 
Canada. Of these, 4,077 were spot checks 
of postal and counter claims to verify the 
fulfilment of statutory conditions and 192 
were miscellaneous investigations. The re- 
maining 3,388 were investigations in con- 
nection with claimants suspected of making 
false statements to obtain benefits. 

Prosecutions t were begun in 195 cases, 
30 against employers and 165 against claim- 



ants. Punitive disqualificationst as a result 
of false statements or misrepresentations 
numbered 2,510. 

Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue received in April totalled $22,- 
590,150.58, compared with $29,244,851.64* 
in March and $22,194,917.24 in April 1960. 

Benefits paid in April totalled $64,540,- 
209.48 compared with $85,187,925.98 in 
March and $61,767,880.26 in April 1960. 

The balance in the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Fund on April 30 was $143,651,- 
927.75; on March 31 it was $184,684,- 
852.66* and on April 30, 1960 it was 
$326,319,269.93. 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUB-1823, March 23, 1961 

Summary of the Main Facts: The claim- 
ant, 46 years of age, filed a renewal appli- 
cation for benefit on August 15, 1960, and 
was registered for employment as a sewing 
machine operator (pocket maker), an 
occupation in which she had 26 years of 
experience. She stated that she had been 
employed one day (July 8, 1960) on 
pocket work for Company A, Toronto, 
Ont., at a wage of $1.00 an hour and that 
she was laid off because of "lack of work — 
on call". 

She stated also: ". . . would not have 
returned if I had been called as the pay 
was too low for that type of work. As a 
skilled pocket maker I should have re- 
ceived $1.50 per hour — just staying home 
and seeking work since July 8, 1960 — avail- 
able for work." 

The claim was allowed. Previous to 
this, she had worked as a sewing machine 
operator one day (June 20, 1960) for 
the aforementioned employer and volun- 
tarily left. Before that, she was employed 
as a sewing machine operator with another 
employer, at $75.00 a week (piece work), 
from October 26, 1958 to April 22, 1960, 
when she again voluntarily left as she 
considered the machine she was operating 
was defective. In both of these instances, 
she was disqualified by the insurance officer 
for a period of six weeks. 

On October 5, 1960, the Commission's 
local office notified the claimant of an offer 
of continuing employment as an operator 
(pockets) for a manufacturer of men's 



clothing in the city of Toronto, the earn- 
ings being reckoned by the piece and 
averaging $50.00 a week, which allegedly 
was in accordance with the prevailing rate 
in the district for that type of work. The 
hours of work were eight a day and 40 
a week, day work. 

She refused to accept the offer because 
on arrival at the job the foreman said 
she might be able to earn $40.00 a week 
but he could not guarantee it and, being 
a skilled pocket maker, she wanted a guar- 
anteed starting wage of $50.00 a week, if 
the earnings were reckoned by the piece. 
The local office commented that the claim- 
ant was a skilled and fast operator and that 
the foreman was not aware of her poten- 
tialities; that had she given the job a trial, 
she would have proved to herself that she 
could have earned a wage which would 
have been satisfactory to her. 

The insurance officer disqualified the 
claimant from October 2 to November 12, 
1960, because in his opinion, she had, 
without good cause, refused to accept a 
situation in suitable employment (section 
59 (1) (a) of the Act). 

On October 24, 1960, the claimant 
appealed to a board of referees and stated 
that at the time she was offered the job 
she told the lady who interviewed her at 
the Commission's local office that she was 
a skilled pocket maker and would accept 
a wage of $1.25 an hour; that when she 
spoke to the foreman at the plant he told 
her that the firm handled a cheaper line 



tThese do not necessarily relate to the investi- 
gations conducted during this period. 



*This revised final figure for March 1961 includes 
supplementary figures not included in the interim 
report published in the June issue. 



704 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



of pants and, therefore, could not meet her 
average wage. So, in view of this, she 
refused the offer. 

A board of referees heard the case in 
Toronto on November 25, 1960. The 
claimant attended the hearing and admitted 
that she did not pursue the details of the 
employment offered beyond the amount of 
money she would have been guaranteed. 
The board also got in touch with the em- 
ployer, from whom it was established that 
a union shop existed at the plant; that the 
claimant had been guaranteed a minimum 
wage of $38.00 a week and that it would 
have depended on her speed and ability 
as to how much money she might have 
earned beyond this sum. 

The board, by a majority decision, dis- 
missed the appeal and maintained the dis- 
qualification imposed by the insurance 
officer. In so doing, the majority members 
expressed the opinion that the claimant 
should have given the job a trial in order 
to establish what her earning power might 
be. The said members also took cognizance 
of the claimant's prolonged period of unem- 
ployment. 

The dissenting member of the board was 
of the opinion that if the claimant, a 
"pocket operator" for 26 years in a better 
grade of work, had accepted the job, she 
would have been downgraded and for that 
reason, the claim for benefit should be 
allowed. 

In a memorandum on file, a placement 
officer of the Commission explained, in 
the following terms, the method of arriving 
at (a) the average wage of $50.00 a week 
for operators at the place of employment 
and (b) the prevailing rate of pay: 

The Placement Officer secured the informa- 
tion that the average wage rate at Z 

Clothing, for an operator, was $50 per week 
by taking a survey of the 701s in her (the 
placement officer's) file and checking for the 
average weekly earnings shown by applicants 
who had been employed at Z Clothing. 

The prevailing rate was arrived at by taking 
a survey of the average weekly rates indicated 
on orders for people in this occupational cate- 
gory and by verifying this by checking average 
weekly earnings. This was also confirmed by 
a telephone call to a union official. 

Union shops pay all their operators on a 
piece work basis and the rate is set by the 
Union. Z Clothing is a union shop. 

The claimant appealed to the Umpire. 

Considerations and Conclusions: Section 
59 of the Act, which provides, among other 
things, that an insured person is disqualified 
from receiving benefit if he has without 
good cause refused to accept suitable em- 
ployment, provides also that employment 
is not suitable for a claimant if it is 

(2) (b) employment in his usual occupation 
either at a lower rate of earnings or on condi- 
tions less favourable than those observed by 



agreement between employers and employees, 
or in the absence of any such agreement, than 
those recognized by good employers . . . 

In the present case, the employment 
offered was in the claimant's usual occupa- 
tion of sewing machine operator and there 
is prima facie evidence that it was not at a 
lower rate of earnings nor on conditions 
less favourable than stated in the above 
quoted subsection (2) (b). Therefore, as 
the claimant has failed to adduce evidence 
to the contrary, I must conclude that the 
employment which was notified to her on 
October 5, 1960, was suitable within the 
meaning of the Act. 

Furthermore, in the absence of evidence 
to disprove the placement officer's explana- 
tion as to how the average wage of $50 a 
week was arrived at, I consider that her 
reason for refusing it, viz., that the em- 
ployer could not, in effect, guarantee her 
a starting wage of $50 a week, did not con- 
stitute good cause within the meaning of 
the Act under the circumstances. The best 
way she could ascertain whether she would 
be able to earn $50 a week was not by 
merely asking the employer, who apparently 
had no particular knowledge of her long 
experience and ability in the occupation, 
but by giving the employment a fair trial. 

For the above reasons, I decide to dis- 
miss the claimant's appeal. 

Decision CUB-1827, March 23, 1961 

Summary of the Main Facts: The claim- 
ant, 54 years of age, filed a renewal appli- 
cation for benefit on November 2, 1960, 
and was registered for employment as a 
bus driver. He stated in his application 
that he had been employed as such at a 
salary of $60 a week from September 6 
to October 31, 1960, when he was dismissed 
because he refused to drive a school bus 
that, in his opinion, was not road-worthy. 

The employer reported that the claimant 
had "refused to do what he was paid to 
do." Later, he commented: 

Employee was paid to drive and look after 
the vehicle. He claimed he was paid only to 
drive. He left the vehicle in darn bad con- 
dition, which I discovered after he was dis- 
charged. As to "roadworthy condition" the 
Department of Transport inspected the vehicle 
and could find nothing wrong with it mechan- 
ically. I have no further comment to make. 

Following a request from the local office 
of the Commission for further information, 
the claimant replied: 

It was not safe for me or the children to 
ride in this bus which was a converted station 
wagon. To get the breaks fixed, after 5 days 

not in operation, I had to go to Mrs , 

who is owner of the school. She confirmed my 
statement by phoning the garage, who, in turn, 
ordered the bus off the road till fixed. The 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



705 



breaks since have been fixed. There were many 
other things to be fixed such as chassis to be 
straightened, doors not in working order, front 
axle twisted, very bad steering and broken 
windshield. 

On November 22, 1960, the insurance 
officer notified the claimant that he was 
disqualified for a period of six weeks, 
namely, from October 30 to December 10, 
1960, because, in his opinion, the claimant 
had lost his employment by reason of his 
own misconduct (section 60(1) of the 
Act). 

The claimant appealed to a board of 
referees and stated that the vehicle in ques- 
tion was not a bus; that the regular seats 
had been removed and replaced with boards 
to accommodate more children. 

In a subsequent communication, the 
claimant supplied additional details regard- 
ing the defective condition of the vehicle. 

The board of referees heard the case in 
Toronto on December 30, 1960. The em- 
ployer was present at the hearing but the 
claimant did not attend. The majority mem- 
bers of the board, on the strength of the 
evidence on file and that given orally by 
the employer at the hearing, dismissed the 
appeal and maintained the disqualification 
that had been imposed by the insurance 
officer. 

The dissenting member of the board ex- 
pressed the following opinion: 

I cannot agree with the majority decision of 
the Board because, on the basis of the evidence 
presented, I believe that the claimant exercised 
good judgment in refusing to drive the vehicle 
in its condition at the time of his dismissal. 

Mr , the claimant's former employer, 

appeared before the Board and submitted oral 
testimony but, in my opinion, only strengthened 
the position of the claimant. It was unfor- 
tunate, I believe, that the claimant did not also 
appear because it is probable that he could 
have further strengthened his position and my 
colleagues might well have found in his favour. 



Mr spoke of expecting his driver 

to effect minor running repairs, but the state 
of the vehicle, by the employer's own testimony, 
required attention beyond this scope, and he 
said nothing to refute the claimant's testimony 
that he was dismissed for refusing to drive the 
vehicle in this condition. There may have been 
a variety of other reasons for his dismissal at 
other times, but the facts as presented to the 
Board, indicate that he was dismissed for 

refusing to drive the vehicle. Mr , in 

attempting to substantiate his reasons for dis- 
charging the claimant, agreed that the vehicle 
was in "darn bad condition", i.e. brakes in 
need of repair, chassis broken, bad steering, 
etc. It is likely that the Department of Trans- 
port inspected the vehicle after these repairs 
were effected. I submit that the owner of the 
vehicle has an obligation to be aware of its 
roadability regardless of the activities of his 
employee. 

Decision against employees in such matters 
would tend to discourage them from taking 
this course of action in the future and, where 
the safety of the public is involved, such actions 
should be encouraged, not the reverse. 

I, therefore, find that the claimant's appeal 
should be allowed and the disqualification 
lifted. 

The claimant appealed to the Umpire on 
January 16, 1961. 

Considerations and Conclusions: The 

record shows that the motor vehicle which 
was used to transport children to and 
from school, and which the claimant re- 
fused to continue driving, was in such 
unsafe condition that to keep operating it 
in that condition would definitely not have 
been in the interest of public safety. 

Under these circumstances and also 
because it has not been established that 
the claimant was responsible for letting 
the vehicle get in such condition or for 
having the defective or dangerous condi- 
tion corrected, I consider that his refusal 
was justified. 

I consequently decide to reverse the 
decision of the board of referees and to 
allow the claimant's appeal. 



706 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



LABOUR CONDITIONS IN FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during May 
Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During May the Department of Labour prepared 279 wage schedules for inclusion 
in contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and 
its Crown Corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 228 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the 
contract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under the heading provide 
that: 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not exempted 
from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation of the work, 
wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by provincial 
legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in May for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows: 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

C.M.H.C 1 $ 2,118.80 

Defence Construction (1951) Ltd 4 632,422.60 

Defence Production 131 864,490.00 

Post Office 12 329,293.85 

R.C.M.P 9 58,093.23 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour 
legislation of the federal Government has 
the purpose of insuring that all Government 
contracts for works of construction and for 
the manufacture of supplies and equipment 
contain provisions to secure the payment of 
wages generally accepted as fair and reason- 
able in each trade or classification employed 
in the district where the work is being per- 
formed. 

The practice of Government departments 
and those Crown corporations to which the 
legislation applies, before entering into con- 
tracts for any work of construction, re- 
modelling, repair or demolition, is to obtain 
wage schedules from the Department of 
Labour showing the applicable wage rate 
for each classification of workmen deemed 
to be required in the execution of the work. 



These wage schedules are thereupon in- 
cluded with other relevant labour condi- 
tions as terms of such contracts to be 
observed by the contractors. 

Wage schedules are not included in con- 
tracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
equipment because it is not possible to 
determine in advance the classification to 
be employed in the execution of a contract. 
A statement of the labour conditions which 
must be observed in every such contract 
is however, included therein and is of the 
same nature and effect as those which apply 
in works of construction. 

Copies of the federal Government's Fair 
Wages and Hours of Labour legislation 
may be had upon request to the Industrial 
Relations Branch of the Department of 
Labour, Ottawa. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



707 



(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and equip- 
ment provide that: 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those established 
by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 

(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district, 
or if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during May 

During May the sum of $6,141.30 was collected from eight contractors for wage 
arrears due their employees arising out of the failure of the contractors, or their 
subcontractors, to apply the wage rates and other conditions of employment required 
by the schedule of labour conditions forming part of their conract. This amount is for 
distribution to the 235 workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during May 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Near Oulook Sask: Peter Kiewit Sons Co of Canada Ltd, Al Johnson Construction 
Co of Canada Ltd & Poole Construction Co Ltd, construction of upstream tunnels, South 
Saskatchewan River Dam. Saskatoon Sask: Saskatchewan General Electric Co Ltd, instal- 
lation of electrical transformer & equipment in headerhouse, Research Station. Prince 
George B C: Thompson Construction Co Ltd, construction of sheep shed (pole type), 
Experimental Farm. 

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 

Chalk River Ont: John Kovacs, * crack filling & painting gyproc & wood trim of 
ceilings & walls of Bldg 404; Walter G Mansveld, *painting exterior of 17 bldgs; J C 
Sulpher Construction Ltd, *repairing exterior of brick parapet of Bldgs 100 & 150; 
Walter G Mansveld, *vacuum & wipe cleaning of Bldg 145; Irving Harding Ltd, ♦com- 
pleting roofing & flashing of Bldgs 100 & 150. Deep River Ont: John Kovacs, *painting 
interior of 29 houses & 5 apts; Rene Robitaille, painting exterior of houses & other 
Crown-owned bldgs. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Montreal Que: M J Lalonde Ltd, *recovering of kitchen & bathroom floors & 
kitchen counter tops, Villeray Terrace. Fort Erie Ont: J D St Clair, * exterior painting 
of 26 houses (5/48). Guelph Ont: C C Hill, *exterior painting of 43 houses (4/49). 
Hespeler Ont: Dohmen Painting, * exterior painting of 18 houses (3/48). Kitchener Ont: 
C C Hill, * exterior painting of 56 houses (2/48). Peterborough Ont: Cardinal Painting 
& Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of 126 housing units (VR 10/48 & 11/49). 
Stamford Ont: C C Hill,* exterior painting of 15 houses (2/48). Thorold Ont: C C Hill, 
♦exterior painting of 28 houses (1/48). Windsor Ont: Green Lawn Co, *landscaping 
repairs (12/48 & 13/49). Lloydminster Sask: W M Dunk, *exterior painting of houses 
(1/48). Moose Jaw Sask: Ashton & Ware, *exterior painting of 115 housing units (VR 
7/48). North Battleford Sask: W M Dunk, *exterior painting of houses (3/48). Prince 
Albert Sask: Alf T Dodge & Son, *exterior painting of houses (4/48). Swift Current Sask: 
Roy A Belbin, *exterior painting of houses (1/48). Yorkton Sask: E W Wallace, *exterior 
painting of houses (4/48). Edmonton, Red Deer & Ponoka Aha: Ideal Paving & Con- 
struction Co, * asphalt paving. Chilliwack B C: Smith Bros & Wilson Ltd, * lagging of water 
pipe in six unit blocks (DND 4/58). Vancouver B C: R G Kelly, general carpentry 
repairs, Fraserview & Renfrew No 3 Housing Projects; D R McCallum, general plumbing 
repairs, Fraserview & Renfrew No 3 Housing Projects; D R McCallum, *oil furnace 
service contract to houses; Arli Contracting, *roofing service contract to houses; Trasolini 
& Bros Ltd, *site improvement, Terraces. 

708 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 196 1 



Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Nakina Indian Agency Ont: City Electric, electrical wiring & construction of diesel 
electric power plant, Constance Lake IR, Constance Lake. Nelson River Indian Agency 
Man: Keewatin Electric Ltd, installation of electrical generating equipment & related 
work at Ilford. Fort Vermilion Indian Agency Aha: Van Vliet Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of water supply system & alterations to sewage disposal system, Fort Ver- 
milion. Fort St John Indian Agency B C: Ralph Meachem, construction of ten houses, 
Halfway River Indian Reserve No 168. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Torbay Nfld: Trynor Construction Co Ltd, shoulder grading of runways & drainage 
extension, RCAF Station. Summerside P E I: County Construction Co Ltd, extension to 
armament bldg. Halifax N S: Al Parelman Ltd, replacement of roof slab, Bldg D-64, 
HMC Dockyard; James F Lahey Ltd, exterior painting of 81 apartment bldgs, Shannon 
Park. Newport Corners N S: C W Stone Ltd, supply & installation of tower ladder 
safety devices. Churchill Man: Matheson Bros Ltd, construction of permanent fire hall 
bldg. Prince George B C: Thompson Construction Co Ltd, sheathing & insulating walls 
& ceiling of drill hall. Vedder Crossing B C: Mott Electric Ltd, improvements to fire 
alarm system, RCSME. 

Building and Maintenance 

Summerside P E I: Curran & Briggs Ltd, repairs to pavement & application of slurry 
seal; County Tile Ltd, re-shingling of 16 bldgs; Curran & Briggs Ltd, asphalt surfacing 
of access road to RX/TX bldg, RCAF Station. Barriefield Ont: T A Andre & Sons Ltd, 
construction of No 3 sewage lift station. Centralia Ont: Cardinal Painting & Decorating 
Co Ltd, exterior painting of 91 PMQ's, RCAF Station. Lakeview Ont: Armstrong Bros Co 
Ltd, repairs to main roads & seal coating, No 15 ROD. Petawawa Ont: Walker Painting 
& Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of 88 MDPA's & 35 bldgs in Camp. Churchill Man: 
Matheson Bros Ltd, repair of fire damaged bldg L-5. Shilo Man: Erwin Radeke, interior 
painting of 107 PMQ's, Camp. Winnipeg Man: Tallman Construction Co Ltd, hangar 
apron extension, RCAF Station; The Hi-Grade Heating & Sheet Metal Ltd, supply & 
installation of eavestroughs for 361 PMQ's. Saskatoon Sask: Park & Derochie Decorating 
Co Ltd, exterior painting of 62 PMQ's. 

Department of Defence Production 

Greenwood N S: Hazelwood Bros, interior maintenance painting of PMQ's, RCAF 
Station. Halifax N S: Dean's Nursery Ltd, * application of brush kill & soil sterilization, 
Albro Lake, Mt Uniacke receiver & sterilazation sites. McNab's Island N S: Standard 
Construction Co Ltd, cribwork replacement, Garrison Pier. Clinton Ont: F E Dayus Co 
Ltd, re-roofing, RCAF Station; D A Kay & Son, painting, RCAF Station. Kingston Ont: 
Kingston Painting & Decorating Services, repairing, plastering & interior painting of areas 
in Yeo Hall. Orleans Ont: Frost Steel & Wire Co Ltd, installation of fence at VPG. 
Ottawa Ont: H J McFarland Construction Co Ltd, road repairs at Connaught Rifle Range. 
Picton Ont: Malach Roofing & Flooring Ltd, re-roofing Bldgs Nos 7, 9, 16, 28, 46 & 49, 
Camp. Trenton Ont: Walter F MacCormack, painting of bldgs at No 6 Repair Depot, 
RCAF Station; Mosler Taylor Safes Ltd, supply & installation of security guardhouse 
doors & frames with emergency release devices, RCAF Station; T J C Home Products 
Ltd, supply & installation of 150 aluminum self storing storm & screen doors, RCAF 
Station. Uplands Ont: O'Leary's (1956) Ltd, paving roads, RCAF Station. Brandon Man: 
Newton Electric Ltd, repairs to heating system & controls at Armouries. Gimli Man: 
Sheridan Industries Ltd, supply & installation of aluminum windows, RCAF Station; Stan's 
Painting & Decorating Contractors, interior painting of PMQ's, RCAF Station. Prince 
Albert Sask: Botting & Dent Ltd, conversion of low pressure steam boilers from coal to 
gas-oil firing in Armoury. Saskatoon Sask: Asphalt Services Ltd, surfacing, paving, trim- 
ming & compacting three parking lots, RCAF Station. Penhold Alta: Park & Derochie 
Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of 68 PMQ's, RCAF Station. Comox B C: Richards- 
Wilcox Canadian Co Ltd, supply & installation of electrically operated door in Bldg No 
101, RCAF Station. Esquimalt B C: Old Country Industrial Contractors Ltd, painting 
interior & exterior of Bldg 190-190A, HMC Dockyard; M P Paine Co, improvements to 
roads (asphalt) & sidewalks (concrete), New South Gate area, HMCS Naden. Kamloops 
B C: Kamloops Insulators & Roofers Ltd, re-roofing, reflashing & renewal of sheet metal 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 709 

97053-3—7 



ventilators, pipe sleeves, chimney flashings & removal & re-installation of upper air 
terminal on lightning protective system on roofs of bldgs. Vancouver B C: Hugo Lantos, 
Continental Painters & Decorators, exterior painting of bldgs. 

National Harbours Board 

Montreal Que: Forested Products Ltd, partial dust control system, Elevator No 1; 
Industrial Maintenance Ltd, complete scraping, wire brushing, cleaning, priming & 
painting of steelwork above & below deck of part of main span of Jacques Cartier 
Bridge. 

Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources 

Fort Amherst P E I: Wilson & Moore Ltd, *installation of heating system for care- 
taker's residence, near Alma N B: Conniston Construction Co Ltd, landscape planting 
in motel area, Fundy National Park. Elk Island National Park Alta: Star Blacktop Ltd, 
supplying, hauling, heating, spraying & storing asphalt on roads. 

Post Office Department 

Ottawa Ont: Acousticon Dictograph Co, installation of intercommunication system 
in Post Office Administration Bldgs, Riverside Drive. Winnipeg Man: Maclvor Electronics 
Ltd, * modification of music & public address system, Post Office Bldg. 

Department of Public Works 

Black Duck Cove Nfld: Avalon Construction & Engineering Ltd, construction of 
wharf. Botwood Nfld: R A Douglas Ltd, wharf reconstruction. Cow Head Nfld: J as E 
Shears & Sons, breakwater improvements. Isle aux Morts Nfld: Diamond Construction 
(1955) Ltd, construction of wharf. Lord's Cove Nfld: Wm A Trask Ltd, construction of 
wharf. Petty Harbour Nfld: Wm O'Reilly, harbour improvements. St John's Nfld: Argo 
Construction Ltd, construction of Veterans' Wing Pavilion, St John's General Hospital. 
L'Anse au Loup Labrador: Avalon Construction & Engineering Ltd, construction of wharf 
& shed. Williams Harbour Labrador: Twillingate Engineering & Construction Co Ltd, 
construction of community stage. Clarke's Harbour N S: Mosher & Rawding Ltd, wharf 
repairs. Comeau's Hill N S: Mosher & Rawding Ltd, construction of rock talus. Dartmouth 
N S: Oxford Desk Ltd, installation of new laboratory, Oceanographic-Hydrographic 
Research Station. Pictou N S: R K Chappell Construction Ltd, harbour improvements — 
(reconstruction of Pier "C"); Lewis S Munsie, repairs to derrick. Port M ait land N S: 
Wm Benjamin Hall, breakwater repairs. Rockdale N S: L G & M H Smith Ltd, wharf 
repairs. Boyne's Cove N B: Fundy Contractors Ltd, construction of wharf. Edmundston 
N B: Diamond Construction (1955) Ltd, repairs to International Bridge. Escuminac N B: 
Fundy Contractors Ltd, breakwater improvements. Florenceville N B: Coronet Paving 
Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Richibucto Cape N B: Leo LeBlanc, wharf repairs. 
Bagotville Que: J A Simard, construction of protection works. Berthier en Bas Que: 
Ovila Boucher, construction of protection works. Deschambault Que: Rosaire Savard, wharf 
repairs. Gaspe (Sandy Beach) Que: Couga Construction Ltee, wharf improvements. La 
Tabatiere Que: Landry Construction Inc, wharf extension. Les Ecureuils Que: Rosaire 
Savard, construction of protection works. Magog Que: Les Entreprises Jean R Denoncourt 
Enrg, repairs to retaining walls. Montreal Que: Paul Bechard, removal of garbage & 
ashes from federal bldgs; J R Robillard Ltee, alterations to Packard Bldg. Paint Hills Que: 
Ron Construction Co Ltd, construction of nursing station & power house. Ste Croix Que: 
Plessis Construction Ltd, extension to protection wall. St Damien de Buckland Que: 
Fernand Pichette, construction of post office. St Donat (Lac Archambault) Que: Danis 
Construction Inc, construction of wharf. St Irenee Que: Patrick Villeneuve, repairs to 
concrete walls of wharf approach. St Louis de Lotbiniere Que: Plessis Construction Ltd, 
construction of protection works. Belle River Ont: Dean Construction Co Ltd, recon- 
struction of training wall. Burlington Ont: Canadian Dredge & Dock Co Ltd, pier recon- 
struction, Channel. Cobourg Ont: The RulifT Grass Construction Co Ltd, repairs to 
Langevin Pier. Fort Albany Ont: J M Fuller Ltd, construction of Health Centre. Hamilton 
Ont: City Window Cleaning Co, cleaning windows of federal bldgs; Canadian Dredge & 
Dock Co Ltd, pier extension, Wellington St Wharf. Ottawa Ont: J H Lock & Sons Ltd, 
supply & installation of air conditioning system, "B" Bldg, Cartier Square; Tippett- 
Richardson (Ottawa) Ltd, moving furniture, equipment, machinery, etc, from National 
Research Council, Montreal Road & Rideau Annex Bldg to new Communications Bldg, 
Riverside Drive; Louis G Fortin Construction, general repairs, DPW Testing Laboratory, 

710 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796? 



Riverside Drive; James More & Sons Ltd, construction of header house, CEF; Louis G 
Fortin Construction, alterations to steel partitioning, Veterans Memorial Bldg; Beaudoin 
Construction Ltd, alternations to No 3 Temporary Bldg, Lyon St; Canadian Comstock 
Co Ltd, supply & installation of fume hood exhaust fans & related work, Food & Drug 
Bldg, Tunney's Pasture; Lord & Burnham Co Ltd, alterations to greenhouses Nos 1, 2, 
4 & passages, Plant Research Institute, Experimental Farm. Parry Sound Ont: Ontario 
Marine & Dredging Ltd, wharf improvements (smelter wharf). Pelee Island Ont: Dean 
Construction Co Ltd, wharf repairs. Toronto Ont: L C Scott Construction Co Ltd, addition 
to Postal Station "N"; New York Window Cleaning Co Ltd, cleaning windows of various 
federal bldgs. Banff National Park Alta: Thode Construction Ltd, paving, Mile 14 to Mile 
32, Trans-Canada Highway; General Construction Co (Alberta) Ltd, paving, Mile 32 
to Mile 51.1, Trans-Canada Highway. Killam Alta: G H Roberts Construction Ltd, con- 
struction of RCMP detachment quarters. Fort St James B C: Hay's Contracting Ltd, & 
Omineca Towing Co, wharf repairs. Lytton B C: Burdett Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of RCMP detachment quarters & garage. Merritt B C: State Construction & 
Engineering Ltd, alterations & additions, federal bldg. Nanaimo B C: Geo H Watson, 
alterations & additions to partitions & interior repainting at federal bldg. Vancouver B C: 
The Fraser River Pile Driving Co Ltd, immigration wharf reconstruction. Victoria B C: 
Pacific Piledriving Co Ltd, harbour repairs (Erie St). Cambridge Bay N W T: Don Stewart 
Sheet Metal Ltd, installation of heating system in doctor's residence & nursing station; 
Fuller & Knowles Co Ltd, installation of plumbing system in doctor's residence & nursing 
station. Spence Bay N W T: Barry Sheet Metal Co Ltd, installation of plumbing & 
heating systems, Nursing Station & Warehouse; Mercier & Germaine Co Ltd, installation 
of electrical system, Nursing Station & warehouse. Tuktoyaktuk N W T: Danbrook & 
Pelland Plumbing & Heating Ltd, installation of heating system, Nursing Station; Billy 
Plumbing & Heating Ltd, installation of plumbing system, Nursing Station. Flat Creek- 
Eagle Plain Y T: General Enterprises Ltd, re-erection of Bailey Bridge, Mile 0.2, 
Development Road. 

Contracts Containing the General Fair Wages Clause 

Ferry land Nfld: Avalon Construction & Engineering Ltd, dredging. Bailey's Brook N S: 
R A Douglas Ltd, dredging. Digby N S: Saint John Dredging Co Ltd, dredging. Glace Bay 
N S: Harriss & Harriss, redredging. Halifax N S: Walker & Hill, repairs to jetty, Seaward 
Defence Base. Bathurst N B: Harbour Development Ltd, dredging. Campbellton N B: 
The J P Porter Co Ltd, dredging. St Stephen N B: D B Rigby, alterations & additions to 
federal bldg. Bale Comeau Que: Marine Industries Ltd, dredging. Grande Riviere Que: 
McNamara Marine Ltd, dredging. Hull Que: St-Cyr & Simard Ltd, repairs to Printing 
Bureau. Montreal Que New System Towel Supply Co Ltd, supply of cleaning equipment, 
sweeping tools & cloth service, various bldgs; Automatic Venetian Blind Laundry Ltd, 
laundering of Venetian blinds, various bldgs. Petit Saguenay Que: La Co-operative D'Elec- 
tricitee de Petit Saguenay, extension to lighting system. Roberval Que: Les Chantiers 
Bonneau Ltee, breakwater repairs. St Coeur de Marie Que: Alberie Boivin, wharf repairs. 
St Gedeon Que: Jos Ouellette, construction of hauling slip. Three Rivers Que: Laurent 
Bourasa, installation of partitions, federal bldg. Yamachiche River Que: Louiseville 
Generale Entreprise Enrg, dredging. Eastview Ont: Hallmark Bldg Cleaning Ltd, interior 
cleaning, Landriault Bldg. Fort William Ont: The J P Porter Co Ltd, dredging. Kingston 
Ont: Will-Mac Construction, asphalt paving of deck, Crawford Dock. Ottawa Ont: Standard 
Plumbing & Heating, supply & installation of copper silicon horizontal tank, 562 Booth 
St; Hill The Mover, moving boxes of maps, various bldgs; Geo Bolton Ltd, improvement 
to lighting, RCMP Bldg; Doran Construction Co Ltd, alterations to Citizenship Bldg; 
Able Construction Co Ltd, repairs to Prime Minister's Residence; A Lanctot Construction 
Co Ltd, alterations to Post Office workshop; William D'Aoust Construction Ltd, alterations 
to Archives Bldg; Andrews Bros Construction Ltd, repairs to Observatory, CEF; Arnold 
Construction, structural & electrical repairs, Booth Bldg; Acorn Realty Co Ltd, alterations 
to No 2 Temporary Bldg; Servant Electric, improvement to lighting, Forest Products 
Laboratory; Hubert Douglas, structural alterations, Hunter Bldg; Presley Painting & 
Decorating Co, redecoration (basement), Hunter Bldg; Rideau Construction, alterations 
to Centre Block Bldg; MacFarlane & Leblanc, improvements to lighting, No 6 Temporary 
Bldg; L A Legault & Son Co Ltd, improvement to lighting, Lome Bldg; Kenden Builders 
Ltd, alterations to Hunter Bldg. Toronto Ont: Andmorr Construction Ltd, general altera- 
tions to MacKenzie Bldg; McNamara Marine Ltd, dredging. Wheatley Ont: Dean Con- 
struction Co Ltd, dredging. Whitby Ont: McNamara Marine Ltd, dredging. Edmonton Alta: 
Cummings Welding Shop, supply & fabrication of spuds, pedestals, guides & gantries for 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 711 

97053-3— 1\ 



dredge No 250. Esquimau B C: Helgsend & Futcher, construction of base drainage, Sea- 
ward Defence. Victoria B C: Parfitt Construction Co Ltd, construction of Magnetometer 
Bldg, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. 

St. Lawrence Seaway Authority 

Cornwall Ont: Ontario Steeplejacks, painting of penthouses, SLSA Headquarters 
Office Bldg. 

Department ot Transport 

Boar Island Nfld: Beauchamp Hardware Ltd, construction of single dwelling & storage 
shed. Cape Bauld Nfld: Twillingate Engineering & Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
single dwelling & concrete light tower & demolition of existing tower. Marticot Island Nfld: 
S J Clark, construction of single dwelling, combined fog alarm & light tower & storage 
shed. Horton Bluff N S: Vincent M Babin, construction of two single dwellings, combined 
fog alarm bldg & light tower. Saint John N B: Wheaton Construction Co Ltd, construction 
of taxiway at Airport. Flat Island Que: Fernand & Eusebe Belanger, construction of double 
dwelling & fog alarm bldg. Great Whale River Que: Tyver Ltd, installation of services 
to bldg area & rehabilitation of living quarters. Montreal Que: Allied Building Services 
Ltd, cleaning of Air Terminal Bldgs. Port Harrison Que: The Tower Co (1961) Ltd, 
construction of remote transmitter bldg & installation of LF antenna system. Quebec Que: 
Sanitation Industrial & Maintenance Co, cleaning of Air Terminal Bldg, Airport; Union 
des Carriers & Pavages Ltee, strengthening of Runway 06-24, taxiways & parking apron, 
Airport, between Montreal & Quebec Que: McNamara Marine Ltd, * dredging in St 
Lawrence Ship Canal. Aylmer Ont: The Toten Construction Co Ltd, construction of VHF 
Omni Range Bldg & related work. Hope Island Ont: Konvey Construction Co Ltd, con- 
struction of single dwelling. Lamb Island Ont: John Anderson, construction of single 
dwelling, light tower & pump house & demolition of existing old combined dwelling & 
light tower. Malton Ont: Foundation Co of Canada Ltd, site services, Air Terminal Bldg, 
Toronto International Airport. Saskatoon Sask: Wappel Concrete & Construction Co Ltd, 
strengthening of runways & parking areas, Airport. Calgary Alta: D L Guthrie Con- 
struction, construction of NDB Bldg & related work. Edmonton Alta: McCormick Electric 
Ltd, construction of power supply to ILS bldgs including installation of single phase 
underground cable, International Airport; McCormick Electric Ltd, installation of under- 
ground three phase power cable & trenching & backfill for installation of AASR control 
cables, International Airport. Fort Nelson B C: Solar Construction Co Ltd, construction of 
standby powerhouse & related work, Airport. Gallows Point B C: Nummela Construction 
Co Ltd, construction of single dwelling. Prince Rupert B C: F B Stewart & Co Ltd, installa- 
tion of rotating beacon & related work, Airport. Vancouver B C: Stolberg Construction 
(1957) Ltd, construction of transmitter bldg (Lulu Island). Victoria B C: Yarrows Ltd, 
Construction of research vessel for Dept of Fisheries. Fort Smith N W T: Solar Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of maintenance garage & related work. Inuvik N W T.- 
Poole Construction Co Ltd, construction of Air Terminal Bldg & related work. 



Shortage of Skilled Workers Despite Unemployment 

Acute shortage of skilled workers and Despite high unemployment, there were 

technicians hampers Britain's industrial ex- thousands of openings across the country 

pansion, according to the National Produc- which the employment services were unable 

tion Advisory Council on Industry. to fill, United States Employment Service 

For every unemployed skilled man, there reports, 

were four jobs vacant earlier this year; and Most of the jobs called for skilled or 

20,000 vacancies were officially recorded for technically trained people. For example, 

building craftsmen and engineers alone in the California Department of Employment 

a ministry of labour report at the end of had over 8,000 such openings recorded in 

last year. The shortage affects bricklayers, April; the Chicago office of the Illinois 

electricians, and in particular, highly skilled State Employment Service was unable to 

crafts like took setters, draughtsmen, and fill 143 stenographer jobs from its rolls of 

carpenters. some 195,000 unemployed. 



712 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



PRICES AND THE COST OF LIVING 



Consumer Price Index, June 1961 

The consumer price index (1949=100) 
was unchanged at 129.0 between the begin- 
ning of May and June 1961.* Declines in 
the transportation, health and personal care, 
and recreation and reading components 
balanced increases in the food and clothing 
components. The housing and tobacco and 
alcohol components were unchanged. 

The food index rose 0.2 per cent as a 
result of higher prices for a variety of items 
including fresh fruits, vegetables, pork, eggs, 
sugar and cereals. 

Price declines were reported for beef, 
chicken, turkey, fresh tomatoes and straw- 
berries, and frozen orange juice. 

The housing index was unchanged at 
132.9 as both the shelter and household 
operation components remained at May 
levels. In shelter, a fractional increase in 
the rent index — the first in six months — 
just balanced a similar decrease in home- 
ownership index. 

In household operation, lower prices for 
coal and textiles offset price increases for 
furniture, floor coverings, and utensils and 
equipment; the household supplies and serv- 
ices index was unchanged. 

The clothing index increase from 112.4 
to 112.5 reflected higher prices for men's 
and children's wear, piece goods and 
clothing services, including laundry, dry 
cleaning and shoe repairs. Footwear prices 
were unchanged, prices for men's wear 
were lower. 

The transportation index declined from 
141.8 to 141.2 as a result of lower gasoline 
prices and a decrease in some local trans- 
portation fares, although the travel com- 
ponent was higher with increases in some 
inter-urban bus fares. 

The health and personal care index de- 
creased from 155.3 to 155.0, as lower prices 
for prescriptions in the pharmaceutical 
component outweighed increases for other 
items. The personal care component went 
up with price increases for toilet soap, 
tooth-paste, face cream and powder. 

The recreation and reading index declined 
from 146.0 to 145.8 as a result of lower 
prices for several items in the recreation 
component, including sports equipment. 

*See Table F-l at back of this issue. 
THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 7 



The tobacco and alcohol index was un- 
changed at 115.8. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, May 1961 

Consumer price indexes for 10 regional 
cities (1949=100) showed a decline be- 
tween April and May 1961, with decreases 
ranging from 0.1 per cent in St. John's to 
0.6 per cent in Montreal and Vancouver.! 

Food indexes also declined in all ten 
regional cities, with decreases ranging from 
0.2 per cent in St. John's to 1.7 per cent 
in Montreal. Shelter indexes showed mixed 
results as three indexes were lower, four 
higher, and three unchanged. Clothing in- 
dexes were unchanged in six of ten regional 
cities, down in three, and higher in one city. 

Household operation indexes increased 
in three cities, decreased in five cities, and 
were unchanged in two cities. Other com- 
modities and services indexes were up in 
five, down in three, and unchanged in two 
of ten regional cities. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between April and May were as 
follows:* Montreal —0.8 to 127.9; Van- 
couver —0.8 to 129.1; Ottawa —0.6 to 
129.0; Halifax —0.5 to 128.0; Winnipeg 
—0.4 to 126.6; Edmonton-Calgary —0.3 
to 124.2; Saint John —0.2 to 129.7; Toronto 
—0.2 to 130.2; Saskatchewan-Regina —0.2 
to 124.6; and St. John's —0.1 to 116.7. 

Wholesale Price Index, April 1961 

The general wholesale price index (1935- 
39=100) eased down 0.2 per cent in April 
to 230.9 from 231.3 in March and was 
about the same amount lower than the 
April 1960 index of 231.5. Four of the 
major group indexes declined in April and 
outweighed the increases of the remaining 
four. 

Lower prices in April for livestock, fresh 
and cured meats, fishery products, dressed 
fowl, eggs, and lard were mainly respon- 
sible for a drop of 2.0 per cent from 256.2 
to 251.0 in the animal products group 
index. The non-metallic minerals group 
index moved down 1.0 per cent from 186.3 
to 184.5, the textile products group index 

\See Table F-2 at back of book. 
tOn base June 1951=100. 



713 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



Index 1949=100 



Index 1949=100 




declined slightly from 233.1 to 232.8, and 
the chemical products group index at 188.0 
was practically unchanged from the March 
index of 188.1. 

The iron products group index advanced 
0.9 per cent to 259.1 in April from the 
March index of 256.7. Increases of 0.2 per 
cent or less occurred in three major group 
indexes: vegetable products from 200.1 to 
200.6; wood products from 301.6 to 302.3; 
and non-ferrous metals from 174.6 to 174.7. 

The building materials price indexes de- 
clined between April and May. The non- 
residential index (1949=100) moved down 
0.6 per cent from 131.4 to 130.6, and the 
residential index (1935-39=100) 0.3 per 
cent from 293.4 to 292.5. The residential 
index, on the base of 1949=100, moved 
down from 128.7 to 128.3. 



U.S. Consumer Price Index, May 1961 

The United States consumer price index 
(1947-49=100) declined by 0.1 per cent in 
May, exactly to the level where it stood 
last November, at 127.4. 

Despite this slight decline, the index 
stands at approximately the same level 
it has held for the last eight months, when 
food prices have been virtually steady, 
prices of other goods have declined slightly, 
and services have continued to move slowly 
upward. 

U.K. Index of Retail Prices, April 1961 

The United Kingdom index of retail prices 
(Jan. 17, 1956=100) went up between 
March and April from 112.7 to 113.3 at 
the middle of the month. 



714 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 196 1 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not for 
sale by the Department of Labour. Persons 
wishing to purchase them should commun- 
icate with the publishers. Publications listed 
may be borrowed by making application to 
the Librarian, Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. Students must apply through the 
library of their institution. Applications for 
loans should give the number (numeral) 
of the publication desired and the month in 
which it was listed in the Labour Gazette. 

List No. 153 

Disabled— Rehabilitation 

1. U.S. Office of Vocational Rehabili- 
tation. An Introduction to the Vocational 
Rehabilitation Process, a Manual for Orien- 
tation and In-Service Training. Compiled 
from Proceedings of Guidance, Training, 
and Placement Workshops, Orientation 
Training Syllabus for Vocational Rehabili- 
tation Counselors and the Gatlinburg Work- 
shop. Edited by John F. McGowan. Wash- 
ington, GPO, 1961. Pp. 201. 

2. Weir, George R. Government and 
the Handicapped; the Alabama Vocational 
Rehabilitation Program. University, Ala., 
Bureau of Public Administration, Univer- 
sity of Alabama, 1960. Pp. 77. 

Discusses the Federal and State programs 
for vocational rehabilitation in Alabama and 
recommends some ways of overcoming defi- 
ciencies in the State program. 

3. Wright, Beatrice (Posner). Physical 
Disability — A Psychological Approach. New 
York, Harper [1960] Pp. 408. 

Describes how handicapped people cope 
with their disablement. Written for the prac- 
titioner in the field of rehabilitation. 

Economic Conditions 

4. Cairncross, Alexander Kirkland. 
Economic Development and the Atlantic 
Provinces. Fredericton, Sponsored by the 
Atlantic Provinces Research Board, 1961. 
Pp. 35. 

The author was invited by the Governments 
of the Atlantic Provinces to report on economic 
development in the four provinces. He exam- 
ined such matters as monetary policy, bank 
credit, medium and long term capital and 
development policy, and made recommenda- 
tions. 

5. Canadian Tax Foundation. Fiscal 
Needs of the Canadian Provinces, by Eric J. 
Hanson. Toronto, 1961. Pp. 107, 230. 

"This study is an attempt to provide approx- 
imate measurements of the relative fiscal capa- 
cities of the Canadian provinces." Surveys 
briefly the problems to be faced and offers 
some suggestions for dealing with them. 



6. Committee for Economic Develop- 
ment. Growth and Taxes, Steps for 1961; a 
Statement on National Policy by the 
Research and Policy Committee. New York, 
1961. Pp. 38, 15. 

Concerns "the question of tax structure — 
the kinds of taxes with which the government 
raises the amount of revenue needed." 

Industry 

7. Kerr, Clark. Industrialism and 
Industrial Man; the Problems of Labor and 
Management in Economic Growth, by Clark 
Kerr [and others] Cambridge, Harvard 
University Press, 1960. Pp. 331. 

An examination of industrialization and 
industrial relations in the world today. 

8. Lounsbury, Frederick Everett. The 
Food and Fish Processing Industries of the 
Atlantic Provinces. Halifax, Atlantic Prov- 
inces Economic Council, 1960. Pp. 87. 

"Commissioned by Atlantic Provinces Re- 
search Board and prepared by Atlantic Prov- 
inces Economic Council." 

Labour Laws and Legislation 

9. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
Attorneys' Fees in Workmen's Compensa- 
tion; a Report of the Standards and 
Procedures in State Legislation. September 
1960. Washington, GPO, 1960. Pp. 47. 

10. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
State Labor Relations Acts. Washington, 
GPO, 1961. Pp. 39. 

Labour Organization 

11. Ballon, Robert J. The Japanese 
Labor Movement, 1957-1960. Tokyo, Sophia 
University, Industrial Relations Center, 
1960. Pp.37. 

12. National Industrial Conference 
Board. Sourcebook of Union Government, 
Structure and Procedures [by James J. 
Bambrick and George H. Haas. New York] 
1956. Pp. 334. 

Companion vol. to the Board's Handbook of 
Union Government, Structure and Procedures 
(Studies in Personnel Policy, no. 150). 

13. Steinbach, Arnold L. Changing 
Concepts and Practice in the International 
Labor Movement. Washington, U.S. Dept. 
of Labor, Division of International Trade 
Union Organizations, 1960. Pp. 10. 

Talk given to Research Seminar on Com- 
parative Labor Movements, Washington, D.C., 
December 15, 1959. Discusses the International 
Confederation of Free Trade Unions and the 
World Federation of Trade Unions. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796? 



715 



Labouring Classes 

14. Berger, Bennett Maurice. Working- 
Class Suburb; a Study of Auto Workers in 
Suburbia. Berkeley, University of Cali- 
fornia Press, 1960. Pp. 143. 

A sociological study of Ford Motor Com- 
pany employees in California who moved with 
the company from a small city to a suburban 
area in the San Francisco Bay area. The author 
wanted to find out what happened to a group 
of working class men and women after they 
moved into the suburbs. 

15. Boyle, Thomas. Justice through 
Power, a Study of Labor in its Present Situa- 
tion. Toronto, Longmans, 1961. Pp. 248. 

The author worked several years on a fac- 
tory assembly line and served as a union 
steward. As a firm believer in unions he dis- 
cusses such matters as the purpose and value 
of unions, the efficacy of strikes, what hap- 
pens to union funds, how wage rates are set 
and how wages are spent, the organization of 
the unorganized worker, and union participation 
in political activities, among other things. The 
author thinks that unions have no economic 
power to provide jobs and so they must 
acquire political power to help their members. 

16. Briggs, Asa, Ed. Essays in Labour 
History; in Memory of G. D. H. Cole, 25 
September 1889-14 January 1959. Edited by 
Asa Briggs and John Saville. With recollec- 
tions of G. D. H. Cole by Ivor Brown [and 
others] London, Macmillan; New York, St. 
Martin's Press, 1960. Pp. 363. 

Partial Contents: Recollections of G. D. H. 
Cole by Ivor Brown, Hugh Gaitskell, Stephen 
K. Bailey, and G. D. N. Worswick. Custom, 
Wages, and Work-Load in Nineteenth-Century 
Industry, by E. J. Hobsbawm. The English 
Branches of the First International, by Henry 
Collins. Trade Unions and Free Labour: the 
Background to the Taff Vale Decision, by 
lohn Saville. 

17. California. University. Heller 
Committee for Research in Social 
Economics. Quantity and Cost Budgets for 
Two Income Levels; Prices for The San 
Francisco Bay Area, September 1960. 
Family of a Salaried Junior Professional 
and Executive Worker; Family of a Wage 
Earner... Berkeley, cl961. Pp. 86. 

18. Great Britain. Central Office of 
Information. Reference Division. Labour 
Relations and Conditions of Work in Britain. 
Rev. September 1960. London, 1960. Pp. 54. 

Partial Contents: Protective Legislation. Con- 
ditions of Work in Practice. Industrial Rela- 
tions. Human Relations at the Work-Place. 

19. International Federation of 
Industrial Organizations and General 
Workers' Unions. Report on Wages and 
Conditions of Employment in the Glass 
Industry of Some Countries. Amsterdam, 

1959. P. 48, 8. 

20. Shafi, Mohammad. T^aw of Dismis- 
sal. Karachi, Bureau of Labour Publications, 

1960. Pp. 87. 



A description of the law relating to dismissal 
in private industrial and non-industrial em- 
ployment in Pakistan and India. 

21. Shafi, Mohammad. Problems of 
Bonus and Profit-Sharing. Karachi, Bureau 
of Labour Publications, 1960. Pp. 80. 

Discusses legal decisions and awards with 
reference to profit-sharing and bonus systems 
in Pakistan and India and endeavors "to 
evolve a set of principles and practices for 
practical guidance" in resolving the problems 
that arise. 

Management 

22. U.S. Small Business Administra- 
tion. Cash Planning in Small Manufactur- 
ing Companies, by Joseph C. Schabacker. 
Washington, GPO, 1960. Pp. 276. 

"Cash planning may be defined as the 
management process of estimating for a speci- 
fied period in the future all sources and uses 
of cash available to a business." In this study 
cash planning is used "in the formal sense of 
committing the forecast and plan to a paper 
report." 

23. Wermel, Michael Theodore. How 
to determine the Total Cost of Your 
Employee Benefit Programs; a Guide for a 
Company Survey, by Michael T. Wermel 
and Geraldine M. Beideman. Pasadena, 
Benefits and Insurance Research Center, 
Industrial Relations Section, California 
Institute of Technology, 1960. Pp. 55. 

"This study presents a method that individual 
companies can use to survey their benefit 
expenditures . . .Includes a discussion of tech- 
niques for collecting the cost data and describes 
several methods that companies may follow 
in analyzing the expenditure information ob- 
tained." 

Occupations 

24. Association of Chemical and 
Allied Employers, London. Training of 
Engineering Apprentices in the Chemical 
Industry. London, 1960. Pp. 24. 

"The purpose of this booklet is to assist 
those firms in the chemical industry who wish 
to introduce or improve upon the training of 
craft apprentices in their works." Deals prin- 
cipally with the training of the apprentice fitter, 
electrician and instrument mechanic. 

25. U.S. Bureau of Employment 
Security. Technical Occupations in 
Research Design and Development con- 
sidered as Directly Supporting to Engineers 
and Physical Scientists. Washington, GPO, 
1961. Pp. 113. 

Contains occupational description for tech- 
nicians in the engineering and scientific field. 

Older Workers 

26. U.S. Bureau of Employment 
Security. Meeting the Manpower Challenge 
of the Sixties with 40 -plus Workers. A 
Leader's Guide for conducting Local 
Institutes on the Employment of 40-Plus 
Workers. Washington, GPO, 1960. Pp. 76. 



716 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



27. U.S. Department of Labor. 40 
Plus. Ability is Ageless, a Guide to Action. 
Washington, GPO, 1960. Pp. 16. 

Includes some ideas that might be used in 
community informational and educational cam- 
paigns for improving job opportunities for 
older workers. 

28. U.S. Department of Labor. 40 Plus. 
Meet the Over 40 Worker. Washington, 
GPO. 1960. Pp. 28. 

This publication contains highlights of a 
number of studies and surveys on older work- 
ers conducted by the Department of Labor, 
business organizations and associations, univer- 
sities, individual researchers and others. 

Unemployment 

29. Ostry, Sylvia. The Definition and 
Measurement of Unemployment; a Report 
prepared for the Special Committee of the 
Senate of Canada on Manpower and 
Employment. [Ottawa, Dept. of Labour?] 
1961. Pp. 32. 

Included in Proceedings of the Senate Special 
Committee on Manpower and Employment, Pt. 
6, p. 355-371. 

30. Study Conference on Unemploy- 
ment, Toronto, 196L Report. Toronto, 
Ontario Federation of Labour, 1961. 1 
Volume (various pagings). 

Conference held Feb. 10 and 11. Sponsored 
by Ontario Federation of Labour. Dave Archer, 
chairman. 

Topics considered by individual speakers and 
panel discussions included 1. How has unem- 
ployment affected your group? 2. What can be 
done to create new jobs? 3. Seasonal unem- 
ployment, causes, cures. 4. Welfare problems. 
5. Retraining. 

Miscellaneous 

31. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. 
Awards for Graduate Study and Research 
1961. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1961. 
Pp. 300. 



32. Organization for Economic Co- 
operation and Development. Convention 
on the Organization for Economic Co- 
operation and Development. Paris, 1960. 
Pp. 55. French and English on opposite 
pages. 

This agency was formerly the Organization 
for European Economic Co-operation. 

33. Skardal, Dorothy Burton. Special 
Insurance in Norway. 4th ed. Oslo, The 
Norwegian Joint Committee on International 
Social Policy, 1960. Pp. 208. 

Discusses various forms of social security 
available to Norwegians. 

34. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Daily Spot Markets Price Indexes and 
Prices, January 1, 1957 -December 31, 1959. 
Washington, GPO, 1961. Pp. 63. 

35. U.S. National Science Foundation. 
Federal Funds for Science. IX. The Federal 
Research and Development Budget, Fiscal 
Years 1959, 1960, and 1961. [Washington, 
GPO, 1960, i.e. 1961] Pp. 89. 

36. U.S. Office of Education. Division 
of Vocational Education. Studies of 
Home Economics in High School and in 
Adult Education Programes, 1955-58 [by] 
Ivol Spafford in co-operation with Edna P. 
Amidon. Washington, GPO, 1960. Pp. 185. 

37. U.S. Office of Education. Division 
of Vocational Education. Organization 
and Effective Use of Advisory Committees, 
by Sam. W. King. Washington, GPO, 1960. 
Pp. 75. 

School advisory committees in trade and 
industrial education serve three purposes, 
among others, because they provide useful 
advice not easily obtainable elsewhere; they 
establish good public relations; and, they assist 
public support of policies. 

This pamphlet explains the different types 
of committees, their functions, establishment, 
organization, and the planning and conduct of 
a meeting. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3—8 



• JULY 7967 



717 



LABOUR STATISTICS 



Page 

Tables A-l to A-4— Labour Force 719 

Table B-l— Labour Income 721 

Tables C-l to G-6 — Employment, Hours and Earnings 722 

Tables D-l to D-5— Employment Service Statistics 728 

Tables E-l to E-5 — Unemployment Insurance 734 

Tables F-l and F-2— Prices 737 

Tables G-l to G-4— Strikes and Lockouts 738 

Tables H-l and H-2— Industrial Fatalities 740 



718 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 196 1 



A. — Labour Force 

TABLE A-l— LABOUR FORCE, REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION 
WEEK ENDED APRIL 22, 1961 

(Estimates in thousands) 

Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



Canada 



Atlantic 
Region 



Quebec 



Ontario 



Prairie 
Region 



British 
Columbia 



The Labour Force 

Men 

Women 

14—19 years 

20— 24 years 

25 — 44 years 

45 — 64 years 

65 years and over 

Employed 

Women 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Paid Workers 

Men 

Women 

Unemployed 

Men 

Women 

Persons Not in the Labour Force 

Men 

Women 



6,440 
4,72.1 
1,719 



592 
800 
953 

872 
223 



5,818 
4,171 
1,647 

652 



4,677 
3,195 
1,482 

622 
550 

72 

5,524 
1,237 
4,287 



573 
429 
144 



77 
241 
165 

24 

474 
334 
140 

52 

422 

381 
256 
125 

99 
95 

*4 

631 
172 
459 



1,803 

1,338 

465 

202 
264 
830 
461 



1,570 
1,130 



132 
1,438 



883 
397 

233 

208 
25 

1,599 

341 

1,258 



2,367 

1,690 

677 

181 

262 

1,113 

723 



2,207 

1,556 

651 

157 
2,050 

1,879 

1,282 

597 

160 
134 
26 

1,835 

384 

1,451 



1,118 
828 
290 

101 
134 

498 

338 

47 

1,046 
765 
281 

285 
761 

696 
456 
240 

72 
63 



925 
210 
715 



579 
436 
143 

42 
63 
271 
185 
18 

521 

386 
135 

26 

495 

441 
318 
123 

58 
50 
*8 

534 
130 
404 



'Less than 10,000 



WEEK ENDED MAY 20, 1961 



Canada 



Atlantic 
Region 



Quebec 



Ontario 



Prairie 
Region 



British 
Columbia 



The Labour Force 

Men 

Women 

14 — 19 years 

20— 24 years 

25 — 44 years 

45 — 64 years 

65 years and over 

Employed 

Men 

Women 

Agricultural 

Non-Agricultural 

Paid Workers 

Men 

Women 

Unemployed 

Men 

Women 

Persons Not in the Labour Force 

Men 

Women 



,542 



4,792 
1,750 



838 
2,980 
1,884 

231 

6,085 

4,395 
1,690 

726 
5,359 

4,905 

3,399 
1,506 

457 

397 



5,440 



1,175 
4,265 



589 

448 
141 

71 
84 
242 
167 
25 

515 

379 
136 



456 



287 
122 

74 

69 

617 

154 
463 



1,811 

1,347 
464 

203 

268 

831 

464 

45 



1,204 
442 



145 
1,501 



1,351 



949 
402 



165 



143 

22 



1,597 



335 
1,262 



2,391 

1,711 
680 

181 

276 

1,120 

723 



2,266 

1,605 
661 

163 
2,103 

1,950 

1,342 
608 

125 

106 
19 

1,816 

366 
1,450 



1,159 

846 
313 

111 
143 
512 
342 
51 



329 

785 



736 



491 
245 



194 
694 



592 

440 
152 

43 
67 

275 



544 



401 
143 



514 

459 

330 
129 

48 

39 

• 

522 

126 
396 



Leas than 10,000. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

97053-3— 8i 



• JULY 7961 



719 



TABLE A-2— UNEMPLOYED 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: D.B.S. Labour Force Survey 



Total unemployed 

On temporary layoff up to 30 days 
Without work and seeking work. . . 

Seeking full-time work 

Seeking part-time work 

Seeking under 1 month 

Seeking 1-3 months 

Seeking 4-6 months 

Seeking more than 6 months . . 



May 
1961 



457 

18 
439 

416 
23 

70 
120 
141 
108 



April 
1961 



32 
590 

559 
31 

84 
177 
221 



March 
1961 



705 



41 
664 



628 
36 



270 

218 

87 



May 
1960 



419 

20 
399 

385 
14 

75 
119 
135 

70 



April 



552 



35 

517 



494 
23 



174 
191 
62 



TABLE A-3— DESTINATION OF ALL IMMIGRANTS BY REGIONS 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



Period 


Atlantic 


Quebec 


Ontario 


Prairies 


B.C. 

Yukon 
N.W.T. 


Canada 
Total 


Males 


1953 Total 


4,049 
3,849 
3,067 
3,029 
5,092 
3,268 
383 
325 


34,294 
28,419 
22,117 
31,396 
55,073 
28,443 
3,882 
2,563 


90,120 
83,029 
57,563 
90,662 
147,097 
63,853 
8,809 
6,504 


27,208 
26,638 
15,559 
17,957 
37,172 
15,756 
1,840 
1,192 


13,197 
12,292 
11,640 
17,930 
37,730 
13,531 
1,685 
1,255 


168,868 

154,227 

109,946 

164,857(1) 

282,164 

124,851 

16,599 

11,839 


91,422 


1954 Total 


84,531 


1955 Total 


56,828 


1956 Total 


89,541 


1957 Total . . 


154,226 


1958 Total... 


60,630 


1st Quarter 1960 


8,098 


1st Quarter 1961 


5,125 











0) Total includes 3,883 whose destination is not specified. 



TABLE A-4— DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS ENTERING CANADA BY OCCUPATIONS 

Source: Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship and Immigration 



1953 Total. ... 

1954 Total... . 

1955 Total 

1956 Total 

1957 Total 

1958 Total 

1st Quarter 1960 
1st Quarter 1961 







T3 








M.5 


T3 






T3 

1 

C o 

11 


"3 

o 


S-2 
II 

"6 a 

O 3 

a. 3 
93 Q 

23 


c 

Ti 

£ c 
S « 
0.5 


93 
9 


3 
"3 

M 


5 "= 

e3 


C 03 c 
I'll 

c £ 

=3 <D 


s 

g 

3 
O 

i 


8 

A 


SfX, 


o 


HO 


Ofe 


CO 


< 


sso 


►j 


O 


10,021 


6,339 


1,855 


3,185 


13,766 


17,250 


879 


26,492 


10,380 


966 


9,983 


6,775 


1,938 


2,735 


11,974 


10,920 


763 


25,699 


13,011 


578 


8,563 


5,775 


1,190 


2,146 


9,588 


7,036 


514 


15,117 


7,687 


371 


10,339 


9,492 


2,255 


3,823 


13,800 


7,500 


1,649 


29,264 


12,482 


435 


17,256 


16,829 


5,254 


6,559 


17,574 


10,838 


2,693 


54,376 


19,471 


661 


8,497 


6,745 


1,229 


2,229 


11,501 


5,071 


513 


17,476 


9,388 


429 


1,318 


642 


175 


353 


1,453 


816 


119 


1,585 


1,586 


40 


1,154 


610 


87 


204 


1,107 


408 


38 


1,059 


698 


9 



91,133 
84,376 
57,987 
91,039 
151,511 
63,078 
16,599 
11,839 



720 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



B — Labour Income 

TABLE B-l— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

Note: All figures in this table except those for 1956 have been revised. Monthly and quarterly figures may not add 
to annual totals because of rounding. 

($ Millions) 

Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Monthly Total 


Quarterly Totalsi 




Year and 
Month 


Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Trans- 
portation, 
Storage 
and 
Communi- 
cation 2 


Forestry 


Construc- 
tion 


Public 

Utilities 


Trade 


Finance 
Services 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
men- 
tary 
Labour 
income 


Totals' 


1956— Total. . . . 
1957— Total. . . . 
1958— Total.... 
1959— Total.... 
1960— Total. . . . 

1960— 


498 
535 
527 
552 
551 

44.5 
45.1 
46.7 
46.3 
46.7 
46.9 
45.7 
45.4 
44.3 

44.2 
44.4 
44.5 
43.0 


4,586 
4,838 
4,828 
5,103 
5,200 

430.7 
437.3 
443.3 
435.3 
437.9 
442.0 
437.5 
432.3 
422.6 

420.0 
424.4 
427.1 
431.5 


1,560 
1,661 
1,677 
1,773 
1,779 

146.1 
149.3 
152.4 
155.0 
154.4 
153.2 
151.2 
148.5 
144.7 

140.5 
142.0 
142.5 
145.3 


371 
336 
270 
288 
326 


1,210 
1,311 
1,329 

1,472 
1,472 


239 
277 
298 
316 
327 


2,069 
2,265 
2,359 
2,528 
2,641 


3,546 
3,920 
4,295 
4,705 
5,095 


617 
683 
739 
819 
916 


14,890 
16,018 
16,524 
17,761 
18,514 

1,494.1 




72.0 


363.4 


81.2 


657.0 


1,273.6 


226.9 


1,537.4 




1,590.2 


July 














1,578.9 


August 

September. . . 


88.5 


446.7 


84.7 


663.5 


1,282.7 


232.9 


1,592.3 
1,620.7 














1,599.8 


November. . . 


91.6 


369.9 


82.6 


685.4 


1,319.2 


235.5 


1,573.7 
1,529.4 


1961 — 

January 

February 














1,494.3 


62.1 


278.7 


81.8 


656.5 


1,327.4 


235.7 


1,502.3 
1,510.1 


Aprilt 














1,539.7 

















Quarterly figures are entered opposite the middle month of the quarter but represent quarterly totals, 
includes post office wages and salaries. 

3 Figures in this column are for total labour income, Canada, but are not totals of the figures in the remaining columns 
of this table, as figures for labour income in Agriculture, Fishing and Trapping are not shown. 
•Revised. 
tPreliminary. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



721 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 arc based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— at April 1961 employers 
in the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,647,914 . Tables C-4 (every second 
month) and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of firms than Tables C-l to C-3. They 
relate only to wage earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to C-3 
relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage earners in the reporting firms. 

TABLE C-l— EMPLOYMENT, PAYROLLS AND WEEKLY WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 





Industrial Composite 


Manufacturing 




Index Numbers (1949 = 100)1 


Average 

Weekly 

Wages 

and 

Salaries 


Index Numbers (1949 = 100) 


Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 


Year and Month 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
PajTolls 


Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 


Employ- 
ment 


Aggregate 
Payrolls 


Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 


Averages 

1955 


112.9 
120.7 
122.6 
117.9 
119.7 

114.8 

118.9 
122.8 
121.9 
123.1 
123.1 
121.5 
119.7 
114.8 

111.6 

111.0 
111.1 
112.4 


161.2 
182.0 
194.7 
194.1 
205.7 

204.1 
209.8 
217.7 
217.8 
291.0 
220.7 
218.2 
214.5 
202.4 

201.4 
202.5 
202.3 
206.0 


142.1 
150.0 
158.1 
163.9 
171.0 

176.9 
175.4 
176.1 
177.6 
176.8 
178.2 
178.3 
177.9 
175.0 

179.2 
181.1 
180.7 
182.0 


$ 

61.05 
64.44 
67.93 
70.43 
73.47 

75.98 
75.36 
75.67 
76.28 
75.94 
76.55 
76.60 
76.43 
75.18 

77.00 
77.80 
77.64 
78.19 


109.8 
115.8 
115.8 
109.8 
111.1 

108.8 
110.6 
112.1 
110.2 
111.7 
111.6 
109.6 
108.1 
104.1 

104.3 
104.6 
104.9 
105.4 


159.5 
176.8 
185.3 
182.7 
193.3 

196.3 
198.1 
201.8 
198.4 
199.7 
201.6 
199.4 
197.2 
187.0 

191.6 
193.5 
194.4 
196.7 


144.4 
151.7 
159.1 
165.3 
172.5 

178.5 
176.9 
177.8 
177.8 
176.5 
178.2 
179.6 
180.0 
177.2 

181.1 

182.5 
182.8 
184.1 


$ 

63.48 


1956 


66.71 


1957 


69.94 


1958 


72.67 


1959 


75.84 


1960 


78.48 




77.80 




78.16 


July 


78.18 




77.62 




78.37 




78.95 




79.16 




77.92 


1961 


79.65 




80.24 




80.36 


Aprilf 


80.96 







1 Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recrea- 
tional service). 

Technical Note— A change has been made in the method of dating the statistics published in Tables C-l to C-6 
to conform with the usual practice of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. In the past, statistics for the last pay period 
in a month were labelled "payperiod preceding" the first day of the following month. From now on, statistics for the 
last pay period in a month will be labelled for that month. Another change is that average earnings formerly expressed 
in cents carried to one decimal place, are now published in dollars and cents. 

* Revised. 

t Preliminary. 



722 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



TABLE C-2— AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls D.B.S. 



Area 


Employment 
Index Numbers 


Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 


Mar. 
1961 


Feb. 

1961 


Mar. 
1960 


Mar. 

1961 


Feb. 
1961 


Mar. 
1960 


Provinces 


106.8 
108.9 
84.1 
96.0 
109.8 
113.6 
103.1 
111.8 
142.8 
107.2 

110.9 

116.0 

68.5 
115.1 

95.7 
115.8 
104.2 
104.4 

97.7 
101.2 
102.1 

74.5 
118.6 
118.7 
115.3 

87.3 
169.2 
126.9 
104.3 
105.4 

90.0 

81.3 
114.9 
105.9 
114.6 
146.6 

91.2 
122.8 
121.1 

72.4 
128.8 

95.1 
105.4 
123.3 
127.9 
174.3 
165.8 
107.9 
107.5 


114.3 
110.2 
86.1 
95.8 
110.6 
113.3 
102.9 
110.3 
142.9 
105.6 

111.0 

116.4 

72.3 
122.8 

95.0 
114.6 
103.0 
102.4 

97.9 
100.4 
101.6 

73.7 
118.1 
118.0 
114.7 

86.7 
169.0 
126.7 
103.7 
104.7 

88.7 

78.8 
115.9 
106.6 
114.7 
146.1 

90.6 
121.5 
118.2 

72.3 
125.4 

95.2 
104.9 
121.4 
126.7 
171.9 
164.5 
106.8 
104.9 


105.4 
114.4 
92.8 
96.3 
112.3 
116.9 
105.0 
115.6 
146.0 
113.0 

114.2 

114.4 

91.4 
118.6 

91.5 
110.0 
109.8 
106.4 

98.0 
102.5 
109.0 

74.8 
120.2 
118.7 
108.0 

96.5 
184.4 
127.8 
112.1 
109.5 

93.1 

83.7 
122.3 
115.1 
120.2 
142.4 

92.6 
121.5 
120.5 

78.2 
147.2 

96.9 
106.4 
123.0 
126.2 
175.1 
162.4 
113.8 
110.6 


$ 

70.25 
59.27 
62.25 
64.67 
75.16 
80.46 
72.72 
73.06 
79.15 
84.98 

77.66 

56.82 
69.03 
64.32 
60.96 
62.58 
95.19 
65.29 
63.16 
85.06 
69.92 
63.81 
76.49 
71.71 
76.78 
84.71 
89.24 
81.22 
86.01 
87.79 
83.07 
74.43 
71.26 
69.88 
72.68 
91.28 
71.01 
73.87 
102.87 
87.14 
98.06 
77.37 
69.86 
71.61 
69.46 
73.40 
75.14 
83.58 
76.93 


$ 

72.10 
56.86 
64.07 
64.65 
75.06 
80.58 
73.09 
73.00 
79.61 
85.30 

77.80 

57.89 
75.91 
63.53 
60.83 
62.57 
95.93 
65.09 
63.80 
84.31 
71.04 
63.26 
76.56 
71.96 
75.20 
84.74 
88.94 
80.84 
86.10 
88.45 
84.11 
74.93 
71.57 
69.60 
73.01 
91.93 
70.08 
73.37 
101.24 
86.09 
98.62 
78.72 
69.93 
71.92 
69.00 
73.10 
75.25 
83.71 
77.44 


$ 

66.90 




52.75 




62.97 




63.51 




72.77 




77.99 




70.78 




71.39 




77.42 




81.96 




75.37 


Urban Areas 


55.41 




76.81 


Halifax 


62.45 




59.45 




62.38 




88.89 




63.38 




62.99 




80.91 




68.32 




60.95 




74.11 


Ottawa— Hull. . . 


69.45 




72.91 




83.38 




86.36 




78.27 




83.94 




85.44 




79.57 




71.48 


Guelph 


69.66 


Gait 


68.76 




70.85 




88.82 




69.49 




71.09 




97.20 




86.23 




93.97 


Ft. William— Pt. Arthur 


74.38 




67.91 




68.26 




67.26 




72.26 


Calgary 


72.30 
80.71 




74.85 







THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



723 



TABLE C-3 



-INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 
WAGES AND SALARIES 



(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 
Source: Employment and Payrolls D.B.S. 



Industry 



Employment 


Average Weekly Wages 


Index Numbers 


and Salaries, n Dollars 


Mar. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Mar. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


1961 


1961 


1960 


1961 


1961 


1960 








$ 


$ 


$ 


112.9 


114.0 


121.8 


95.87 


96.30 


94.35 


130.1 


130.0 


138.5 


98.50 


97.99 


95.82 


70.2 


70.4 


72.6 


79.44 


78.40 


76.44 


186.0 


185.6 


199.9 


105.20 


104.91 


102.39 


82.5 


86.8 


97.2 


94.13 


97.75 


95.39 


34.8 


38.8 


49.6 


62.33 


71.92 


73.29 


288.2 


293.3 


302.1 


110.64 


112.48 


111.01 


123.5 


121.2 


118.3 


86.75 


85.06 


84.07 


101.9 


104.6 


109.0 


80.35 


80.24 


78.04 


106.9 


106.3 


115.0 


86.16 


86.10 


83.74 


103.3 


103.2 


103.8 


75.31 


75.19 


72.69 


102.9 


102.2 


103.2 


73.03 


72.10 


70.46 


127.8 


125.6 


130.0 


83.12 


78.93 


78.85 


70.4 


69.4 


70.8 


67.38 


69.05 


67.18 


98.3 


97.9 


100.7 


77.62 


77.20 


74.13 


108.2 


107.0 


108.5 


67.04 


65.96 


65.71 


94.7 


94.6 


97.1 


98.30 


96.44 


92.05 


90.3 


108.3 


89.2 


74.47 


70.78 


71.76 


94.0 


94.2 


105.0 


81.39 


81.33 


79.71 


87.6 


87.1 


84.8 


53.94 


55.49 


52.41 


95.3 


95.3 


92.2 


51.45 


53.20 


50.05 


76.3 


76.1 


78.0 


64.18 


63.98 


62.28 


69.6 


69.5 


70.4 


60.58 


60.13 


59.05 


59.1 


59.4 


62.0 


60.57 


60.13 


58.18 


81.8 


81.4 


84.8 


71.35 


70.73 


68.69 


91.0 


90.9 


91.3 


50.40 


51.00 


49.19 


91.3 


90.6 


91.2 


50.21 


50.29 


48.19 


102.2 


102.1 


99.0 


51.90 


53.10 


50.70 


71.4 


72.6 


73.3 


48.87 


49.60 


48.50 


95.8 


94.7 


102.3 


69.33 


69.59 


67.25 


96.6 


95.0 


103.6 


72.20 


72.33 


69.71 


104.6 


105.0 


110.0 


65.39 


65.96 


64.51 


75.3 


73.4 


82.0 


62.05 


62.48 


59.67 


118.9 


118.6 


119.8 


94.17 


95.15 


89.69 


119.6 


120.0 


120.0 


102.05 


103.12 


96.61 


117.4 


115.4 


119.4 


75.32 


75.72 


72.80 


123.4 


123.0 


123.4 


87.04 


86.32 


85.39 


100.7 


99.6 


108.9 


90.78 


90.42 


88.19 


68.4 


67.7 


78.8 


92.90 


93.23 


87.92 


141.7 


144.1 


148.8 


92.28 


91.52 


89.30 


97.3 


96.9 


101.8 


80.65 


80.52 


79.43 


88.6 


89.5 


100.3 


78.87 


78.19 


76.19 


89.1 


88.8 


95.2 


84.40 


84.92 


83.62 


111.4 


110.8 


118.4 


88.00 


87.84 


85.23 


112.4 


109.0 


126.0 


105.07 


104.97 


100.31 


100.7 


99.3 


104.3 


88.98 


87.93 


86.59 


106.7 


106.6 


119.2 


90.76 


89.55 


89.51 


104.8 


105.2 


113.6 


90.15 


90.26 


88.07 


259.5 


262.1 


240.0 


96.57 


95.65 


93.80 


103.7 


105.1 


117.7 


99.44 


98.64 


95.57 


101.7 


100.5 


110.6 


88.71 


89.30 


87.28 


53.7 


53.1 


63.6 


85.48 


85.74 


78.93 


120.4 


123.2 


140.3 


79.76 


80.97 


81.40 


122.6 


123.0 


129.1 


91.87 


91.59 


88.36 


134.0 


132.5 


140.1 


89.69 


87.92 


83.93 


99.4 


100.3 


105.6 


85.31 


85.94 


84.05 


142.7 


142.4 


150.8 


99.78 


99.76 


96.20 


126.8 


125.4 


135.9 


86.95 


87.34 


84.23 


95.9 


96.1 


109.4 


93.99 


93.42 


90.67 


208.9 


210.6 


214.9 


87.56 


88.11 


81.62 


125.0 


124.5 


133.9 


83.23 


82.21 


79.86 


75.3 


73.6 


91.5 


76.97 


75.58 


75.35 


145.9 


146.5 


146.7 


80.83 


79.81 


76.63 


135.9 


135.6 


134.7 


117.24 


117.23 


114.65 


139.0 


138.9 


136.7 


117.89 


117.89 


115.59 


129.5 


129.1 


131.2 


94.02 


93.39 


89.74 


116.3 


116.1 


119.5 


82.73 


82.77 


79.51 


151.7 


150.9 


147.8 


105.50 


105.18 


100.88 


130.2 


129.6 


128.7 


72.51 


72.47 


69.65 


97.4 


96.9 


102.1 


81.96 


83.96 


80.40 


97.0 


96.4 


101.9 


88.71 


90.66 


87.76 


98.1 


97.6 


102.4 


70.94 


73.05 


68.43 


130.0 


129.2 


129.7 


82.23 


81.71 


79.48 


138.5 


137.5 


138.1 


55.14 


55.10 


52.73 


121.5 


120.6 


124.4 


42.19 


42.95 


40.98 


113.6 


111.2 


111.8 


48.01 


46.91 


45.92 


110.9 


111.0 


114.2 


77.66 


77. 80 


75.37 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery, Industrial 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicles parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery 

Telecommunication equipment 

Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products , 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Petroleum refining , 

Chemical products , 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

Industrial composite 



724 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796? 



Tables C-4 and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of Arms than Tables C-l to C-3. 
They relate only to wage-earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to 
C-3 relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage-earners of the co-operative firms. 

TABLE C-4— HOURS AND EARNINGS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

(Hourly-Rated Wage Earners) Source: Man-hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion Bureau of Statistics) 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 





Average Hours worked 


Average Hourly Earnings 
(in cents) 




March 
1961 


February 
1961 


March 
1960 


March 
1961 


February 
1961 


March 

1960 




40.0 
40.7 
40.5 
41.1 
40.1 
39.7 
39.4 
39.3 
38.2 


41.0 
40.9 
40.6 
41.5 
40.2 
39.7 
38.9 
39.1 
37.8 


39.1 
40.9 
41.7 
41.6 
40.3 
39.8 
39.1 
39.4 
37.8 


1.72 
1.60 
1.61 
1.63 
1.93 
1.70 
1.99 
1.94 
2.23 


1.68 
1.61 
1.58 
1.63 
1.91 
1.69 
1.95 
1.93 
2.23 


1.67 




1.60 




1.58 




1.59 




1.87 




1.66 




1.90 


Alberta") 


1.87 


British Columbia < 2 > 


2.15 







(D Includes Northwest Territories. 
(2) Includes Yukon Territory. 

Note: — Information on hours and earnings by cities is obtainable from Man Hours and Hourly Earnings (Dominion 
Bureau of Statistics) . 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796? 



725 



TABLE C-5— HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage Earners) 
Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 
(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Average Weekly 


Ave 


rage Hourly 


Average Weekly 




Hours 






Earnings 




Wages 




Mar. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Mar. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Mar. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


1961 


1961 


1960 


1961 


1961 


1960 


1961 


1961 


1960 


no. 


no. 


no. 


$ 


S 


$ 


$ 


$ 


$ 


41.6 


42.1 


42.2 


2.14 


2.13 


2.09 


89.12 


89.46 


88.02 


42.6 


42.5 


42.3 


2.20 


2.19 


2.16 


93.67 


93.08 


91.30 


43.8 


42.9 


43.3 


1.69 


1.70 


1.65 


74.15 


72.89 


71.33 


42.1 


42.3 


41.9 


2.40 


2.39 


2.35 


101.32 


100.97 


98.63 


38.2 


41.7 


41.8 


2.03 


2.01 


1.97 


77.56 


83.58 


82.33 


34.3 


40.2 


40.9 


1.73 


1.76 


1.75 


59.28 


70.87 


71.65 


42.3 


43.3 


43.1 


2.29 


2.27 


2.28 


96.65 


98.23 


98.27 


41.6 


40.7 


42.4 


1.99 


1.98 


1.90 


82.65 


80.45 


80.45 


40.3 


40.4 


40.5 


1.83 


1.82 


1.78 


73.63 


73.40 


71.94 


40.4 


40.4 


40.8 


1.99 


1.98 


1.93 


80.14 


79.86 


78.60 


40.2 


40.5 


40.3 


1.68 


1.67 


1.62 


67.70 


67.57 


65.38 


40.6 


40.2 


40.2 


1.65 


1.63 


1.60 


67.08 


65.40 


64.08 


41.5 


38.9 


40.2 


1.89 


1.86 


1.85 


78.44 


72.19 


74.25 


38.6 


39.0 


38.9 


1.46 


1.49 


1.46 


56.37 


58.09 


56.83 


41.9 


41.5 


40.7 


1.74 


1.73 


1.68 


72.94 


71.96 


68.47 


42.2 


41.5 


42.0 


1.48 


1.46 


1.42 


62.26 


60.61 


59.67 


39.7 


39.5 


38.5 


2.09 


2.06 


2.00 


82.79 


81.35 


77.20 


39.3 


39.0 


38.5 


2.35 


2.33 


2.22 


92.31 


90.86 


85.55 


38.4 


39.5 


38.7 


1.78 


1.66 


1.70 


68.48 


65.64 


65.82 


40.5 


40.6 


40.5 


1.85 


1.84 


1.83 


74.96 


74.73 


74.00 


40.2 


42.0 


39.7 


1.23 


1.22 


1.20 


49.33 


51.29 


47.61 


40.0 


42.2 


39.6 


1.18 


1.17 


1.15 


47.21 


49.45 


45.68 


40.5 


41.3 


40.0 


1.34 


1.35 


1.30 


54.28 


55.65 


52.08 


41.9 


41.9 


42.2 


1.37 


1.37 


1.33 


57.48 


57.22 


56.09 


40.2 


40.0 


40.7 


1.40 


1.39 


1.35 


56.23 


55.68 


54.95 


43.1 


42.9 


42.8 


1.28 


1.27 


1.24 


55.08 


54.68 


53.13 


43.9 


43.6 


43.7 


1.45 


1.45 


1.41 


63.91 


63.08 


61.60 


38.4 


39.1 


38.6 


1.18 


1.18 


1.14 


45.37 


46.08 


44.04 


38.6 


38.8 


38.5 


1.19 


1.19 


1.15 


45.80 


45.98 


44.20 


37.1 


38.2 


36.9 


1.26 


1.26 


1.22 


46.62 


48.08 


45.05 


39.9 


41.0 


40.8 


1.09 


1.09 


1.06 


43.65 


44.66 


43.34 


40.7 


40.8 


40.9 


1.62 


1.80 


1.57 


65.81 


65.34 


64.08 


40.4 


40.3 


40.3 


1.73 


1.71 


1.68 


70.01 


68.95 


67.51 


40.9 


41.5 


41.9 


1.46 


1.46 


1.42 


59.82 


60.46 


59.59 


41.9 


42.5 


42.2 


1.35 


1.34 


1.32 


56.47 


56.77 


55.62 


40.7 


41.2 


40.9 


2.15 


2.15 


2.04 


87.52 


88.82 


83.49 


40.8 


41.4 


41.2 


2.32 


2.33 


2.19 


94.88 


96.35 


89.98 


40.5 


40.8 


40.3 


1.67 


1.67 


1.63 


67.82 


68.25 


65.75 


39.0 


38.7 


39.6 


2.21 


2.20 


2.17 


86.24 


85.05 


85.88 


40.3 


40.2 


40.7 


2.12 


2.12 


2.06 


85.66 


85.27 


83.95 


39.8 


39.9 


39.9 


2.16 


2.16 


2.07 


86.08 


86.34 


82.37 


40.4 


40.8 


40.4 


2.07 


2.07 


2.03 


83.57 


84.42 


82.15 


41.8 


41.5 


41.9 


1.77 


1.78 


1.77 


73.83 


73.85 


74.06 


40.1 


39.8 


40.3 


1.80 


1.80 


1.77 


72.22 


71.60 


71.13 


39.8 


40.2 


40.5 


2.00 


2.00 


1.97 


79.70 


80.38 


79.73 


41.0 


41.1 


41.7 


1.98 


1.98 


1.91 


81.34 


81.22 


79.79 


39.7 


39.5 


40.2 


2.53 


2.54 


2.40 


100.55 


100.25 


96.67 


40.5 


40.0 


40.4 


2.09 


2.07 


2.02 


84.43 


82.85 


81.56 


41.1 


40.6 


41.4 


2.06 


2.05 


2.03 


84.68 


83.20 


84.07 


40.0 


40.2 


40.7 


2.10 


2.09 


2.04 


83.85 


84.01 


82.84 


42.5 


42.1 


42.8 


2.11 


2.11 


2.02 


89.67 


88.79 


86.35 


39.8 


39.3 


40.1 


2.30 


2.29 


2.23 


91.53 


89.98 


89.60 


39.7 


40.0 


40.7 


2.08 


2.09 


2.02 


82.54 


83.53 


82.32 


39.3 


39.7 


39.3 


1.95 


1.96 


1.94 


76.79 


78.04 


76.48 


37.9 


39.3 


40.7 


2.03 


2.00 


1.96 


77.12 


78.56 


79.74 


40.5 


40.6 


40.5 


2.12 


2.11 


2.05 


86.06 


85.73 


82.92 


41.5 


41.3 


41.4 


1.92 


1.86 


1.80 


79.62 


76.92 


74.75 


40.3 


40.1 


40.1 


1.98 


1.99 


1.93 


79.55 


80.02 


77.51 


40.3 


40.4 


40.3 


2.34 


2.34 


2.26 


94.38 


94.46 


90.81 


40.1 


40.1 


40.4 


1.87 


1.87 


1.84 


75.08 


75.01 


74.27 


40.3 


39.8 


40.1 


2.06 


2.06 


2.03 


83.19 


81.87 


81.50 


39.9 


40.2 


40.3 


1.76 


1.75 


1.64 


70.13 


70.51 


66.26 


39.2 


39.1 


40.1 


1.91 


1.93 


1.88 


74.74 


75.27 


75.52 


40.5 


41.0 


41.2 


2.04 


2.03 


2.02 


82.79 


83.34 


82.96 


40.3 


40.3 


40.8 


1.76 


1.76 


1.75 


70.96 


70.84 


71.54 


41.2 


40.7 


41.9 


1.87 


1.87 


1.78 


77.16 


75.90 


74.48 


41.5 


40.5 


41.6 


1.68 


1.68 


1.67 


69.83 


68.13 


69.68 


40.7 


40.3 


41.5 


1.87 


1.85 


1.75 


76.16 


74.69 


72.53 


41.0 


41.1 


40.9 


2.55 


2.54 


2.49 


104.72 


104.39 


101.82 


40.8 


40.6 


40.7 


2.03 


2.02 


1.94 


82.73 


81.76 


78.97 


40.0 


40.2 


40.2 


1.56 


1.54 


1.49 


62.35 


62.07 


59.83 


40.8 


40.7 


40.6 


2.33 


2.32 


2.24 


95.15 


94.54 


90.86 


41.5 


41.9 


41.7 


1.51 


1.51 


1.46 


62.59 


63.14 


60.74 


38.7 


40.1 


39.8 


2.03 


2.03 


1.97 


78.67 


81.26 


78.28 


38.6 


39.8 


40.0 


2.20 


2.20 


2.12 


81.97 


87.61 


84.75 


38.8 


40.6 


39.4 


1.72 


1.72 


1.67 


66.96 


69.76 


65.82 


43.0 


42.8 


43.4 


1.89 


1.89 


1.82 


81.34 


80.83 


78.79 


38.9 


39.0 


38.9 


1.07 


1.07 


1.03 


41.45 


41.70 


39.90 


38.7 


39.3 


38.8 


1.04 


1.05 


1.01 


40.20 


41.16 


39.02 


40.6 


39.0 


39.9 


1.03 


1.02 


0.98 


41.75 


39.85 


39.16 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled liquors 

Malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products. 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Other leather products 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

*Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

"Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery, industrial 

Primary iron and steel ' 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

* Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

•Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment 

Telecommunication equipment 

Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners' and appli 
ances „ 

Wire and cable 

Miscellaneous electrical products 

*Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

♦Durable manufactured goods industries. 



726 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



TABLE C-6— EARNINGS AND HOURS OF HOURLY-RATED 
WAGE EARNERS IN MANUFACTURING 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 



Period 



Average 

Hours 

Worked 

Per Week 



Average 

Hourly 

Earnings 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 



Index Number of 
Average Weekly 
Wages (1949 = 100) 



Current 
Dollars 



1959 
Dollars 



Monthly Average 1955 
Monthly Average 1956 
Monthly Average 1957 
Monthly Average 1958 
Monthly Average 1959 

Last Pay Period in: 

1960 April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. . . 

October 

November. . . 
December 

1961 January 

February 

Marchf 

April* 



No. 

41.0 
41.0 
40.4 
40.2 
40.7 



40.5 
40.1 
40.4 
40.6 
40.5 
40.9 
40.6 
40.6 
38.7 

40.1 
40.4 
40.3 
40.6 



1.45 
1.52 
1.61 
1.66 
1.72 



1.79 
1.79 
1.79 
1.77 
1.76 
1.77 
1.78 
1.79 
1.82 

1.81 
1.82 
1.83 
1.84 



59.45 
62.40 
64.96 
66.77 
70.16 



72.37 

71.69 

72.19 

72.01f 

71.46 

72.37 

72.66 

72.82 

70.60 

72.76 
73.40 
73.64 
74.52 



No. 

142.4 
149.5 
155.6 
160.0 
168.1 



173.4 
171.8 
173.0 
172.5 
171.2 
173.4 
174.1 
174.5 
169.1 

174.3 
175.9 
176.4 
178.5 



122.4 
126.3 
127.4 
127.7 
132.8 



136.1 
134.6 
135.6 
134.9 
133.3 
134.0 
134.3 
134.6 
130.9 

135.2 
136.2 
136.7 
138.4 



Note: The index of average weekly wages in 1949 dollars is computed by dividing the index of average weekly 
wages in current dollars by the Consumer Price Index. For a more complete statement of uses and limitations of the 
adjusted figures see Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S., page ii. 

t Revised. 

X Latest figures subject to revision. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



727 



D — National Employment Service Statistics 

Tables D-l to D-5 are based on two statistical reports of the National Employment 
Service. These reports serve different operational purposes and, therefore, the data are 
not necessarily identical. 

TABLE D-l— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Period 



Unfilled Vacancies* 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Registrations for Employment 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Date Nearest: 

June 1,1955... 

June 1,1956... 

June 1,1957... 

June 1,1958... 

June 1,1959... 

June 1,1960... 

July 1,1960... 

August 1,1960... 

September 1, 1960... 

October 1,1960... 

November 1, 1960... 

December 1, 1960... 

January 1,1961... 

February 1,1961... 

March 1,1961... 

April 1,1961... 

May 1, 1961 a> 

June 1, 1961 0) 



21,675 
44,157 
28,041 
15,172 
19,758 

21,772 

17,227 
14,673 
13,748 
12,239 
11,944 
15,932 

9,859 
8,866 
8,786 
9,927 
14,098 
17,078 



18,451 
22,612 
19,163 
14,677 
18,044 

17,210 

15,875 
12,594 
14,427 
13,796 
10,866 
10,799 

7,996 
8,377 
9,513 
11,387 
13,802 
17,208 



40,126 
66,769 
47,204 
29,849 
37,802 

38,982 

33,102 
27,267 
28,175 
26,035 
22,810 
26,731 

17,855 
17,243 
18,299 
21,314 
27,900 
34,286 



205,630 
160,642 
226,022 
444,584 
342,605 

389,576 

258,719 
242,582 
236,969 
228,632 
281,484 
393,856 

570,789 
668,766 
691,351 
683,034 
594,904 
418,218 



76,273 
68,697 
80,973 
156,584 
140,615 

152,848 

131,936 
128,062 
117,044 
115,358 
124,255 
144,123 

163,893 
185,972 
186,991 
180,982 
172,884 
151,611 



281,903 
229,339 
306,995 
601,168 
483,220 

542,424 

390,655 
370,644 
354,013 
343,990 
405,739 
537,979 

734,682 
854,738 
878,342 
864,016 
767,788 
569,829 



u> Latest figures subject to revision. 

* Current Vacancies only. Deferred Vacancies are excluded. 



728 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 






TABLE D-2— UNFILLED VACANCIES BY INDUSTRY AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 28, 

1961(0 

(Source: National Employment Service. Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Industry 



Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping 

Forestry 

Mining, Quarrying and Oil Wells 

Metal Mining 

Fuels 

Non Metal Mining 

Quarrying, Clay and Sand Pits 

Prospecting 

Manufacturing 

Foods and Beverages 

Tobacco and Tobacco Products 

Rubber Products 

Leather Products 

Textile Products (except clothing) 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Wood Products 

Paper Products 

Printing, Publishing and Allied Industries 

Iron and Steel Products 

Transportation Equipment 

Non Ferrous Metal Products 

Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 

Non Metallic Mineral Products 

Products of Petroleum and Coal 

Chemical Products 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 

Construction 

General Contractors 

Special Trade Contractors 

Transportation, Storage and Communication 

Transportation 

Storage 

Communication 

Public Utility Operation 

Trade 

Wholesale 

Retail 

Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 

Service 

Community or Public Service 

Government Service 

Recreation Service 

Business Service 

Personal Service 

GRAND TOTAL 



Male 



745 
967 

715 

360 
221 

59 
9 

66 

2,871 

233 

2 

19 

66 

91 

114 

266 

168 

114 

510 

419 

97 

223 

169 

20 

239 

121 

1,026 

680 
346 

1,218 

1,030 
21 
167 

117 

2,084 

667 
1,417 

660 

4,299 

591 

2,454 

88 

465 

701 



14,702 



Female 



183 



37 

14 
13 
3 
3 

4 

1,784 

272 
2 
5 

101 
90 

581 
66 
57 
91 

104 
54 
38 
96 
32 
7 
86 

102 

102 

70 
32 

318 

202 

11 

105 

52 

1,905 

418 
1,487 

689 

9,052 

2,099 
767 
124 
399 

5,663 



14,126 



Total 



971 

752 

374 

234" 

62 

12 
70 

4,655 

505 
4 

24 
167 
181 
695 
332 
225 
205 
614 
473 
135 
319 
201 

27 
325 
223 

1,128 

750 
378 

1,536 

1,232 
32 

272 

169 

3,989 

1,085 
2,904 

1,349 

13,351 

2,690 

3,221 

212 

864 

6,364 



28,828 



Change from 



March 
30, 1961 



+ 909 



466 

179 
176 

57 
3 

57 

930 

202 

3 

9 

12 

29 

59 



29 

132 

138 

28 

15 

67 

9 

50 



294 

186 
108 

220 

167 
12 
41 

96 



+ 663 

+ 82 
+ 581 

+ 163 

+ 3,442 

+ 496 
+ 1,070 
+ 66 
+ 213 
+ 1,597 



+ 7,491 



April 
29, 1960 



- 1,142 

- 540 

- 294 

- 234 
+ 36 

- 5 

- 43 

- 630 

- 238 

- 8 

- 9 
+ 47 

- 30 
+ 32 

- 121 
+ 34 



3 

227 
74 
91 
21 

78 
48 

511 

413 



227 

8 

119 

17 

756 

393 
363 



47 

98 

- 236 
+ 927 

88 

- 29 

- 672 



4,368 



U> Preliminary — subject to revision. 

Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



729 



TABLE D-3— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT BY 
OCCUPATION AND BY SEX AS AT APRIL 28, 1961 (i) 

(Source: National Employment Service. Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Occupational Group 


Unfilled Vacancies* 2 ) 


Registrat 


ions for Employment 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Professional and Managerial Workers 


1,957 
1,292 
1,497 

985 
12 

861 

4,698 

45 

125 

1,003 

48 

40 

17 

526 

120 

1 

154 

595 

463 

28 

207 

1,138 

90 

98 

2,796 

29 

97 

100 

1,510 

1,060 


1,490 

3,502 

887 

6,337 


3,447 
4,794 
2,384 
7,322 
12 
904 
5,717 

55 

804 

1,006 

63 
101 

17 
541 
143 
1 
154 
595 
474 

28 

366 

1,161 

110 

98 

3,320 

198 

108 

114 

1,510 

1,390 


9,659 
22,555 

9,973 
46,783 

2,957 

6,426 

297,305 

2,315 , 
4,340 

50,673 

1,752 

1,609 

866 

24,453 
5,462 
1,042 
3,916 

79,146 

58,273 
1,874 
7,832 

36,840 
6,765 

10,147 

199,246 
7,846 
27,066 
8,775 
102,937 
52,622 


2,145 

56,163 

21,764 

31,242 

75 

784 

26,855 

931 

16,124 

165 

744 

1,596 

56 

1,228 

1,525 

41 


11,804 

78,718 




31,737 


Personal and Domestic Service Workers. 


78,025 
3,032 


Agriculture, Fishing, Forestry (Ex. log). . 

Skilled and Semi-Skilled Workers 

Food and kindred products (incl. 


43 

1,019 

10 

679 

3 

15 
61 


7,210 

324,160 

3,246 




20,464 


Lumber and lumber products 


50,838 
2,496 


Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay and glass products 


3,205 
922 


15 
23 


25,681 




6,987 




1,083 






3,916 






13 

182 

4 

2,534 

1,322 

378 

12 

33,856 

10,397 

511 

860 

1 

22,087 


79,159 


Transportation (except seamen) 

Communications and public utility . . . 


11 


58,455 
1,878 


159 
23 
20 


10,366 


Other skilled and semi -skilled 


38,162 
7,143 




10,159 




524 

169 
11 
14 


233,102 




18,243 




27,577 
9,635 




102,938 




330 


74,709 






GEAND TOTAL 


14,098 


13,802 


27,900 


594,904 


172,884 


767,788 







d) Preliminary — subject to revision. 

(2) Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



730 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 1961 



TABLE D-4— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT APRIL 28, 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



1961 



Office 



Newfoundland . . 

Corner Brook . 
Grand Falls.. 
St. John's 



Prince Edward Island. 

Charlottetown 

Summerside 



Nova Scotia 

Amherst 

Bridgewater. . . 

Halifax 

Inverness 

Kentville 

Liverpool 

New Glasgow. 

Springhill 

Sydney 

Sydney Mines. 

Truro 

Yarmouth 



New Brunswick. 

Bathurst 

Campbellton. . 
Edmundston. . 
Fredericton... 

Minto 

Moncton 

Newcastle 

Saint John — 
St. Stephen... 

Sussex 

Woodstock 



Quebec 

Alma 

Asbestos 

Baie Comeau 

Beauharnois 

Buckingham 

Causapscal 

Chandler 

Chicoutimi 

Cowans ville 

Dolbeau 

Drummondville 

Farnham 

Forestville 

Gaspe 

Granby 

Hull 

Joliette 

Jonquiere 

Lachute 

La Malbaie 

La Tuque 

Levis 

Louise ville 

Magog 

Maniwaki 

Matane 

Megan tic 

Mont-Laurier 

Montmagny 

Montreal 

New Richmond 

Port Alfred 

Quebec 

Rimouski 

Riviere du Loup 

Roberval 

Rouyn 

Ste. Agathe 

Ste. Anne de Belle vue. 

Ste. Therese 

St. Hyacinthe 

St. Jean 

St. Jer6me 

Sept-lles 

Shawinigan 

Sherbrooke 

Sorel 

Thetford Mines 

Trois-Rivieres 



Unfilled Vacancies^ 2 ) 



April 28, 
1961 



422 

39 

1 
382 

86 
31 
55 

933 

37 
17 

498 



7 
90 

1 
14 
22 
81 
38 

1,105 

21 

10 

175 

93 

24 

208 

226 

131 

94 

5 

118 

5,879 
12 
3 
11 
16 
12 
27 
8 

151 
15 
52 
44 

117 

4 

8 

36 

64 

136 
61 
29 
11 
43 
36 
22 
3 
17 
88 
1 
24 
11 
2,555 
35 
24 

543 
69 
96 
20 

120 
25 

118 
57 
49 
55 
39 
95 

146 

178 
57 
87 

127 



Previous 

Month 

March 30, 

1961 



263 

22 

6 

235 

99 

34 
65 

736 

42 

21 

452 



92 
16 
30 
2 
19 
13 
30 
19 

487 
18 
26 
19 
78 
32 

143 
16 

138 
10 
4 
3 

4,812 

10 
10 

2 
15 
16 
24 

9 
117 
18 
12 
31 
16 

2 

5 
16 
62 
78 
46 
23 



31 

1 

9 

27 

2 

166 

8 

2,105 

7 

444 

402 

63 

16 

54 

68 

17 

105 

25 

26 

49 

19 

68 

62 

159 

57 

28 

93 



Previous 

Year 
April 28, 



277 

37 

18 

222 

435 

120 
315 

826 

30 

42 

402 



184 
17 



37 



20 
30 

1,483 

13 

30 
287 
169 

47 
332 
189 
164 

13 

25 
214 

6,419 

41 

6 

78 

24 

104 

419 

3 

73 

72 

7 



3 

48 
16 
84 
59 
61 
15 
68 
20 
33 
23 
11 

153 
19 
3 
14 
10 
2,436 
28 
10 

738 
96 
27 
83 
34 
33 
63 
34 

115 
55 
40 

273 
43 

212 
67 
34 

187 



Registrations 



April 28, 
1961 



28,287 
6,166 
3,360 

18,761 

5,195 

3,125 
2,070 

37,617 

1,378 
2,225 
7,030 
1,291 
3,940 
896 
4,726 
1,468 
7,002 
2,163 
2,647 
2,851 

39,795 

5,669 
3,555 
3,557 
3,241 

707 
8,532 
3,977 
4,695 
2,236 

973 
2,653 

246,018 

3,142 

929 
1,420 
1,666 
1,861 
3,569 
2,233 
3,420 

583 
3,196 
2,583 

961 
1,756 
2,425 
2,670 
4,900 
5,140 
3,487 
1,020 
2,963 
1,599 
5,127 
1,620 

715 
2,116 
4,621 
1,989 
1,915 
3,159 
76,108 
2,649 
1,521 
16,310 
5,980 
7,845 
2,580 
5,395 
1,970 
1,381 
2,698 
2,881 
2,543 
2,400 
3,727 
6,273 
5,811 
2,390 
2,330 
6,437 



Previous 

Month 

March 30, 

1961 



31,2.15 

6,297 

3,584 

21,414 

5,828 
3,642 
2,186 
41,729 

1,567 
2,766 
7,007 
1,414 
4,585 
1,082 
5,344 
1,449 
8,357 
2,030 
2,497 
3,631 

41,740 

6,929 
3,937 
3,692 
3,229 
709 
9,994 
4,045 
3,566 
1,800 
1,015 
2,824 

280,491 

3,543 
1,096 
1,412 
1,930 
2,096 
3,880 
2,742 
3,710 
659 
3,230 
2,910 
1,099 
1.917 
2,581 
3,105 
6,380 
5,919 
3,619 
1,277 
3,530 
1,688 
6,040 
1,920 
915 
2,282 
5,103 
2,221 
2,255 
3,540 

88,063 
3,007 
2,153 

18,394 
6,552 
8,658 
2,708 
5,210 
2,100 
1,610 
3,209 
3,368 
2,891 
2,648 
3,965 
7,000 
7,439 
2,960 
3,063 
7,549 



Previous 

Year 
April 28, 



26,946 

5,820 
3,182 
17,944 

5,180 

3,206 
1,974 

33,324 

1,476 
2,118 
7,108 
1,408 
3,706 
890 
4,247 
1,391 
5,562 



2,296 
3,122 

37,869 

5,322 
3,514 
3,167 
3,187 
1,019 
8,620 
3,868 
3,763 
1,844 
930 
2,635 

256,181 

3,202 

992 
1,272 
1,543 
1,809 
3,937 
2,513 
2,966 

609 
3,338 
2,909 

913 
2,030 
2,517 
2,029 
5,424 
5,762 
3,154 
1,174 
2,910 
1,376 
5,672 
1,925 

692 
1,951 
4,861 
2,081 
1,862 
3,016 
78,327 
2,739 
1,435 
17,203 
5,981 
8,060 
2,771 
5,953 
2,001 
1,427 
3,019 
3,239 
3,241 
2,799 
2,991 
6,337 
6,537 
3,063 
2,594 
6,524 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



731 



TABLE D-4— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT APRIL 28, 1961 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Office 



Unfilled Vacancies^ 2 ) 



April 28, 
1961 



Previous 

Month 

March 30, 

1961 



Previous 
Year 

April 28, 
1960 



Registrations 



April 28, 
1961 



Previous 

Month 

March 30, 

1961 



•Quebec— Cont'd. 

Vald'Or 

Valleyfield 

Victor iaville 

Ville St. Georges. 

Ontario 

Arnprior 

Barrie 

Belleville 

Bracebridge 

Brampton 

Brantford 

Brockville 

Carle ton Place 

Chatham 

Cobourg 

Collingwood 

Cornwall 

Elliot Lake 

Fort Erie 

Fort Frances 

Fort William 

Gait 

Gananoque 

Goderich 

Guelph 

Hamilton 

Hawkesbury 

Kapuskasing 

Kenora 

Kingston 

Kirkland Lake.. . 

Kitchener 

Leamington 

Lindsay 

Listowel 

London 

Long Branch 

Midland 

Napanee 

Newmarket 

Niagara Falls 

North Bay 

Oakville 

Orillia 

Oshawa 

Ottawa 

Owen Sound 

Parry Sound 

Pembroke 

Perth 

Peterborough 

Picton 

Port Arthur 

Port Colborne 

Prescott 

Renfrew 

St. Catharines 

St. Thomas 

Sarnia 

Sault Ste. Marie. . 

Simcoe 

Sioux Lookout. . . . 

Smiths Falls 

Stratford 

Sturgeon Falls. . . . 

Sudbury 

Tillsonburg 

Timmins 

Toronto 

Trenton 

Walkerton 

Wallaceburg 

Welland 

Weston 

Windsor 

Woodstock 

Manitoba 

Brandon 

Dauphin 

Flin Flon 

Portage la Prairie 

The Pas 

Winnipeg 



36 

46 
56 
184 

10,376 

55 
55 
117 

87 
48 
75 

47 
26 

102 
47 
7 
95 
48 
8 
52 

174 
77 
16 
27 
28 

854 
18 
33 
61 
86 
63 

132 
29 
15 
23 

555 



37 
43 
71 

132 
21 

100 

962 
42 
9 

112 
25 
74 
11 

443 
22 
42 
14 

220 
43 

135 

149 

48 

7 

4 

67 
16 

338 
49 

126 

2,752 

83 

72 

17 

169 

256 

198 
50 

3,063 

236 
56 
25 
45 

108 
2,593 



21 

8 

33 

91 

8,246 

56 
20 
74 
34 
28 
51 
40 
18 
90 
45 
10 
68 
19 
4 
19 
52 
51 
11 
22 
21 
712 
15 



38 

117 

33 

9 

24 

505 

146 

15 

5 

31 

49 

46 

94 

32 

52 

858 

36 



57 

29 

43 

13 

280 

18 

43 

11 

340 

33 

83 

159 

101 

1 

7 

51 

6 

175 

37 

43 

2,211 

65 

52 

17 

160 

268 

234 

30 

1,668 

184 
70 
17 
36 
73 
1,288 



19 
23 
38 
43 

10,202 

27 
43 

138 

104 
29 

125 
34 
4 
61 
40 
11 

239 
53 
29 

101 

191 
81 
61 
12 
54 

871 
25 
9 
74 

137 
75 

130 
22 
24 
27 

595 

174 
16 
6 
44 
83 
70 
86 
28 
99 

811 
55 
2 

111 
38 

126 
4 

437 
13 
45 
13 

182 
51 

111 

192 

102 
17 
68 
43 
19 

283 
24 

153 
2,652 
55 
77 
5 
75 

140 

206 
60 

2,684 

352 
54 
36 
88 
193 
1,961 



3,594 
2,926 
2,768 
4,716 

236,781 

464 

1,651 

2,566 

1,800 

1,806 

3,114 

851 

456 

3,008 

1,114 

1,052 

4,040 

560 

666 

1,045 

3,403 

2,158 

386 

669 

2,585 

18,414 

1,093 

2,687 

1,271 

2,349 

2,355 



145 
699 

877 
530 

817 



1,129 

748 
1,931 
3,262 
3,055 
1,075 
1,447 
5,176 
8,132 
2,022 

689 
2,644 

743 
4,855 

410 
6,070 

957 
1,040 

671 
5,073 
1,544 
3,060 
3,994 
1,929 

497 

666 
1,116 
1,147 
6,183 

900 
3,705 
58,567 

994 
1,044 
1,108 
2,565 
4,707 
10,998 
1,688 

32,500 

2,913 
2,078 

277 
1,428 

496 
25,308 



3,454 
3,393 
3,266 
5,232 

265,830 

586 
1,925 
2,892 
2,114 
2,057 
3,574 

991 

501 
3,401 
1,241 
1,196 
4,327 

563 

990 
1,174 
4,305 
2,474 

520 

915 
2,854 
20,512 
1,710 
1,956 
1,604 
2,674 
2,251 
4,592 
2,076 
1,011 

670 
6,708 
5,377 
1,589 

987 
2,122 
3,757 
3,310 
1,317 
1,674 
5,628 
9,469 
2,778 

913 
2,875 

842 
5,497 

645 
6,735 
1,153 
1,320 

805 
5,964 
1,609 
3,529 
4,552 
1,962 

477 

775 
1,341 
1,438 
6,333 
1,031 
3,607 
64,487 
1,198 
1,413 
1,225 
2,808 
5,264 
11,879 
1,781 

36,050 

3,398 

2,619 

317 

1,784 

524 

27,408 



732 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 J 



TABLE D-4— UNFILLED VACANCIES AND REGISTRATIONS AT APRIL 28, 1961 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 





Unfilled Vacancies^ 2 ) 


Registrations 


Office 


(i) 

April 28, 
1961 


Previous 

Month 

March 30, 

1961 


Previous 
Year 

April 28, 
1960 


U) 

April 28, 
1961 


Previous 

Month 

March 30, 

1961 


Previous 
Year 

April 28, 
1960 


Saskatchewan 


1,263 

45 
55 
58 
42 
166 
298 
374 
59 
29 
137 

2,560 

20 

750 

117 

1,057 

49 

87 
175 

91 
214 

2,313 

69 
31 
29 
57 
27 
39 
22 
2 

46 
74 
17 

266 
28 
47 
69 
34 
51 
41 
38 

974 
31 

161 

160 

27,900 

14,098 
13,802 


1,063 

36 

36 

93 

61 

202 

215 

256 

51 

15 

98 

2,201 

61 
502 
130 
955 
53 
77 
101 
103 
219 

1,739 

55 
19 
37 
13 
16 
54 
23 
3 
46 
12 
21 

183 
31 
49 
43 
24 
29 
26 
44 

787 
27 

133 
64 

21,314 

9,927 
11,387 


1,390 

69 

72 

221 

53 

115 

301 

307 

85 

30 

137 

4,194 

2 
1,093 
24 
2,612 
35 
41 
128 
119 
140 

2,490 

78 
18 
44 
15 
38 
5 
19 

105 
27 
27 
28 

242 
10 
23 
44 
11 
20 
36 

124 

1,098 

61 

156 

261 

30,400 

15,913 

14,487 


22,796 

537 

681 

1,712 

1,541 

2,860 

5,325 

5,400 

823 

592 

3,325 

41,853 

841 

11,816 

788 

19,699 

828 

1,753 

2,767 

1,259 

2,102 

76,946 

1,834 
1,086 
1,531 
1,747 

708 
1,490 
1,510 

234 
1,194 
1,224 
1,220 
10,204 
1,881 

790 
3,896 
2,051 

650 
2,061 
1,206 
32,420 
2,286 
4,842 

881 

767,788 
594,904 

172,884 


28,267 
756 

788 
2,227 
1,900 
3,174 
6,667 
6,627 
1,366 

831 
3,931 

46,160 

858 

12,980 

880 

21,116 

944 

1,680 

3,645 

1,728 

2,329 

86,626 

2,398 
1,437 
1,807 
1,520 

927 
1,843 
1,985 

296 
1,567 
1,566 
1,510 
11,832 
2,226 

981 
3,197 
1,954 

732 
1,970 
1,363 
36,293 
3,050 
5,394 

778 

864,016 

683,034 
180,982 


23,313 

647 






651 




1 714 


North Battleford 


1 498 




3 044 




5 425 




5 290 




853 




582 




3,609 

41,190 

696 


Alberta 






11 279 




823 




20,577 




916 




1 379 




2 560 




1,042 


Red Deer. . . 


1 918 


British Columbia 


72,105 




1,620 




990 




1 635 




1 423 




754 




1,615 




1,529 




252 




1,303 




1 061 




1,151 




9,198 




1,497 




731 




3,739 




1,730 




452 




2,029 


Trail 


1,196 




30,559 




2,483 




4,622 




536 


Canada 


756,432 




581,558 




174,874 







W Preliminary subject to revision. 

< 2 > Current vacancies only. Deferred vacancies are excluded. 



TABLE D-5— PLACEMENTS EFFECTED BY EMPLOYMENT OFFICES, 1956-1961 

(Source: National Employment Service, Unemployment Insurance Commission) 



Year 


Total 


Male 


Female 


Atlantic 
Region 


Quebec 
Region 


Ontario 
Region 


Prairie 
Region 


Pacific 
Region 


1956 


1,046,979 
877,704 
840,129 
986,073 
958,300 
238,101 
253,311 


748,464 
586,780 
548,663 
661,872 
641,872 
157,635 
167,765 


298,515 
290,924 
291,466 
324,201 
316,428 
80,466 
85,546 


68,522 
59,412 
56,385 
70,352 
86,848 
21,406 
22,217 


252,783 
215,335 
198,386 
239,431 
252,019 
63,597 
74,205 


379,085 
309,077 
287,112 
336,527 
302,048 
81,405 
82,171 


210,189 
185,962 
181,772 
211,951 
198,474 
48,032 
52,368 


136,400 


1957 


107,918 


1958 


116,474 
127,812 
118,911 


1959 


1960 


1960 (4 months) 


23,661 
22,350 


1961 (4 months) 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 196? 



733 



E — Unemployment Insurance 

TABLE E-l— BENEFICIARIES AND BENEFIT PAYMENTS BY PROVINCE, APRIL 1961 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 



Estimated 
Average 

Number of 
Beneficiaries 

Per Week 
(in thousands) 



Weeks 
Paid 



Amount 

of 

Benefit 

Paid 

S 



Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta 

British Columbia 

Total, Canada, April 1961. 
Total, Canada, March 1961 
Total, Canada, April 1960. 



37.6 

6.2 

39.1 

39.8 

230.3 

203.1 

30.5 

20.9 

34.9 

65.8 



708.2 
807.1 
732.9 



143,066 
23,514 
148,456 
151,407 
875,214 
771,878 
115,932 
79,569 
132,445 
249,850 



2,691,331 
3,551,350 
2,758,064 



3,503,835 

519,910 

3,354,173 

3,422,306 

21,082,701 

18,416,372 

2,813,566 

1,913,302 

3,264,754 

6,249,284 



64,540,203 
85,187,924 
61,767,881 



TABLE E-2— CLAIMANTS CURRENTLY REPORTING TO LOCAL OFFICES BY 
NUMBER OF WEEKS ON CLAIM, PROVINCE AND SEX, AND PERCENTAGE 

POSTAL, APRIL 1961 

(Counted on last working day of the month) 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province and Sex 



Total 
Claimants 



Number of weeks on claim 



2 or 
Less 



3-4 



5-8 



13-16 17-20 



Over 
20 



Percent- 
age 
Postal 



April 
29, 1960 
Total 
claimants 



Canada 

Male 

Female 

Newfoundland 

Male 

Female 

Prince Edward Island 

Male 

Female 

Nova Scotia 

Male 

Female 

New Brunswick 

Male 

Female 

Quebec 

Male 

Female 

Ontario 

Male 

Female 

Manitoba 

Male 

Female 

Saskatchewan 

Male 

Female 

Alberta 

Male 

Female 

British Columbia 

Male 

Female 



713,147 
556,963 
156,184 



106,630 
81,629 
25,001 



51,530 
41,265 
10,265 



93,601 
74,853 
18,748 



89,335 
71,324 
18,011 



99,877 
79,262 
20,615 



102,055 
85,599 
16,456 



170,119 
123,031 
47,088 



39.5 
43.7 
24.4 



714,894 
555,885 
159,009 



30,423 

28,490 

1,933 

5,059 

4,230 

829 

38,539 

33,357 

5,182 

39,218 

33,788 

5,430 

228,346 
183,117 
45,229 

213,303 
152,934 



32,514 

25,443 

7,071 

20,446 
16,188 
4,258 

37,687 

30,061 

7,626 

67,612 
49,355 
18,257 



1,802 

1,599 

203 

390 

329 

61 

5,888 

5,326 

562 

4,803 

4,170 

633 

31,728 
23,024 
8,704 

36,268 

26,661 

9,607 

4,820 
3,740 
1,080 

2,672 

2,140 

532 

6,891 
5,657 
1,234 

11,368 
8,983 
2,385 



1,168 

1,084 

84 

178 
148 
30 

2,475 

2,178 

297 

2,665 

2,419 

246 

15,497 
12,088 
3,409 

16,049 
12,184 
3,865 

2,750 

2,184 

566 

1,408 

1,156 

252 

3,640 

3,072 

568 

5,700 

4,752 

948 



3,038 

2,863 

175 

363 

289 

74 

3,485 

2,981 

504 

4,590 

4,054 

536 

31,039 
25,971 
5,068 

28,421 

20,799 

7,622 

5,188 
4,002 
1,186 

2,523 

1,993 

530 

5,984 
4,906 
1,078 

8,970 
6,995 
1,975 



3,992 

3,766 

226 

470 
417 
53 

3,907 

3,300 

607 

4,648 

4,108 

540 

32,295 
27,889 
4,406 

23,849 
16,744 
7,105 

5,382 
4,108 
1,274 

2,592 

2,028 

564 

5,359 
4,219 
1,140 

6,841 
4,745 
2,096 



4,916 

4,588 

328 

813 
696 
117 

6,670 
5,793 

877 

6,359 
5,584 

775 

32,876 
27,860 
5,016 

26,376 
18,726 
7,650 

5,255 
4,113 
1,142 

3,427 
2,611 



5,487 
4,252 
1,235 

7,698 
5,039 
2,659 



7,511 

7,304 

207 

1,519 
1,323 



6,956 

6,319 

637 

7,128 

6,477 

651 

32,694 

28,107 

4,587 

27,087 

20,701 

6,386 

4,314 
3,626 



3,377 
2,869 



4,128 

3,412 

716 

7,341 
5,461 
1.880 



7,996 

7,286 

710 

1,326 

1,028 

298 

9,158 
7,460 
1,698 

9,025 
6,976 
2,049 

52,217 
38,178 
14,039 

55,253 
37,119 
18,134 

4,805 
3,670 
1,135 

4,447 
3,391 
1,056 



4,543 
1,655 



13,380 
6,314 



79.0 
80.9 
49.9 

72.9 
76.0 
56.8 

54.3 
56.0 
43.1 



53.2 

42.9 
47.3 
24.8 

23.8 
25.7 
19.0 

34.6 
39.6 
16.7 

52.9 
57.3 
35.9 

36.5 
39.3 
24.8 

32.6 
36.0 
23.3 



28,991 

27,345 

1,646 

4,975 

4,222 

753 

39,743 
34,556 
5,187 

37,428 
32,003 
5,425 

244,031 
196,218 
47,813 

208,962 
147,155 
61,807 

29,612 
22,064 
7,548 

20,167 
16,042 
4,125 

36,544 

29,172 

7,372 

64,441 
47,108 
17,333 



734 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



TABLE E-3— INITIAL AND RENEWAL CLAIMS FOR BENEFIT BY PROVINCE, 

APRIL, 1961 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



Province 


Claims 


filed at Local Offices 


Disposal of Claims and Claims Pending at 
End of Month 


Total* 


Initial 


Renewal 


Total 

Disposed 

oft 


Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Not 
Entitled 

to 
Benefit 


Pending 




6,185 

1,233 

13,819 

11,344 

62,843 

67,670 

8,033 

5,553 

12,087 

20,784 


5,225 

1,034 

8,367 

8,161 

44,234 

44,598 

5,921 

4,441 

8,573 

13,560 


960 

199 

5,452 

3,183 

18,609 

23,072 

2,112 

1,112 

3,514 

7,224 


6,444 
1,270 
15,148 
12,492 
70,653 
74,530 
9,289 
6,115 
15,096 
23,751 


5,562 
1,132 
13,672 
11,363 
62,321 
64,973 
7,914 
5,240 
12,936 
20,357 


882 
138 
1,476 
1,129 
8,332 
9,557 
1,375 
875 
2,160 
3,394 


1,843 




216 




2,736 




2,114 




15,425 




13,856 




1,288 




1,133 




2,115 




4,169 






Total, Canada, April 1961 . . 
Total, Canada, March 1961 
Total, Canada, April 1960. . 


209,551 
259,399 
214,623 


144,114 
182,980 
149,886 


65,437 
76,419 
64,737 


234,788 
252,245 
232,894 


205,470 
224,150 
204,557 


29,318 
28,095 
28,337 


44,895 
70,132 
54,269 



* In addition, revised claims received numbered 42,461. 

t In addition, 43,515 revised claims were disposed of. Of these, 5,164 were special requests not granted and 1,350 
were appeals by claimants. There were 10,793 revised claims pending at the end of the month. 



TABLE E-4— ESTIMATES OF THE INSURED POPULATION UNDER THE UNEMPLOY- 
MENT INSURANCE ACT 

Source: Report on Operation of the Unemployment Insurance Act, D.B.S. 



End of: 


Total 


Employed 


Claimants 


1961— March 


4,226,000 
4,273,000 
4,270,000 

4,238,000 
4,151,000 
4,042,000 
4,037,000 
4,040,000 
4,024,000 
4,048,000 
3,988,000 
4,222,000 
4,307,000 


3,388,000 
3,400,200 
3,423,100 

3,533,900 
3,665,800 
3,711,800 
3,757,500 
3,759,800 
3,729,900 
3,751,600 
3,623,700 
3,507,100 
3,484,000 


838,000 




872,800 




846,900 


1960 — December 


754,100 




485,200 




330,200 




279,500 




280,200 


July 


294,100 




296,400 




364,300 




714,900 




823,000 







THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796 J 



735 



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THF LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 



F — Prices 
TABLE F-l— TOTAL AND MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

1957 Weighted 

(1949 = 100) 

Calculated by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics 



Total 



Food 



Housing 



Clothing 


Transpor- 
tation 


108.2 


133.2 


109.5 


136.6 


109.7 


140.5 


111.0 


141.1 


111.2 


141.1 


111.1 


139.9 


110.5 


140.2 


110.7 


138.8 


111.3 


138.7 


112.4 


141.9 


112.4 


141.8 


111.6 


141.1 


111.5 


141.1 


111.8 


141.0 


111.9 


141.0 


112.4 


141.8 


112.5 


141.2 



Health 

and 

Personal 

Care 



Recre- 
ation 
and 
Reading 



Tobacco 

and 
Alcohol 



1957— Year 

1958— Year 

1959— Year 

1960— Year 

1960— June 

July 

August 

September 
October... 
November 
December. 

1961— January. . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 



122.6 
125.7 
127.2 
128.4 

128.6 
128.3 
128.6 
128.2 
128.7 
129.1 
129.3 

129.2 
128.9 
129.1 
129.1 
129.0 
129.0 



118.6 
122.9 
122.2 
122.6 

122.6 
122.6 
123.3 
122.5 
123.5 
123.5 
124.2 

124.4 
124.0 
124.0 
123.9 
123.2 
123.5 



127.3 
129.3 
131.5 
132.9 

132.9 
132.9 
133.1 
133.2 
133.3 
133.3 
133.3 

133.2 
133.1 
133.2 
133.2 
132.9 
132.9 



139.9 
146.6 
151.0 
154.8 



155. 
155. 
154. 
154. 
155. 
154. 



7 
7 
154.9 

155.0 
154.6 
154.4 
155.3 
155.3 
155.0 



134.2 
142.0 
144.4 
145.6 

145.4 
145.0 
145.1 
145.1 
145.8 
146.6 
146.6 

146.3 
146.7 
146.6 
145.5 
146.0 
145.8 



109.1 
110.1 
113.8 
115.8 

115.7 
115.8 
115.8 
115.8 
115.8 
115.8 
115.8 

115.8 
115.7 
115.7 
115.8 
115.8 
115.8 



TABLE F-2— CONSUMER PRICE INDEXES FOR REGIONAL CITIES OF CANADA AT 
THE BEGINNING OF MAY 1961 

(1949 = 100) 





Total 


Food 


Shelter 


Clothing 


House- 
hold 
Operation 


Other 
Commo- 
dities 
and 
Services 




May 
1960 


April 
1961 


May 

1961 


0>St. John's, Nfld 


115.9 

126.8 
128.6 
127.2 
127.7 
129.8 
124.8 
123.4 
123.3 
128.1 


116.8 
128.5 
129.9 
128.7 
129.6 
130.4 
127.0 
124.8 
124.5 
129.9 


116.7 

128.0 
129.7 
127.9 
129.0 
130.2 
126.6 
124.6 
124.2 
129.1 


111.2 
117.3 
121.7 
124.4 
120.2 
120.6 
121.8 
117.7 
115.8 
122.3 


114.3 

135.7 
140.5 
146.2 
149.4 
152.9 
135.8 
124.8 
125.2 
137.3 


110.7 
123.1 
120.8 
107.9 
114.7 
114.7 
116.9 
124.3 
120.7 
116.6 


112.1 

130.7 
124.6 
118.2 
122.4 
123.5 
119.5 
125.9 
127.5 
133.1 


132.9 


Halifax 


140.4 




144.4 




139.8 




140.6 


Toronto 


140.2 


Winnipeg 

Saskatoon — Regina 

Edmonton— Calgary 


137.6 
131.7 
134.1 
137.9 







N.B. Indexes above measure percentage changes in prices over time 
actual levels of prices as between cities. 

< l > St. John's index on the base June 1951 = 100. 



n each city and should not be used to compare 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7967 



737 



G — Strikes and Lockouts 

Statistical information on work stoppages in Canada is compiled by the Economics 
and Research Branch of the Department of Labour on the basis of reports from the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission. The first three tables in this section cover strikes 
and lockouts involving six or more workers and lasting at least one working day, and 
strikes and lockouts lasting less than one day or involving fewer than six workers but 
exceeding a total of nine man-days. The number of workers involved includes all workers 
reported on strike or locked out, whether or not they all belonged to the unions directly 
involved in the disputes leading to work stoppages. Workers indirectly affected, such as 
those laid off as a result of a work stoppage, are not included. For further notes on 
the series see page 422, April issue. 

TABLE G-l— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 1956-1961 





Strikes and 

Lockouts 

Beginning 

During Month 

or Year 


Strikes and Lockouts in Existence During Month or Year 


Month or Year 


Strikes and 
Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Duration in Man-Days 


Man-Days 


Per Cent of 

Estimated 

Working Time 


1956 


221 
242 
253 
203 
272 

22 
24 
22 
32 
33 
34 
28 
12 

6 

8 

21 

18 

33 


229 
249 
262 
218 
278 

39 
41 
37 
43 
57 
59 
61 
29 

21 
18 
34 
30 
50 


88,680 
91,409 
112,397 
100,127 
48,812 

7,191 

7,249 
5,186 
10,856 
13,072 
9,242 
5,889 
1,891 

2,346 
1,601 
4,426 
6,265 
13,001 


1,246,000 
1,634,880 
2,872,340 
2,286,900 
747,120 

75,260 
51,240 
39,100 
127,560 
115,280 
92,640 
52,520 
30,160 

28,140 
20,320 
41,160 
59,240 
111.980 


0.11 


1957 


0.14 


1958 


0.24 


1959 


0.19 


♦I960 . 


0.06 


♦I960" May 


0.07 




0.04 


July 


0.03 




0.11 




0.10 




0.09 




0.05 




0.03 


*1961: January 


0.03 




0.02 




0.04 




0.06 




0.10 







♦Preliminary. 



TABLE G-2— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, 
MAY 1961, BY INDUSTRY 

(Preliminary) 



TABLE G-3— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS 
MAY 1961, BY JURISDICTION 

(Preliminary) 



Industry 



Logging 

Fishing 

Mining 

Manufacturing 

Construction 

Transportation, etc. 

Public utilities 

Trade 

Service 



All industries. 



Strikes 

and 
Lockouts 



50 



Workers 
Involved 



560 
3,277 
6,773 

430 
15 

222 
1,724 



13,001 



Man- 
Days 



370 

58,320 

20,560 

2,910 

60 

1,810 

27,950 



111,980 



Jurisdiction 


Strikes 

and 

Lockouts 


Workers 
Involved 


Man- 
Days 




1 


41 


700 








2 
3 
7 
31 
1 


i,i79 
1,125 
3,151 
6,293 
41 


21,160 




20,250 




17,640 




49,080 




100 














British Columbia 

Federal 


1 

4 


421 
750 


1,900 
1,150 






All jurisdictions 


50 


13,001 


111,980 



738 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 796? 



TABLE G-4— STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS INVOLVING 100 OR MORE WORKERS, MAY 1961 

(Preliminary) 



Industry 

Employer 

Location 



Mining 
Metal Mining 

Stanrock Uranium Mines, 
Quirke Lake, Ont. 



Manufacturing 
Paper Products 
Building Products, 
Pont-Rouge, Que. 



Transportation Equipment 
Halifax Shipyards, 
Halifax & Dartmouth, N.S. 



Saint John Shipbuilding & Dry 

Dock, 
Saint John, N.B. 



Electrical Apparatus and Supplies 
Trane Company, 
Toronto, Ont. 

Miscellaneous Manufacturing 

Industries 
Sperry Gyroscope Co. of Canada, 
St. Laurent, Que. 

Construction 

Insulation Contractors' Associ- 
ation, 
Montreal area, Que. 



Corporation of Master Electri- 
cians (Montreal Sec.) 
Montreal, Que. 



Building Contractors, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Transportation Etc. 

Transportation 

Five stevedoring companies, 

Hamilton, Ont. 

Paul Guilbault Company, 
Grondines, Que. 

Trade 

Whyte Packing Co., 

Stratford, Ont. 

Service 

Government Service 
Municipality of Surrey, 
Cloverdale, B.C. 



City of Kingston, 
Kingston, Ont. 



Pergonal Service 
Royal York Hotel, 
Toronto, Ont. 



Union 



Steel workers Loc. 5662 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Pulp and Paper Workers' 
Federation (CNTU) 



Marine Workers' Federa- 
tion Locs. land 13(CLC) 



Five unions (AFL-CIO/ 
CLC and CLC) 



U.E. Loc. 512 (Ind.) 



I.U.E. Loc. 514 (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 



Asbestos Workers Loc. 58 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



I.B.E.W. Loc. 568 (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 



Building trades unions 
(Toronto Council AFL- 
CIO) 



I.L.A. Loc. 1829 (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

National Syndicate of 
Truck Drivers (CNTU) 



Packinghouse Workers 
Loc. 271 (AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Public Employees Loc. 402 
(CLC) 

Public Service Employees 
Loc. 9 (CLC) 



Hotel Employees Loc. 299 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 



Workers 
Involved 



560 



285 



1,106 



1,050 
(10) 



223 



100 



500 



2,000 



4,000 



150 



150 

(CO) 



140 



421 
126 



1,025 



Duration in 
Man-Days 



May 



370 



21,010 



19,950 



4,910 



2,200 



2,500 



5,000 



12,000 



750 



1,800 



350 



1,900 
250 



24,450 



Accu- 
mulated 



370 



33,160 



50,970 



27,830 



6,690 



11,840 



12,500 



5,000 



12,000 



750 



1,800 



350 



1,900 
250 



30,370 



Starting 
Date 

Termi- 
nation 
Date 



May 
May 



Nov. 24 
May 17 



Mar. 22 
May 29 



Apr. 19 

May 29 



Apr. 



Sept. 15 



May 25 
May 30 



April 24 



Major Issues 
Result 



Incentive bonus rates~ 
Return of workers pending 
further discussions. 



Wages~60 an hr. retro- 
active to Jan. 2, 1960, 5fS an 
hr. on date of signing, 5(4 an 
hr. one year later. 



Wages, fringe benefits-^ 
$40.00 in lieu of retroactive 
pay, semi-annual increases 
of H an hr. to Dec. 15, 
1963; improved fringe bene- 
fits. 

Wages~3j£ an hour increase 
immediately, another 30 
Dec. 1, 1961, and H June 1, 
1962. 



Wages, hours, fringe bene- 
fits~ 



Wages- 



April 
May 


3 

8 


Wages, statutory holidays, 
checkoff~25£ an hour in- 
crease in a 2-year agree- 
ment. 


May 
May 


15 
17 


Wages, allotment of ap- 
p.entices~250 an hour 
increase in a 2-year agree- 
ment. 


May 


29 


Union wages ~ 


May 
May 


12 
19 


"Gang System" of opera- 
tion~Return of workers. 


May 


1G 


Wages, working conditions, 
suspensions, layoffs~ 


May 
May 


24 
29 


Wages, workload~ Return 
of workers. 


May 


25 


Wages~ 



Wages, hours, overtime 
rates, seniority ~ Wage in- 
creases ranging from 5 to 10 
cents an hour according to 
classification. 

Wages ~ 



Figures in parentheses indicate the number of workers indirectly affected. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY J 96 1 



739 



H — Industrial Accidents 

TABLE H-l— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES IN CANADA DURING THE FIRST QUARTER 
OF 1961 BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES AND CAUSES 



Cause 


o 
a 

< 


be 
a 
'So 
1 


a 
'1 

H 

-o 

c 

co 
bfi 

S 

co 


bfi 
C 
'>> 

It 
(-. 

en 

=) 

"0 

C 

00 

M 
B 
'S 


bfi 
c 

3 


c 

03 


c 

'■£ 


s 





.2 

'-3 



CO O 

111 

li 

t< 

2-0 

£§ 


a 


8 

c 

CO 

3 


s 

1 

02 


1 

CJ 


3 


H 






























Struck by: 








2 


1 


2 
1 
5 
3 
5 

11 


.... 
.... 


1 

12 

1 

1 

12 






1 
1 
3 
1 
2 




7 










2 




17 




2 
5 
2 


6 

10 
2 


"25 


3 

"2 


4 
3 
1 

1 
7 
2 

8 

1 
1 
1 

30 

52 


M 


Caught in, on or between machinery, vehicles, etc 






?3 


2 




54 


Falls and slips: 


a 






11 

1 




1 
3 

6 

1 


"2 


5 


2 

2 

1 




6 
4 




43 


Conflagrations, temperature extremes and explosions 

Inhalation, absorptions, asphyxiation and industrial 


1 


15 

16 










2 










4 




1 






1 
1 

34 

45 






4 




8 






1 

26 

7 


18 
37 


3 


Total, first quarter 1961 


11 

10 


30 
32 


30 
27 


6 
5 


9 
16 


__ 


22 
22 




?,16 


Total, first quarter 1960 


253 







TABLE H-2— INDUSTRIAL FATALITIES BY PROVINCE AND GROUPS 
INDUSTRIES DURING THE FIRST QUARTER OF 1961 



OF 



Industry 


-d 




CO 




i 


a 
O 


9 


co 
1 


S3 




03 




1 








1 




1 
1 


6 
6 


1 

"1 
1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
3 






11 








19 

8 
1 
2 

2 




30 








17 




26 




1 
1 
2 








9 

14 
12 

2 

10 
4 


2 

1 
4 


4 
4 
2 


18 








2 


5 

6 

4 

11 


30 






2 


30 


Public Utilities 


6 


Transportation, Storage and Corn- 






1 

1 




1 
1 




2 
2 


9 

1 




34 


Trade 






9 
















1 








3 


12 


2 




2 


2 




22 






































Total 


5 




22 


2 


31 


75 


8 


9 


20 


44 




216* 







*Of this total 164 fatalities were reported by the various provincial Workmen's Compensation Boards and the Board 
of Transport Commissioners; details of the remaining 52 were obtained from other non-official sources. 



740 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • JULY 7961 




CANADA 



THE 



ABOUR 
AZETTE 




Published Monthly by 

PARTMENT OF 

CANADA 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

Official Journal of the Department- of Labour, Canada 

Hon. Michael Starr, Minister George V. Haythorne, Deputy Minister 



Published Monthly in 
English and French 



Editorial Staff 



Editor 

W. S. Drinkwater 



Editor, French Edition 

Guy de Merlis 

Circulation Manager 



J. E. Abbey 



Cover Photograph 
National Film Board 



Vol. LXI, No. 8 CONTENTS August 31, 1961 

Employment Review 741 

Collective Bargaining Review 747 

Notes of Current Interest 752 

House of Commons Debates of Labour Interest: A Guide . . 754 

Labour Day Messages 755 

Labour Legislation in Quebec 760 

Government Supervised Strike Votes 762 

Need Seen Adapt our Motives in Collective Bargaining 766 

Canadian Industry Must Close the Gap in Skills 768 

Labour Legislation of the Past Decade— VII 769 

Executive Retirement and Effective Management 779 

Occupations of Farm Daughters 780 

50 Years Ago This Month 781 

International Labour Organization: 

45th International Labour Conference 782 

Industrial Relations: 

Certification Proceedings 794 

Conciliation Proceedings 796 

Labour Law: 

Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 818 

Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 822 

Unemployment Insurance: 

Monthly Report on Operation 827 

Decisions of the Umpire 828 

Labour Conditions in Federal Government Contracts 831 

Prices and the Cost of Living 837 

Publications Recently Received in Department's Library .... 839 

Labour Statistics 844 



Correspondence— Address letters dealing with editorial matters to the Editor, those dealing with 
subscriptions to the Circulation Manager. Subscriptions— Canada: $2 per year, single copies 
25 cents each; all other countries: $4 per year, single copies 50 cents each; Send remittance by 
cheque or post office money order, payable to the Receiver-General of Canada, to The Queens 
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countries. Change of Address— Please attach label showing previous address. 

Authorized as Second Class Mail, Post Office Department, Ottawa. 



EMPLOYMENT REVIEW 



ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



Employment and Unemployment, July 

Between June and July employment rose by 167,000, a somewhat greater 
than seasonal increase. The employment situation has been generally firm 
since the late winter months. 

Unemployment decreased by an estimated 16,000 to 354,000, which was 
24,000 higher than a year earlier. 

In the week ended July 22, the labour force was estimated at 6,743,000; 
a month earlier, the estimate was 6,592,000 and a year earlier it was also 
6,592,000. Employment was estimated at 6,389,000, compared with 6,222,000 
a month earlier and 6,262,000 a year earlier. Unemployment was estimated 
at 354,000, compared with 370,000 in June and 330,000 in July 1960. 

Employment 

The main development in the labour market during the month was the 
influx of about 190,000 young people as the school vacation period began. 
This was partly offset by the temporary withdrawal of a significant number 
of married women from the labour force. Most of the additional workers 
were absorbed into agriculture and trade. Seasonal requirements of agriculture 
in July were somewhat smaller than in previous years, but nevertheless 
accounted for about half of the net employment increase. Employment increased 
more than seasonally in trade and manufacturing and was moderately firmer 
in construction. The main offsetting decrease during the month was the usual 
seasonal decline in service, in which employment fell by 41,000. 

Of the estimated 6,389,000 employed in July, 4,681,000 were men and 
1,708,000 women. In the preceding month, employed men totalled 4,523,000; 
women, 1,699,000. The employment total in July 1960 was made up of 
4,655,000 men and 1,607,000 women. Agriculture provided 792,000 jobs, and 
5,597,000 jobs were in nonfarm industries. 

In July, non-agricultural employment was up 3 per cent over the year, 
a net result of many ups and downs among individual industry groups. The 
main strength continued to be provided by the service industry, in which 
employment was 6 per cent higher than last year. Employment was also higher 
in manufacturing, trade and finance. On the other hand, it declined over the 
year in construction, transportation and mining. 

Of the 127,000 increase in employment over the year, 101,000 were 
women and 26,000 were men. 

Over the month, the increase in employment was well distributed among 
the five regions. Over the year, there was no change in Quebec, but a 6-per-cent 
gain in the Atlantic region. In the remaining regions, the year-to-year increases 
were close to the national average of 2 per cent. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 741 

98232-2—1 



LABOUR FORCE TRENDS - CANADA 
JULY 1958 TO DATE 

— Original data — — «■ — Seasonally adjuited 




6, 100.000- 

6,000,000 



Employed 



6,200,000 
6,700,000 - 



Unemployment 

The estimated number unemployed 
in July was 16,000 less than in June. 
This relatively small change is typical 
of this time of year. The closing of 
schools was reflected in an increase in 
the number of teen-age job-seekers, an 
increase more than offset by decreases 
in other age groups. 

The unemployment total, an esti- 
mated 354,000, was made up of 21,000 
on temporary layoff and 333,000 without 
work and seeking work. Of this latter 
figure, 310,000 were seeking full-time 
work and 23,000 part-time work. 

More than three fifths of the unem- 
ployed had been out of work for three 
months or less. Another 14 per cent 
had been unemployed for four to six 
months and 23 per cent had been unem- 
ployed for more than six months. Long- 
term unemployment continued higher 
than a year earlier. 

The July unemployment total was 5.2 per cent of the labour force com- 
pared with 5.0 per cent a year earlier- 






Employed: 
Non-Form 






0,000 /*-«V>\ 


I , 


. ^ m ' ys^yv 




-, n* 




<•— */ " ' *! 




%*^- +*l* 












4,900,000 *— ^ 







Jul. Jon 

■58 
| 1 — 



Jon. Jul. 

1960 '61 



Regional Summaries 

Employment in the Atlantic region increased by an estimated 24,000 
between June and July, and by 32,000 over the year. This was somewhat 
greater than the corresponding gains in recent years and marked the second 
consecutive month in which the increase was more than seasonal. The 
advance from June was fairly widespread with sizable gains taking place in 
agriculture, manufacturing, construction and trade. In manufacturing and 
trade, the employment gains were larger than usual for the month. The railway 
car industry began rehiring during July and employment in iron and steel 
manufacturing continued to expand. Employment either held firm or increased 
slightly in most other manufacturing industries. Coal mining employment 
declined during the month, after closure of the Florence Colliery. 

Most of the year-to-year gain occurred in the service industry. Manufac- 
turing employment was a little higher than last year; small increases took place 
in a fairly wide range of industries. Iron and steel plants, however, continued 
to operate at a lower level than last year, and employment in the coal 
mining industry was substantially lower. In construction and forestry it 
showed little year-to-year change. 

In the week ended July 22, the labour force in the Atlantic was estimated 
at 629,000, employment at 586,000 and unemployment at 43,000. Unemploy- 
ment was 6,000 lower than in June but 11,000 higher than in July 1960. 
Unemployment in July represented 6.8 per cent of the labour force compared 
with 5.5 per cent a year earlier. 



742 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



Employment in the Quebec region increased by 48,000 between June and 
July, close to seasonal expectations. Most of the increases took place in 
agriculture and trade. Lesser gains occurred in manufacturing and construction. 
Little change was apparent in forestry, but hiring for summer pulp-cutting 
programs had begun in many areas. 

The employment level in July was virtually the same as a year earlier. 
The main strength in the region continued to be in the trade, finance and 
service industries. Mining employment was up over the year, as a result 
of increased activity in gold and nonmetallic sectors of the industry; moderately 
higher employment levels have been maintained in the textile and other 
nondurable goods industries. In most durable goods industries, employment 
demand has strengthened recently, although employment levels were well 
down from last year. This was also true of all parts of construction, although 
considerable increases in residential construction have been reported in many 
parts of the province. 

In the week ended July 22, the labour force in Quebec was estimated at 
1,855,000, employment at 1,733,000 and unemployment at 122,000. Unem- 
ployment was virtually the same as a year earlier but 17,000 lower than in 
June. Unemployment fell to 6.6 per cent of the labour force in July, compared 
with 6.5 per cent a year earlier. 

Employment in Ontario expanded seasonally between June and July. The 
estimated 2,345,000 employed in July was 38,000 higher than in the previous 
month; men accounted for all of this increase. Employment expansion was 
centred in agriculture; non-agricultural employment showed little change. 
Employment increases in trade and construction offset declines in the 
service and mining industries. In manufacturing, although a number of large 
plants shut down for retooling, total employment did not change significantly 
from the previous month. Some hiring occurred in electrical apparatus and 
supplies, rubber and primary iron and steel plants. Sawmills and pulp 
and paper mills were extremely busy during the month and employment in 
food and beverages, textile and furniture industries remained steady. Auto- 
mobile plants closed down for the changeover period a couple of weeks 
earlier than usual, and reports indicated an early start on the production of 
1962 models. During the month there were large layoffs in the agricultural 
implement industry. 

Non-agricultural employment was up some 66,000 from a year earlier, 
while agriculture showed a decline of 15,000. Service and trade accounted 
for most of the year-to-year gain in employment, more than offsetting declines 
in mining, forestry, durable goods manufacturing and construction. 

In the week ended July 22, the labour force in Ontario was estimated 
at 2,457,000, employment at 2,345,000 and unemployment at 112,000. 
Unemployment was slightly higher than in both the previous month and July 
1960. Unemployment in July was 4.6 per cent of the labour force, compared 
with 4.5 per cent a year earlier. 

Employment in the Prairie region increased seasonally between June and 
July, by 34,000 to an estimated 1,158,000. Drought conditions have resulted 
in a sharp drop in the demand for agricultural workers, particularly in Saskat- 
chewan and Manitoba. At the same time, increased cattle sales stimulated 
demand for labour in the meat packing industry. Demands for qualified 
personnel in oil drilling and base metal mining continued. There were increased 
demands for construction workers, especially in non-residential construction. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1967 743 

98232-2— n 



Employment increased by 27,000 over the year. Much of the year-to-year 
increase occurred in the service-producing industries. Manufacturing employ- 
ment showed little change over the year. Construction employment was gener- 
ally at a high level, a result of a number of large projects. 

In the week ended July 22, the labour force in the Prairie region was 
estimated at 1,195,000. Unemployment, at an estimated 37,000, was higher 
than both a month and a year earlier. Unemployment in July was 3.1 per cent 
of the labour force, compared with 2.5 per cent a year earlier. 

Employment in the Pacific region increased more than seasonally between 
June and July, from 544,000 to 567,000, and was almost 3 per cent higher 
than a year earlier. Most of the increase in the month occurred in non-agricul- 
tural industries, although there was also a seasonal demand for farm workers. 
Forest fires and fire hazards forced the shutdown of logging camps in a number 
of areas, putting many forestry employees temporarily, out of work, but employ- 
ment in sawmills continued at a high level. The demand for labour in metal 
mining and in the oil producing industry increased over the month. There 
were sizable increases in construction employment, especially on roads and 
pipelines and, to a lesser extent, on commercial and industrial projects. Employ- 
ment in home construction showed little change, although new dwelling starts 
were at a lower rate than the previous month. 

Over the year, manufacturing employment showed some improvement, 
partly as a result of increased activity in shipbuilding. Employment in mining 
remained high, supported by a number of large exploration projects. The 
service industry showed a year-to-year employment increase. 

In the week ended July 22, the labour force in the Pacific region was 
estimated at 607,000, almost 20,000 higher than the month before. Unemploy- 
ment, at an estimated 40,000, was down from both a month and a year earlier. 
Unemployment in July was 6.6 per cent of the labour force, compared with 
7.1 per cent a year earlier. 



LABOUR MARKET CONDITIONS 





Labour Surplus 


Approximate 
Balance 


Labour Market Areas 


1 


2 


3 




July 
1961 


July 
1960 


July 

1961 


July 
1960 


July 
1961 


July 
1960 


Metropolitan 


1 

1 


1 
2 


19 

1 
2-1 


7 

20 
3 

21 


4 
6 
13 

34 


4 

4 




11 




34 






Total 


2 


3 


51 


54 


57 


53 







744 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 J 



CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR MARKET AREAS-JULY 





SUBSTANTIAL 


MODERATE 


APPROXIMATE 


LABOUR 


— 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


LABOUR SURPLUS 


BALANCE 


SHORTAGE 




Group 1 


Group 2 


Group 3 


Group 4 




WINDSOR -< — 


Calgary 

Hamilton 

Montreal 


Edmonton 
— ^HALIFAX 
Ottawa-Hull 




METROPOLITAN AREAS 




Quebec-Levis 


— »-TORONTO 




(labour force 75,000 or more) 




St. John's 
Vancouver- 
New Westminster 
Winnipeg 








OSHAWA -< — 


Brantford 
Cornwall 
Corner Brook 
Farnham-Granby 
Joliette 
— »-LAC ST. JEAN 
Moncton 


— >-FT. WILLIAM- 
PT. ARTHUR 
Guelph 
Kingston 
Kitchener 
London 
Sudbury 




MAJOR INDUSTRIAL AREAS 




New Glasgow 
Niagara Peninsula 






(labour force 25,000-75.000; 60 




Peterborough 






per cent or more in non- 




Rouyn-Val d'Or 






agricultural activity) 




Saint John 
Sarnia 
Shawinigan 
Sherbrooke 

^SYDNEY 

Timmins- 

Kirkland Lake 
Trois Rivieres 
Victoria 










Chatham 


Barrie 
Brandon 
Charlottetown 
Lethbridge 
Moose Jaw 
North Battleford 




MAJOR AGRICULTURAL 






Prince Albert 




AREAS 






Red Deer 




(labour force 25,000-75,000; 40 






Regina 




per cent or more agricultural) 






>-RIVIERE DU 

LOUP 
Saskatoon 
— >-THETFORD- 
MEGANTIC- 
ST. GEORGES 
— >-YORKTON 








Bridgewater 
— >-CAMPBELLTON 


— >-BATHURST 








— >-BEAU- 








Central Vancouver 


HARNOIS 








Island 


— ^BELLEVILLE- 








Chilliwack 


TRENTON 








Dawson Creek 


Bracebridge 








Drummondville 


Brampton 








Fredericton 


Cranbrook 








Gait 


>-DAUPHIN 








Gaspe 


Drumheller 








KAMLOOPS -< — 


Edmundston 








— HCITIMAT 


Goderich 








Lindsay 


Grand Falls 








Newcastle 


Kentville 








Okanagan Valley 


Lachute-Ste. 








Prince George- 


Therese 




MINOR AREAS 




Quesnel 
Quebec North Shore 


Listowel 
—^MEDICINE 




(labour force 10.000-25.000) 




Rimouski 
Ste. Agathe- 
St. Jerome 


HAT 
— >-MONTMAGNY 








North Bay 








St. Jean 


Owen Sound 








St. Stephen 


— >-PEMBROKE 








Sault Ste. Marie 


Portage la 








Sorel 


Prairie 








Summerside 


Prince Rupert 








Victoriaville 


St. Hyacinthe 
St. Thomas 
Simcoe 
Stratford 
Swift Current 
Trail-Nelson 

— ^TRURO 

— »-VALLEYFIELD 














Walkerton 


Group 3 Cone. 








Weyburn 


Woodstock- 








>-WOODSTOCK. 


Tillsonburg 








N.B. 


Yarmouth 



►The areas shown in capital letters are those that have been reclassified during the month; an arrow indicates the group from which they 

moved. For an explanation of the classification used, see page 624. July issue. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



745 



Current Labour Statistics 

(Latest available statistics as of August 15, 1961) 



Principal Items 



Date 



Amount 



Percentage Change 
From 



Previous 
Month 



Previous 
Year 



Manpower 

Total civilian labour force (a) (000) 

Employed (000) 

Agriculture (000) 

Non-agriculture (000) 

Paid workers (000) 

At work 35 hours or more (000) 

At work less than 35 hours (000) 

Employed but not at work (000) 

Unemployed (000) 

Atlantic (COO) 

Quebec (000) 

Ontario (000) 

Prairie (000) 

Pacific (000) 

Without work and seeking work (000) 

On temporary layoff up to 30 days (000) 

Industrial employment (1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing employment (1949 = 100) 

Immigration 

Destined to the labour force 

Strikes and Lockouts 

Strikes and lockouts 

No. of workers involved 

Duration in man days 

Earnings and Income 

Average weekly wages and salaries (ind. comp.) 

Average hourly earnings (mfg.) 

Average hours worked per week (mfg.) 

Average weekly wages (mfg.) 

Consumer price index (1949 = 100) 

Index numbers of weekly wages in 1949 dollars (1949 = 

100) 

Total labour income $000,000 

Industrial Production 

Total (average 1949 = 100) 

Manufacturing 

Durables 

Non-durables 



July 22 
July 22 
July 22 
July 22 
July 22 

July 22 

July 22 
July 22 

July 22 
July 22 
July 22 
July 22 
July 22 
July 22 

July 22 
July 22 

May 
May 

1st Qtr. 1961 
1st Qtr. 1961 



July 
July 

July 



May 
May 
May 
May 
July 

May 

May 



June 
June 
June 
June 



6,743 
6,389 
792 
5,597 
5,130 

4,972 
549 
868 

354 

43 

122 

112 

37 

40 

333 
21 

116.9 
108.3 

11,839 
5,374 



41 

8,826 
94,560 



$77.99 

$ 1.84 

40.5 

$74.38 

129.0 

138.1 

1,586 



178.8 
1C0. 7 
157.2 
163.8 



+ 



2.3 
2.7 
12.3 
1.5 
1.9 



- 8.7 

- 11.2 
+456.4 

- 4.3 

- 12.3 

- 12.2 
+ 3.7 
+ 23.3 

- 9.1 

- 5.9 
+ 31.3 



+ 



+ 



3.8 

2.8 



7.9 
36.2 
48.1 



0.2 
0.0 
0.3 
0.3 
0.0 

0.3 
3.3 



+ 4.5 

+ 5.7 

+ 6.2 

+ 5.3 



+ 2.3 

+ 2.0 

- 3.3 

+ 2.8 

+ 2.4 



- 1.8 
+ 14.1 
+ 21.2 



+ 7.3 
+ 34.4 
+ 1.7 
+ 4.7 
+ 27.6 
- 4.8 



+ 



7.1 
10.5 

1.7 
2.1 

28.7 
33.6 



+ 10.8 
+ 74.2 
+ 150.4 



+ 3.5 

+ 2.8 

+ 1.0 

+ 3.8 

+ 1.2 

+ 2.6 

+ 3.2 



+ 30 

+ 2.2 

+ 0.1 

+ 4.1 



(a) Distribution of these figures between male and female workers can be obtained from Labour 
Force, a monthly publication of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. See also page 624, July issue. 



746 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



COLLECTIVE BARGAINING REVIEW 

ECONOMICS AND RESEARCH BRANCH 



During July collective bargaining in Canada produced 16 major settle- 
ments providing new agreements for more than 15,000 employees in various 
industries. One of these settlements, announced a few hours before a strike 
deadline set by the Air Line Flight Attendants' Association, was a two-year 
agreement covering more than 800 stewardesses and pursers employed by 
Trans-Canada Air Lines. The wage rates in the new agreement are not directly 
linked to aircraft speeds, as originally demanded by the union. The settlement 
makes provision for a pay differential for time worked aboard DC-8 jets, as 
well as for negotiation of the wages and hours on any new aircraft types that 
may be introduced during the term of the contract. The settlement gives flight 
attendants a 5-per-cent retroactive increase on wages earned between October 
1, 1960 and July 31, 1961, with an additional 8 per cent premium for time 
worked aboard DC-8's from the introduction of this aircraft to July 31, 1961. 
Under the wage scale established in the new agreement, the minimum monthly 
pay remains unchanged. Hourly rates, however, were increased by approx- 
imately 8 per cent in most classifications, with an additional 8-per-cent 
premium for time flown on DC-8 jets, and the minimum monthly guarantee 
was reduced from 70 to 65 hours per month. The maximum flight time was 
also reduced from 85 hours per month to 75 hours on DC-8's, and to 80 
hours on other aircraft. 

In Canada's pulp and paper industry, negotiations during July resulted in 
new agreements for approximately 7,000 of the 36,000 mill workers covered 
by the 25 major agreements that had terminated during the first half of 1961. 
The largest of the July settlements was with the Eastern Canada Newsprint 
Group, comprising the St. Lawrence Corporation, James MacLaren Co., Anglo- 
Canadian Pulp and Paper and Bowaters Mersey operating in Quebec and 
Nova Scotia. The paper mill unions representing 4,000 employees accepted 
a general wage increase of 5 cents an hour and a 1-cent increase in afternoon 
and night shift differentials, both retroactive to May 1, 1961. Beginning 
January 1, 1962, the workers will get 8 hours additional holiday pay per year. 
Other items in the one-year agreement included improvements in the health 
benefit plans and certain local adjustments between the unions and the 
companies. 

Similar wage increases were negotiated in the new one-year agreement 
between the paper mill unions and Quebec North Shore Paper, Baie Comeau, 
Que. Among other settlements in the pulp and paper industry, a new three-year 
agreement between Canada Paper, Windsor, Que., and the Pulp and Paper 
Workers' Federation (CNTU) provided increases totalling 23 cents an hour 
for male employees and 19 cents for female employees, while in New Brunswick 
the Fraser Companies renewed the current agreement with the Pulp and Paper 
Mill Workers for another year without change in wage rates. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 7 747 



WAGE SETTLEMENTS DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 1961 

Collective agreements covering 500 or more employees concluded between January 1 and June 30, 1961, excluding 
agreements in the construction industry and agreements with wage terms in piece rates only. 



Total Wage 

Increase in Cents 

per Hour* 


Term of Agreement in Months 


Under 15 


15-20 


21-26 


27-32 


33 and over 


Agts. 


Empls. 


Agts. 


Empls. 


Agts. 


Empls. 


Agts. 


Empls. 


Agts. 


Empls. 





12 
9 

18 
2 
1 
1 


40,829 

13,570 

24,470 

1,020 

1,200 

800 






1 
2 
12 
13 
4 
11 


500 
2,600 
12,930 
132,340 
3,300 
11,100 










0.1— 4.9 














5.0_ 9.9 _ 


2 

1 
3 


2,230 

880 
2,690 






2 
6 

7 


1,500 


10.0—14.9 






8,600 


15.0—19.9 






11,150 


20.0—24.9 








25.0—29.9 










2 
4 


1,900 




1 


2,000 






2 


2,600 






3,780 














Total 


44 


83,880 


6 


5,800 


45 


165,370 






21 


26,930 











*Wage increases shown relate to base rates only. Data on employees covered are approximate and include all em- 
ployees covered by the agreement. 



Major Settlements in 1961 

In the first six months of 1961, unions 
and management in industries outside the 
construction sector negotiated 116 settle- 
ments covering bargaining units of 500 or 
more employees. These settlements provided 
new collective agreements for more than 
280,000 workers for periods ranging from 
one to three years. 

The wage changes negotiated in the 116 
major settlements are tabulated above by 
amount and term of contract. Among the 
new agreements, those signed for terms 
longer than one year were in a majority, 
with most of the longer-term agreements 
extending over a two-year period. 

Of the 282,000 employees covered by 
the major settlements, more than 240,000 
gained wage increases in their new con- 
tracts. These amounted to less than 10 
cents on base rates in most one-year agree- 
ments and to between 5 and 19.9 cents 



in most two-year agreements. More than 
half of the three-year settlements provided 
for raises totalling 15 to more than 30 
cents per hour during the term of the 
contract. 

Although agreements in the manufactur- 
ing sector accounted for more than half 
of the major settlements, they did not cover 
as many employees as the new contracts 
in the transportation industry, where one 
of the settlements reached during the first 
half of 1961 applied to 110,000 non-operat- 
ing railway employees. In the manufacturing 
sector, approximately 75,000 employees 
were covered by the new major contracts. 
Other major settlements negotiated during 
the first six months of 1961 provided new 
agreements for approximately 42,000 em- 
ployees in the logging industry, for more 
than 28,000 hospital and municipal em- 
ployees, and for smaller numbers in fishing, 
mining and other industries. 



Collective Bargaining Scene 

Agreements covering 500 or more employees, 
excluding those in the construction industry 

Part I— Agreements Expiring During August, September and October 

(except those under negotiation in July) 

Company and Location Union 
Alta. Govt. Telephones (Plant Dept.) company- 
wide I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Atlantic Sugar Refineries, St. John, N.B Bakery Wkrs. (CLC) 

Automatic Electric, Brockville, Ont I.U.E. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Steel Foundries, Montreal, Que Steel & Foundry Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Cluett Peabody, Kitchener & Stratford, Ont Amalgamated Clothing Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Crane Limited, Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Crown Zellerbach, Richmond, B.C Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dominion Stores, Toronto, Hamilton & others, 

Ont Retail, Wholesale Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

DuPont of Canada, Shawinigan, Que Cellulose Wkrs. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Fisheries Assn., B.C United Fishermen (Ind.) (herring fishermen) 

Fry-Cadbury, Montreal, Que Bakery Wkrs. (CLC) 

748 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



Company and Location Union 

General Motors & subsidiaries, Oshawa, Windsor, 

St. Catharines, Scarborough & London, Ont Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Maritime Tel. & Tel., company-wide I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (traffic empl.) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, Ont Teamsters (Ind.) (drivers) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau, Ont Teamsters (Ind.) (mechanics) 

Northern Electric, Toronto, Ont Communications Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Province of Saskatchewan Sask. Civil Service (CLC) (classified services) 

Provincial Transport, Que Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Que. Natural Gas, company-wide Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Safeway, Shop-Easy & others, Victoria, Vancouver 

& New Westminster, B.C Butcher Workmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Shawinigan Power, company- wide, Que Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Towboat Owners' Assn., B.C Merchant Service Guild (CLC) 

Towboat Owners' Assn., B.C Seafarers (AFL-CIO) 

Trucking Assn. of Que., province-wide Teamsters (Ind.) 

Winnipeg Transit Dept., Man Street Railway Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Part II— Negotiations in Progress During July 

Bargaining 

Company and Location Union 

Algoma Ore Properties, Wawa, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Algoma Steel, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Anglo-Nfid. Development, Grand Falls, Nfld Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Avro & Orenda Engines, Malton, Ont Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

B.C. Electric, company-wide I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Campbell Chibougamau Mines, Chibougamau, 

Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

C.B.C., company-wide Radio & T.V. Empl. (ARTEC) (Ind.) 

Cdn. International Paper, N.B., Que. & Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & Oper. Engi- 
neers (AFL-CIO) 
Clothing Mfrs. Assn., Quebec, Farnham & Vic- 

toriaville, Que Clothing Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

C.P.R. system-wide Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Les Escoumins, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Ste-Anne de Portneuf, Que. Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Distillers Corp., Ville LaSalle, Que Distillery Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dominion Coal, Sydney, N.S Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Dom. Rubber (Footwear Div.), Kitchener, Ont. Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dominion Stores, Montreal & vicinity, Que Retail Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dom. Structural Steel, Montreal, Que Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Donahue Bros., Clermont, Que Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Donnacona Paper, Donnacona, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Dosco, Cdn. Bridge, Walkerville, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

DuPont of Canada, Maitland, Ont Chemical Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

E. B. Eddy, Hull, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Edmonton City, Alta Public Empl. (CLC) (clerical empl.) 

Edmonton City, Alta Public Empl. (CLC) (outside wkrs.) 

Fraser Cos., Cabano, Que. Woodcutters, Farmers' Union (Ind.) 

Great Lakes Paper, Ft. William, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Halifax City, N.S Public Empl. (CLC) (inside wkrs.) 

Hamilton Cotton & subsids., Hamilton, Dundas 

& Trenton, Ont Textile Wkrs. Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Howard Smith Paper, Cornwall, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Kimberley-Clark Paper, Terrace Bay, Ont I.B.E.W. (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & Paper Mill 

Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

K.V.P. Company, Espanola, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & I.B.E.W. 
(AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Marathon Corp. of Can., Marathon, Ont Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Montreal Trans. Commission, Que Railway, Transport & General Wkrs. (CLC) 

Motor Trans. Ind. Relations Bureau (car car- 
riers), Ont Teamsters (Ind.) 

Okanagan Shippers' Assn., Okanagan Valley, B.C. CLC-chartered local 

Old Sydney Collieries, Sydney Mines, N.S Mine Wkrs. (Ind.) 

Ont.-Minnesota Paper, Ft. Francis & Kenora, Ont. Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Provincial Paper, Thorold, Ont Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

R.C.A. Victor, Montreal, Que Empl. Assoc. (Ind.) 

Sask. Power Corp., province-wide Oil Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Sask. Wheat Pool (Elevator Div.) Ont., Man., Sask. Wheat Pool Empl. (CLC) 

Sask. & B.C 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 749 

98232-2—2 



Company and Location Union 

Shell Oil, Montreal East, Que Empl. Council (Ind.) 

Smith Transport, Montreal, Que Teamsters (Ind.) 

Spruce Falls & Kimberley-Clark, Kapuskasing, Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Ont Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Stelco (Canada Works), Hamilton, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Stelco (Hamilton Works), Hamilton, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Stelco, Montreal, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

T.C.A. company-wide Air Line Pilots (Ind.) 

T.C.A. company-wide Sales Empl. (Ind.) 

Conciliation Officer 

Abitibi Paper & Subsids., Que., Ont. & Man Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Assn. des Marchands Detaillants (Produits Ali- 
mentaires), Quebec, Que Commerce Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Assn. Patronale du Commerce, (Hardware), Que- 
bec, Que Commerce Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Assn. Patronale des Services Hospitaliers, Quebec, 

Que Services Federation (CNTU) (female) 

Assn. Patronale des Services Hospitaliers, Quebec, 
Que Services Federation (CNTU) (male) 

Bowater's Nfld. Paper, Corner Brook, Nfld Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Calgary City, Alta Public Empl. (CLC) (clerical empl.) 

Consolidated Paper, Cap de la Madeleine & Three Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 
Rivers, Que Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Grand'Mere, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Consolidated Paper, Port Alfred, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Consolidated Paper, Shawinigan, Que Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Dupuis Freres, Montreal, Que Commerce Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Hamilton General Hospitals, Hamilton, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) 

Hotel Dieu St. Vallier, Chicoutimi, Que Service Empl. Federation (CNTU) 

Ontario Paper, Thorold, Ont Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC) Pulp & Paper 

Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others 

Polymer Corporation, Sarnia, Ont Oil Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Various pulp & paper mills, B.C Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Conciliation Board 

Assn. Patronale des Mfrs. de Chaussures, Que- 
bec, Que Leather & Shoe Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

B.A. Oil, Clarkson, Ont Oil Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Canada Cement, N.B., Que., Ont., Man. & Alta. Cement Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Car & Foundry, Montreal, Que Railway Carmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Cdn. Westinghouse, Hamilton, Ont U.E. (Ind.) 

C.N.R., system-wide Locomotive Engineers (Ind.) 

C.N.R., system-wide : Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen (AFL-CIO/ 

CLC) 

C.N.R., system-wide Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

C.P.R., system-wide Locomotive Engineers (Ind.) 

C.P.R., system-wide Locomotive Firemen & Enginemen (AFL-CIO/ 

CLC) 

Dom. Oilcloth & Linoleum, Montreal, Que CNTU-chartercd local 

Dryden Paper, Dryden, Ont Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL- 
CIO/CLC) 

Food stores, (various), Winnipeg, Man Retail Clerks (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Hollinger Mines, Timmins, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Mclntyre Porcupine Mines, Schumaker, Ont Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Miner Rubber, Granby, Que Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Noranda Mines, Noranda, Que Steelworkers (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Ontario Hydro, company-wide Public Service Empl. (CLC) 

Price Bros., Kenogami & Riverbend, Que Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU) 

Sangamo Company, Leaside, Ont Machinists (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Scarborough Township, Ont Public Empl. (CLC) (outside wkrs.) 

Union composing rooms, Toronto, Ont Typographical Union (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

Winnipeg City, Man. Public Service Empl. (CLC) 

Post-Conciliation Bargaining 

Dom. Rubber (Rubber Div.), St. Jerome, Que. Rubber Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 
Shipping Federation of Can., Montreal, Que I.L.A. (CLC) 

Arbitration 

(No cases during July) 

Work Stoppage 

Hotel Royal York (CPR), Toronto, Ont Hotel Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) 

750 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 7 



Part 111— Settlements Reached During July 1961 

(A summary of major terms on the basis of information immediately available. Figures for the 
number of employees covered are approximate.) 

B.C. Hotels Assn., Vancouver, B.C. — Hotel Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC) (beverage 
dispensers): 2-yr. agreement covering 600 empl. — 40 an hr. increase eff. Jan. 1, 1962; employer's 
contribution to welfare fund increased by 30 an hr. eff. Jan. 1, 1961; double time to be paid for 
work on statutory holidays. 

B.C. Hotels Assn., New Westminster, Burnaby, Fraser Valley, B.C. — Hotel Empl. 
(AFL-CIO/CLC): 2-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — 30 an hr. increase retroactive to Jan. 1, 
1961; an additional 40 an hr. increase eff. Jan. 1, 1962; waitresses to receive 30 an hr. increase 
retroactive to Jan. 1, 1961 plus an additional 20 an hr. eff. June 1, 1962; double time to be paid 
for work on statutory holidays; employer to contribute 70 an hr. to welfare fund on behalf of 
casual empl. 

Canada Paper, Windsor Mills, Que. — Pulp & Paper Wkrs. Federation (CNTU): 3-yr. 
agreement covering 1,250 empl. — male empl. to receive increases of 50 an hr. retroactive to May 1, 
1960, an additional 100 an hr. retroactive to Nov. 1, 1960, a further increase of 20 an hr. eff. 
Dec. 1, 1961 with another 20 on Aug. 1, 1962 and a final 40 an hr. increase eff. Jan. 1, 1963; 
female empl. to receive 50 an hr. retroactive to May 1, 1960, 60 an hr. retroactive to Nov. 1, 
1960, 20 an hr. increase eff. Dec, 1, 1961, a further 20 on Aug. 1, 1962 and a final increase of 40 
an hr. eff. Jan 1, 1963; 3 wks. annual paid vacation after 10 yrs. of service eff. May 1, 1961 
(previously 3 wks. after 25 yrs.); 1 additional statutory holiday for a total of 8 annually; 3 
days bereavement leave with pay in the event of death of a close relative. 

Canadian Car, Ft. William, Ont. — Auto Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) : 1-yr. agreement covering 
550 empl. — no general wage increase during term of the new agreement; 20 an hr. cost-of-living 
bonus incorporated into the wage structure; cost-of-living bonus of 10 an hr. for every 0.7 rise 
in the cost-of-living index beyond the level reached on June 1, 1961, adjustments to be made in 
Oct. 1961 and Feb. 1962; 4 wks. vacation after 25 yrs. of service (formerly no provision for 4 
wks. vacation). 

C.P.R. system-wide— Trainmen (AFL-CIO/CLC) (dining car staff): 2-yr. agreement 
covering 750 empl. — 20 an hr. increase retroactive to June 1, 1960; an additional 50 an hr. 
increase retroactive to Feb. 1, 1961 and a further 4% increase eff. Oct. 1, 1961; 4 wks. vacation 
after 25 years, of continuous service (formerly 4 wks. after 35 yrs.). 

Cyanamid of Canada, Niagara Falls, Ont. — U.E. (Ind.): 2-yr. agreement covering 500 
empl. — 50 an hr. increase for production wkrs. and 60 an hr. for craft empl., both eff. July 9, 
1961; an additional 50 an hr. increase for all empl. eff. July 8, 1962; 4 wks. vacation after 20 
years of service (formerly 4 wks. after 25 yrs.); employer and employees to share equally the cost 
of the Blue Cross Supplemental and Major Medical Insurance plus PSI Blue plan; improvements 
in sickness and accident benefit provisions. 

Dominion Glass, Wallaceburg, Ont. — Glass and Ceramic Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 3-yr. 
agreement covering 750 empl. — 30 an hr. increase retroactive to March 20, 1961; a further 30 an hr. 
eff. Dec. 1, 1961, and a final increase of 50 an hr. eff. Sept. 20, 1962; 4 wks. annual vacation 
after 24 yrs. of service (formerly no provision for 4 wks. vacation). 

East. Can. Newsprint Group., Que. & N.S. — Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp & 
Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC) & others: 1-yr. agreement covering 4,000 empl. — a general 
wage increase of 50 an hr. eff. May 1, 1961; an additional 8 hrs. pay for New Year's Day com- 
mencing Jan. 1, 1962; 10 an hr. increase in the evening and night shift differentials eff. May 1, 
1961; voluntary check-off of union dues; joint study of welfare plans to develop a uniform plan 
for all companies. 

Edmonton City, Alta. — IBEW. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement covering 550 empl. — 
general increase of 3% for all empl. 

Fraser Cos., Edmundston, Atholville, Newcastle, N.B. — Pulp & Paper Mill Wkrs. 
(AFL-CIO/CLC): previous agreement covering 1,100 empl. extended for 1 year, without change 
in wage rates; seasonal and casual wkrs. to receive vacation allowance amounting to 2% of pay. 

Gaspesia Woods Contractors, Chandler, Que. — Woodcutters, Farmers Union (Ind.) : 
1-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — settlement terms not immediately available. 

Quebec North Shore Paper, Baie Comeau, Que. — Paper Makers (AFL-CIO/CLC), Pulp 
and Paper Mill Wkrs. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 1-yr. agreement covering 1,000 empl. — a general wage 
increase of 50 an hr. retroactive to May 1, 1961; 10 an hr. increase in second and third shift 
premiums; 70 an hr. increase for all stevedoring classifications; 4 wks. annual vacation after 22 
yrs. of service (formerly 4 wks. after 25 yrs.); 1 additional floating holiday each yr.; an additional 
company contribution of $1.17 per month towards group welfare plan; improvements in bereave- 
ment leave. 

Ste. Anne Power, Beaupre, Que. — Carpenters (Lumber & Sawmill Wkrs.) (AFL-CIO/ 
CLC): 2-yr. agreement covering 500 empl. — a general increase of 3% eff. July 2, 1961; rate of 
vacation allowance raised from 2% to 2i% after 100 days of work; Christmas Day added to 
statutory holidays. 

Saguenay Terminals, Port Alfred, Que. — Metal Trades Federation (CNTU): 3-yr. 
agreement covering 600 empl. — increase of 70 an hr. retroactive to Dec. 1, 1960; an additional 60 
an hr. eff. July 22, 1962 and a final 60 an hr. eff. July 22, 1963; vacation for regular empl. 
improved to provide 2 wks. after 2 yrs. of service (formerly 2 wks. after 3 yrs.) and 3 wks. after 
10 yrs. (formerly 3 wks. after 15 yrs.); vacation allowances also improved for seasonal empl. 

Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ont. — Building Service Empl. (AFL-CIO/CLC): 
2-yr. agreement covering 1,150 empl. — general wkrs. to receive $10 a mo. increase retroactive to 
Jan. 1, 1961 and another $8 a mo. in Jan. 1962; plumbers & steamfitters to receive an increase 
of $20 per mo. retroactive to Jan. 1, 1961 plus an additional $8 a mo. in Jan. 1962. 

T.C.A., company wide — Air Line Flight Attendants (CLC) : 2-yr. agreement covering 
800 empl. — retroactive pay of 5% of earnings for the period Oct. 1, 1960 to July 31, 1961, with 
additional 8% premium for all hrs. flown on DC-8 jets prior to Aug. 1, 1961; maximum flying 
time reduced from 85 hrs. to 75 hrs. on DC-8's and to 80 hrs. on other aircraft, with maintenance 
of pay; under new wage schedule flight attendants on DC 8 jets will receive between $4.57 and 
$7.72 per flying hr., and those flying other aircraft between $4.23 and $7.15; overseas flights to 
be paid for at an extra 600 an hr. instead of the previous $40 per month. 
THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 751 

98232-2—2* 



NOTES OF CURRENT INTEREST 



Municipal Winter Works Incentive Program Extended 



Federal contribution to an expanded 
Municipal Winter Works Incentive Program 
during next winter was announced last month 
by the Minister of Labour, the Hon. 
Michael Starr. 

The program will go into effect on 
October 15, 1961 and continue until April 
30, 1962. The federal Government will 
contribute 50 per cent of the direct payroll 
costs incurred by municipalities on projects 
designed to create additional winter employ- 
ment. 

This year, the program has been 
broadened to cover almost all municipal 
projects that would not have been carried 
out in the absence of the program. 

In addition to the previously covered pro- 
jects such as the construction and major 
improvements of roads, streets, sidewalks, 
parks, playgrounds, and municipal water, 
sewage and drainage facilities and major 
reconstruction or renovation of municipal 
buildings, the scope of the expanded pro- 
gram includes the clearing and development 
of municipally-owned land, work on 
municipal irrigation systems, municipal 
engineering yards, and other projects. 

Next winter's program has been further 
broadened to include projects within the 
authorized categories where these are car- 
ried out in unorganized settlements, provided 
the work is sponsored by a community 
organization and carried out under accept- 
able community and provincial supervision. 

This is to be the fourth consecutive winter 
with the program in effect. Last winter the 
program scored the greatest success to date 
(L.G., June, p.541); with the broadening 
of its scope, it is expected that even more 
employment will be made available during 
next winter, Mr. Starr said. 



Committee to Examine the 
Unemployment Insurance Act 

A committee to examine the Unemploy- 
ment Insurance Act and its relation to other 
social security programs was appointed last 
month by Prime Minister Diefenbaker. 

The Committee is to review the provisions 
of the Act in the light of developments 
since it was passed in 1940, and to inquire 
into and report upon the scope, basic prin- 
ciples and the manner of the Act. 



The report is expected to concern the 
provisions deemed necessary to deal with 
seasonal unemployment, the means of cor- 
recting any abuses or deficiencies that may 
be found to exist, and the relationship 
between programs of support for the 
unemployed and other social security 
measures. 

The four members appointed to the Com- 
mittee are: Ernest C. Gill, President, The 
Canada Life Assurance Company, Toronto; 
Etienne Crevier, President of the insur- 
ance company La Prevoyance, Montreal; 
Dr. John James Deutsch Vice-Principal, 
Queen's University, Kingston; and Dr. 
Joseph Richards Petrie, Consulting Eco- 
nomist, Montreal. 

Mr. Gill will act as chairman. 



Blind, Disabled, Old Age Payments 
Drop in Second Quarter of 1961 

The numbers of persons receiving old age 
assistance, allowances under the Blind Per- 
sons Act, and allowances under the Disabled 
Persons Act decreased during the second 
quarter of 1961, the Department of National 
Health and Welfare has announced. 

Old Age Assistance — The number of per- 
sons receiving old age assistance in Canada 
decreased from 100,184 at March 31, 1961 
to 99,855 at the end of the second quarter 
of 1961. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$7,659,101.95 for the quarter ended June 
30, 1961, compared with $7,710,851.01 in 
the preceding quarter. Since the inception 
of the Act, the federal Government has con- 
tributed $227,713,104.23. 

At June 30, 1961, the average monthly 
assistance in the provinces ranged from 
$48.70 to $52.70 except for one province 
where the average was $47.43. In all prov- 
inces the maximum assistance paid was $55 
a month. 

Disabled Persons Allowances — The num- 
ber of persons in Canada receiving allow- 
ances under the Disabled Persons Act 
decreased from 50,650 at March 31, 1961 
to 50,435 at the end of the second quarter 
of 1961. 



752 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$4,084,031.62 for the quarter ended June 
30, 1961, compared with $4,093,227.75 in 
the preceding quarter. Since the inception of 
the Act, the federal Government has con- 
tributed $76,194,642.07. 

At June 30, 1961, the average monthly 
allowance in the provinces ranged from 
$52.73 to $54.63. In all provinces the maxi- 
mum allowance paid was $55 a month. 

Blind Persons Allowances — The number 
of blind persons in Canada receiving allow- 
ances under the Blind Persons Act decreased 
from 8,642 at March 31, 1961 to 8,581 at 
the end of the second quarter of 1961. 

The federal Government's contributions 
under the federal-provincial scheme totalled 
$1,022,898.76 for the quarter ended June 
30, 1961, compared with $1,039,309.34 
in the preceding quarter. Since the inception 
of the Act, the federal Government has con- 
tributed $32,578,726.90. 

At June 30, 1961, the average monthly 
allowance in the provinces ranged from 
$49.36 to $54.27. In all provinces the maxi- 
mum allowance paid was $55 a month. 



Employment and Unemployment 
Both up in the U.S. in June 

Increases were recorded in June for both 
employment and unemployment the U.S. 
Department of Labor announced in its 
monthly report. 

Teenagers out of school and seeking 
permanent or summer jobs helped to bring 
total employment this June to 68,706,000, 
about 127,000 higher than in June 1960. 
But the influx of teenagers also led to an 
increase of 800,000 in unemployment, which 
totalled 5,600,000 and was the highest June 
figure since the war. 

A total of 1,600,000 teenagers got new 
jobs, full and part-time, and 900,000 others 
were added to the unemployment rolls. 

The seasonally adjusted unemployment 
rate dropped only one tenth of a point to 
6.8 per cent, remaining close to 7 per cent 
in June for the seventh consecutive month 
despite a business upturn that began in 
March. 

The better than seasonal gain of 500,000 
jobs for adult men was partly offset by a 
seasonal decline of 200,000 in the number 
of employed women, mostly teachers. 

The number of persons out of work 15 
weeks or longer declined seasonally by 
300,000 to 1,600,000 but was still double 
the total for June 1960. Of these, 900,000 
were the long-term unemployed who had 
been without jobs for six months or more. 



Of those who were employed in June, 
about 3,200,000 non-farm workers were on 
part-time, a 300,000 increase over May, 
attributed tothe teenager influx. 

The number of regular full-time workers 
employed less than 35 hours because of slack 
work or other reasons was 1,200,000; this 
was 100,000 less than a month ago and 
than the previous June. 

Of the 150 major industrial centres, those 
with "substantial unemployment" dropped 
from 96 in May to 88 early in June. This 
figure is said to reflect better-than-seasonal 
gains in automobile and other durable goods 
payrolls. 



New Edition of the Directory 

of International Trade Secretariats 

A revised and expanded edition of the 
Directory of International Trade Secretariats 
(ITS) was issued last month by the U.S. 
Department of Labor. Its first edition was 
published in 1954. 

The ITS, independent international labour 
federations, organize some 35 million 
workers along industry and craft lines. 
Some 94 per cent of the membership is 
also affiliated with the ICFTU. More than 
50 American unions with approximately nine 
million members belong to this organization 
which fosters growth of free trade unionism 
in the less developed areas of the world. 

Comprising 977 affiliates in 83 countries 
and territories, the ITS membership is distri- 
buted as follows: 57 per cent in Europe, 26 
per cent in the United States and Canada, 
9 per cent in Asia, 6 per cent in Latin 
America, and 2 per cent in Africa. 

The Directory, prepared by the U.S. 
Bureau of International Labor Affairs, pro- 
vides information on 19 ITS organizations. 
Addresses, officers, membership, affiliates, 
and publications are listed and information 
on their composition, organization, origin, 
growth, regional structure and activities is 
given. Charts and statistical tables complete 
the picture of ITS organization. Appendices 
include a list of annual affiliation fees and 
U.S. affiliates, and provide an alphabetical 
index of the names of officials mentioned in 
the Directory. 

This is the Part II of a three-part directory 
of International Trade Union Organizations 
published by the U.S. Department of Labor; 
Part I covers the ICFTU and Part III covers 
the International Federation of Christian 
Trade Unions (CISC). 

Copies of the Directory may be obtained 
from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D.C. Price $3.00, 448 pages. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



753 



HOUSE OF COMMONS DEBATES 
A Guide to Items of Labour Interest in Hansard 



(page numbers refer to Hansard) 
June 28 — Number of active claimants for 
unemployment insurance benefit on May 31 
was 340,950, the Parliamentary Secretary 
to the Minister of Labour says in reply to a 
question (p. 7176). 

Part-time employees in the Post Office are 
working three or four hours a day, and are 
perfectly free to arrange for holidays if they 
wish to. There would therefore seem to be 
no obligation to pay them for their holiday 
time under our present regulations, the Post- 
master General says in replying to a question 
(p.7183). 

June 29— The NES office in Saskatoon 
had no alternative but to disqualify for 
unemployment insurance benefit certain 
employees laid off by Westeel Products in 
that city, the reason for layoff given by the 
management being "anticipating a strike", 
the Minister of Labour tells a questioner. 
The matter, the Minister says, is covered by 
Section 63(1) of the Unemployment Insur- 
ance Act, which states that under such cir- 
cumstances persons shall be disqualified 
(p. 7227). 

July 4 — The six companies manufacturing 
automobiles in Canada do not send motors 
to the United States for repair, according to 
information received from the Canadian 
Automobile Chamber of Commerce, the 
Prime Minister says in reply to a question. 
Volkswagen have installed facilities in 
Canada reconditioning motors of their cars, 
he adds (p. 7473). 

Debate on Bill C-114, to create a vacancy 
in the office of Governor of the Bank of 
Canada resumed and, after lengthy discus- 
sion, the bill passes second reading on divi- 
sion (p. 7504). The bill is later considered 
in committee, and after debate the House 
adjourns without question put (p. 7538). 

July 5 — Debate on Bill C-114, respecting 
the Bank of Canada resumed in committee 
(p. 7553). After long discussion, the title 
of the bill is agreed to on division, the bill 
is reported, and third reading is moved by 
the Minister of Finance (p.7589). After 
further discussion, the House adjourns with- 
out question put (p.7595). 

July 6 — Consideration in committee of 
Bill C-71, respecting the Civil Service of 
Canada, moved by the Minister of Finance, 
and motion agreed to (p. 7667). After 
debate, the House adjourns without question 
put (p. 7676). 

July 7 — Measures to help Springhill, taken 
by the federal Government, are outlined by 



the Prime Minister in reply to a question 
regarding representations made by the 
citizens of Springhill asking that special 
measures be applied to Springhill similar to 
those being taken in the Cape Breton area. 
The Prime Minister points out that the 
closing of the mines at Springhill occurred 
several years ago and that since then a num- 
ber of things have been done by the federal 
Government to help that community 
(p.7680). 

Bill C-114, respecting the Bank of Canada 
passes third reading on division (p. 7709). 

July 11 — A new policy of granting paid 
leave to all employees on the basis of their 
period of employment is being considered 
by the Government, the Secretary of State 
says in reply to a question about paid leave 
for part-time government employees 
(p.7847). 

July 12 — NES office areas designated 
under the special capital cost allowances 
program include: Cornwall, Elliot Lake and 
Windsor, Ont.; Amherst, New Glasgow and 
Springhill, N.S.; the Minister of Labour says 
in replying to a question. Localities 
designated under the program are: Milltown 
and Grand Falls-St. Leonard, N.B. Other 
particulars relating to the program are given 
(p. 7984). 

July 13 — A reduction in the number of 
tank car operators employed by the various 
fuel companies at Montreal's international 
airport has been brought about by the 
inauguration of an aircraft fuel feeding pipe 
system, the Minister of Transport tells a 
questioner. This service is operated by a 
Canadian company, incorporated in Canada 
and controlled by Canadians, he adds. The 
question contained the statement that 
several hundred employees had been laid 
off "as a result of the granting of a lubrica- 
tion service contract to an American firm" 
(p.7988). 

The case of the 13 persons who came to 
Ottawa in the march of the unemployed 
and who lost their unemployment insurance 
benefits for that day now lies within the 
jurisdiction of the Umpire to whom appeals 
were made, the Minister of Labour says in 
reply to a question. He adds that he has no 
jurisdiction over the activities of the 
Umpire (p. 7989). 

Adjournment of the House until Septem- 
ber 7, at 2.30 p.m., is moved by the Prime 
Minister, and the motion is agreed to 
(p.8049). 



754 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 




LABOUR DAY 
MESSAGES 



The Minister of Labour 



Hon. Michael Starr 

Extending greetings to the working population of Canada on the eve 
of another Labour Day, I am pleased to note that, on balance, the signs point 
once again toward another year of steady progress for Canadian labour in 
1961. 

Most indicators of economic activity are turned in an upward direction. 
The labour force has continued to expand, labour income so far this year 
is higher than in 1960, and impressive gains in wages and working conditions 
have been made during the year. In April 1961, for example, average weekly 
wages and salaries in Canada showed an increase of more than 3 per cent 
over 1960. Further, these advances have been shared widely by workers in 
various industries and have occurred against a background of a very modest 
increase in consumer prices. 

A further indication of the healthy state of Canadian industrial life is 
that in 1960 time lost through strikes was equivalent to only 0.06 per cent 
of the total time worked by non-agricultural paid workers. On the basis of 
a 2000-hour work year, this amounts to slightly more than one hour for 
each worker. It is the lowest annual total for any year since the end of World 
War II. 

We don't have to go back many years to realize the tremendous strides 
that have been made in Canada in improving working and living conditions 
of all Canadians. Five years ago, for example, 58 per cent of plant employees 
in Canadian manufacturing worked a standard work week of 40 hours or less. 
By 1960 this had reached 70 per cent. 

Almost all plant employees now work in establishments which provide 
paid vacations of two weeks or more. More are enjoying longer vacations. 
Five years ago only 3 per cent of manufacturing employees were eligible 
for three-week vacations after less than 15 years service. By last year the 
proportion had jumped to 21 per cent. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 7 



755 



Five years ago 56 per cent of manufacturing employees were eligible 
for at least eight paid statutory holidays a year. Last year the figures reached 
71 per cent. 

Pension plan benefits for wage earners are becoming more common. 
Sixty per cent of plant employees in manufacturing were eligible for pension 
plans five years ago; this year nearly 70 per cent are eligible. Now consideration 
is being given to the transfer of pension rights from employer to employer. 

These examples provide a good indication of the progress that has been 
made in labour-management relations in recent years. 

Great credit must go to organized labour for its vigorous action over 
the years. Similar credit must go to a great many modern employers with an 
enlightened point of view on labour-management relations. 

However, it must be obvious that in addition to the co-operative action 
of labour and the increasing acceptance by employers of the idea that Labour is 
a partner in production, these very worthwhile social advances would not 
have been possible without marked increases in the general efficiency of 
production. 

All of these beneficial advances have cost money, and to pay for them, 
more efficient methods and better machines have had to be introduced. This 
was inevitable. But progress often seems to cause hardship for some, and 
with increased efficiency in methods of production, fewer workers have been 
needed by many industries. Although the large majority of Canadians have 
experienced a rise in their standard of living and increased job security in 
recent years, there are many who have found it difficult to maintain any real 
continuity of employment. Many who have been displaced by machines are 
in the unskilled and semi-skilled category and unable to secure the more 
highly skilled and technical jobs offered today. 

Many efforts are being made to increase over-all employment by increasing 
the markets for Canadian goods, at home and abroad, and by fostering new 
and diversified industries, particularly in smaller communities. Investment 
capital is being encouraged into depressed areas by tax concessions, and efforts 
are being made to increase the availability of credit for investment purposes 
generally. 

At the same time, it has been recognized that many Canadians need 
retraining if they are to obtain employment in our modern industries. Young 
people entering employment will require more education and training if we 
are to prevent a continuing group of surplus workers in the unskilled category. 

To this end the Government of Canada is co-operating with that of 
each of the provinces to increase vocational and technical training facilities 
as fast as they can be erected. Federal contributions, covering 75 per cent 
of the cost of the facilities, will reach $45,000,000 this year — 5 times the 
amount provided in previous years. 

However, the anticipated marked increase in training facilities in the 
next few years will not achieve the objective of more skilled and technically 
trained Canadians, with greater employ ability, unless young people of school- 
attending age are encouraged to seek vocational, trades, and technical training, 
remain in school until they finish their courses, and generall fit themselves for 
advanced training in industry. 

All parents, teachers and community leaders have a responsibility to see 
that young Canadians know the facts and realize their significance. More 
employers must introduce training programs which will help offer steady 
employment to young Canadians in their own communities. Employers must 

756 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



not depend on others to train their workers for them or on going abroad 
to recruit them. Governments at all levels must ensure that there are sufficient 
schools offering trades and technical training, servicing as many communities as 
possible. In all this, particularly at the community and industry level, Organized 
Labour along with employers can play a crucial role. 



Claude Jodoin, 

President, 
Canadian Labour Congress 



Labour Day is traditionally a time of 
stocktaking for the labour movement. While 
it is natural that we should look back on the 
months since we last observed this holiday, 
it is even more important that we look to 
the future. 

Organized Labour has, through the years, 
established itself in our society; today the 
role we have to play is more important than 
ever. We are, indeed, living in challenging 
times. 

The waste and suffering that has resulted 
from unemployment in the past year has 
been stark evidence of our failure to meet 
the economic needs of our people. This 
imposed idleness of workers who would, and 
who could contribute so much to our 
national production has resulted from 
several causes. Some of these are conditions 
which we have experienced in the past; 
others come from great changes which are 
taking place in our economy. Regardless of 
the cause the price is the same. 

We are now nearing the time of year 
when jobs become increasingly scarce. 
There should be no hesitation in applying 
courage and imagination to this, the most 
important of the problems we face in 
our domestic economy. We have attained 
knowledge and ability which can provide 
a better and a fuller life for all. We must 
not allow abundance to become a social 
hazard. 

The Canadian Labour Congress has 
advanced programs and suggestions and 
has repeatedly called on governments at all 
levels, and most particularly on the federal 
government, to provide new leadership in 
combatting unemployment. 




While we have directed our comments to 
the governments, we clearly recognize that 
in this, as in so many other matters, there 
is great need for better understanding and 
co-operation between the various sections of 
our society. Those who work in factories, 
those who labour on farms, those who hold 
management responsibilities, those who fol- 
low the professions, and all Canadians 
share a citizenship in which we can take 
pride. We can only fulfill our responsibilities 
as Canadian citizens if we work together 
toward common aims. 

The challenges we face are not to be 
found only within our own borders. We 
become increasingly and inescapably in- 
volved in world affairs; and, indeed, it 
would be an evasion of our national respon- 
sibilities if we were to try to avoid such 
involvement. 

There is need now, as never before, for 
understanding of the critical international 
situation we face. The stakes are high — 
the future of mankind itself is involved. The 
Canadian Labour Congress has taken a 
very firm position opposing the continua- 
tion of nuclear tests and advocating uni- 
versal disarmament. We are opposed to 
Canada extending the membership of the 
nuclear club by accepting nuclear weapons. 
We look at the day, and we hope it may be 
soon, when those nations which now have 
nuclear arms will agree to disarm. 

At the same time we are realistic enough 
to realize that one nation alone, or one 
group of nations alone, cannot be expected 
to abandon these devastating weapons unless 
other nations take the same action simul- 
taneously. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



757 



We think we are also being realistic when 
we say that this is no time for Canada to 
abandon her friends. Neutralism is an 
illusion. We must work together with those 
who by tradition and association have been 
our friends; so that, through the United 
Nations, we can contribute to a world in 
which peace and understanding can prevail. 

Both as a nation, and as a member of a 
group of nations, we must make real contri- 
butions toward such a world. It is not 
enough for us to be against slavery; we must 



be for freedom. It is not enough to decry 
poverty and starvation; we must contribute 
to a better life for those less fortunate. 

These, in the broadest terms, are some of 
the challenges we now face, and they must 
be met without delay. We will only succeed 
if we work together in these common causes 
which so far outweigh the particular interests 
of one group or another. Organized Labour 
in Canada, on this our national holiday, 
must dedicate itself to this purpose. 




Jean Marchand, 

General President, 
Confederation of National Trade Unions 



We have long believed that North 
America's high industrial productivity and 
high standard of living were exclusive prod- 
ucts of our economic system. There was 
always unemployment, but it was considered 
"the price of our unequaled prosperity". 

Current experiments throughout the world 
are showing that the philosophy that inspired 
the creation and development of our eco- 
nomic institutions is not the only one to 
bring about a rapid increase in the welfare 
of people. These experiments are all the 
more valuable as they are not accompanied 
by unemployment. I know that often this 
progress is realized at the expense of 
individual liberty. However, this is not so in 
every case. 

Economic life must definitely be directed 
towards the common good and no longer 
serve the only interests of capital. No longer 
must the workers be strangers to the under- 
taking. Responsibilities must be shared and 
the economy must become democratic. At 
the same time, the Government must fol- 
low closely the activities of individuals and 
private institutions so that maximum pros- 



perity and full employment be attained. If 
we do not keep in mind these aims and if 
we fail to take measures to reach them, we 
can expect the worst. 

The working classes are ready to co- 
operate with the Government and the other 
classes of society in order to solve the 
important problems which are facing us. 
The refusal of this offer of co-operation 
would have tragic consequences for our 
future. 

Let us hope that Labour Day 1961 will 
awaken our political and economic leaders 
in time so that they may steer clear of the 
shoals that threaten us on all sides. 

The Canadian people will not tolerate for- 
ever that our economy be burdened with 
hundreds of thousands of unemployed who 
spread poverty and insecurity throughout the 
country. Freedom of enterprise is a second- 
ary concern compared to the freedom of 
human beings and to their right to earn an 
honourable living. 

Canadian workers can count on trade 
unionism in their fight for social and eco- 
nomic emancipation. 



758 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 






A. A. Hutchinson, 

Chairman, 

National Legislative Committee, 
International Railway Brotherhoods 



At this time of year, when labour cele- 
brates its own particular day, we look back 
to try to evaluate the benefits, or otherwise, 
for labour during the past year. 

In 1961 the review is not such as to 
cause us any rejoicing. We have come 
through a year of the worst unemployment 
situation that Canada has experienced, in 
many years, and while the outlook, at this 
writing, is more hopeful for the next year 
there are aspects which give cause for doubt. 

The devastation in the Western Provinces 
caused by drought is reason for the labour 
forces in the whole of Canada to worry, not 
only in the West. As one of our basic 
industries, agriculture, is affected, the effect 
is bound to be felt on all industry in Canada. 
Particularly does the matter interest railway 
labour, as the movement of agricultural 
products forms a large part of the traffic 
which falls to the railways to handle. 

This is true because the railways, as 
common carriers, are required to move all 
traffic offered and may not, as some of their 
competitors do, pick and choose the higher 
grades of traffic which yields larger returns 
per ton. In other words, the railways get the 
skimmed milk after others have taken the 




cream and railway labour is interested in 
seeing that there is a good supply of 
"skimmed milk". 

Displacement of railway labour by 
mechanization and automation continues, 
and while some optimists tell us that 
eventually the introduction of mechaniza- 
tion and automation on a large scale will 
benefit labour we are still waiting to see the 
benefits appear, on the railways. 

There is a chance that devaluation of 
our currency may help our export trade. 
Railway labour is hopeful that such will be 
the case, and that the volume of export 
traffic in commodities other than agricultural 
products will help to offset the bad results 
of what nature has done to Western Canada 
agriculture. 

Labour, generally, is pleased that we have 
got through a year of uneasy peace without 
any major conflicts. It is hoped that the good 
will of the people who labour throughout 
the world will prevail to prevent the 
catastrophe of a major conflict. The labour- 
ing people of all nations do not want any 
such horror as it will be the labouring 
people who will bear the heaviest impact. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 J 



759 



Labour Legislation in Quebec 



Professor Roger Chartier, of Laval University, speaking at the 33rd Annual 
Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, appraises some of 
Quebec's arrangements for the settlement of industrial relations disputes 



The confusion inherent in the labour 
legislation of the province of Quebec, 
which he held to be typical of North 
American labour legislation in general, was 
the theme of an address given by Prof. 
Roger Chartier of Laval University at the 
33rd Annual Meeting of the Canadian Poli- 
tical Science Association in Montreal in 
June. The title of his address was, "Labour 
Legislation in Quebec: A Study in Fear, 
Freedom and Conflict." 

With its compulsory "cooling off" period 
before strike action and its statutory third- 
party intervention in "interests" disputes, 
Quebec Labour law stood half way between 
the present voluntary system of Saskat- 
chewan and that of the pre-Taft-Hartley 
United States, on the one hand; and on the 
other, the "heavy and rigid government 
intervention" of Australia and New Zealand, 
Prof. Chartier said. 

The confusion in Quebec labour legisla- 
tion, the speaker pointed out, is of more 
than one kind. There is confusion of 
language shown in the use of the term 
"council of arbitration" to describe what 
is really a conciliation board. There is 
confusion in the failure to distinguish clearly 
between "conflicts of interests" and "con- 
flicts of rights". These two kinds of confu- 
sion, however, he said, are secondary in 
importance to the "basic opposition which I 
believe exists between our conciliation legis- 
lation, both negative in outlook and fearful 
of socio-economic disputes, and the funda- 
mental tenets of a free and democratic 
society." 

This fear, he believed, "is implicit in most 
North American labour legislation," and 
it is "based mainly on a lopsided and vastly 
pessimistic understanding and appraisal of 
industrial conflict and of the elementary 
psychology of the groups involved." 

To take exception even to the confusion 
involved in referring to "those tripartite 
boards which have to do solely with second- 
step, more formal conciliation" as "councils 
of arbitration" is more than a vain exercise 
in semantics, because most of the other 
difficulties that he was about to describe 
could be traced to this initial ambiguity, 
Prof. Chartier contended. 

As for the failure of Quebec legislation 
to distinguish clearly between "conflicts of 
interest" and conflicts of rights," he con- 
tinued: 



760 



My contention is . . . that it is partly wrong 
to equate grievances with rights disputes only, 
and to limit interests disputes to the pre-contract 
phase. For it should be obvious to all that 
many disputes arising while an agreement is in 
force cannot be dealt with, and disposed of, 
on the basis of clear, predetermined rights 
explicitly defined in the contract. Such disputes, 
therefore, call much more for negotiation and 
conciliation than for binding arbitration. 

Prof. Chartier went on to speak of the 
difficulties of a conciliation officer whose 
intervention was imposed as the first step 
in a compulsory procedure of dispute settle- 
ment. "It is the very imposition of the 
conciliator by statute that incites powerful 
unions and managements to treat him 
cavalierly, as an ally or as a scapegoat, 
especially so in the hypotheses of a tense 
political environment." The conciliation 
officer's services were usually most welcome 
in cases where collective bargaining was 
comparatively new or weak, and where 
the parties were groping their way; or in 
cases where one of the parties was much 
weaker than the other and consequently 
needed outside help. 

The most difficult part of all, however, 
was that of the impartial chairman of the 
conciliation board. "He is usually subject 
to much more pressure than enlightenment 
from his two colleagues on the board, and 
his first duty is to serve the two parties 
immediately involved, and not a vague com- 
mon good nor even the Minister of Labour 
who appoints him." But although the board's 
recommendations were not binding, its 
"award" might "exert strong moral pres- 
sure on the parties if the chairman is a 
man of competence and integrity backed 
by public opinion." 

"In conflicts of interests, which are both 
complex and economically important, the 
chairman must realize with all humility how 
few and uncertain are the criteria now in 
use, let alone the economic 'facts' which are 
relevant," the speaker said. "Such criteria 
are hard to define, and then to weigh and 
rank, for even the best of economists. And 
even if economic science had all the an- 
swers, the fact remains that decisions and 
demands on economic matters by both 
parties are primarily political in character." 

"Conflicts of interests stem from the 
antagonism of two freedoms which, left 
undefined by law, may claim to total dis- 
cretion. Such being the case, the chairman 
has no choice but to be primarily a man 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 






of conciliation rather than a man of awards, 
never attempting to pass judgment as a 
magistrate would do in a court of law, and 
always seeking the very mobile point of 
mutual acceptability at which the parties 
may agree." 

Another source of confusion in Quebec 
legislation was the role of the two repre- 
sentatives of the parties on the so-called 
"council of arbitration". They are in no 
way arbitrators, especially over conflicts of 
interests. "They may rather be viewed as 
lay assessors trying to enlighten the chair- 
man on the merits of a given viewpoint 
(their own!) and to get the best possible 
deal for their party," Prof. Chartier said. 

The decision of a conciliation board is 
usually at best an educated guess, as far 
as interests disputes are concerned, and it 
can make little claim to scientific accuracy. 
"Therefore, such an 'award' should get as 
little publicity as possible, and should not 
be used as a precedent," the speaker thought. 
In Quebec, recommendations of this kind 
were usually "generously distributed", but 
Ontario had a different policy. If these 
recommendations were made public pre- 
maturely it was liable to have the effect 
of prejudicing negotiations and delaying 
settlement of the dispute. 

The main confusion inherent in Quebec 
labour legislation, however, Prof. Chartier 
contended, is the opposition between free- 
dom, on the one side, and fear on the 
other. 

After referring to "the deepest and most 
practical regard for the freedoms which are 
the very essence of our democratic society," 
the speaker went on to say that "freedom 
of contract in industrial relations means free 
collective bargaining, unhampered by pro- 
cedural compulsions and totally in the 
hands of the two parties directly involved. 
It is my contention that, in Quebec as well 
as in most Canadian provinces, freedom 
has given way to extreme caution and even 
fear in the legal field of disputes settlement. 
Emergencies have set the pace for our 
conciliation procedure, which today hardly 
fits reality and certainly does not correspond 
to our ideal of economic freedom of action 
for all." 

If the principles of liberty are to apply 
in the field of union-management relations, 
Prof. Chartier said, the following rules 
should be observed: 

As few restrictions as possible should be 
forced upon the parties with regard to what 
constitutes a dispute or a working condition. 

Conciliation procedure by government should 
be at the option of the parties, and legislation 
should provide alternatives. 

If some steps in conciliation continue to be 
compulsory for a time, they should be as short 
and swift as possible. 



Conciliation should aim not only to prevent 
strikes, but also to help and inform the parties. 

In Canada, these rules are applied only 
in Saskatchewan, the speaker said. Every- 
where else a set procedure of government 
conciliation is compulsory, no alternatives 
are given, and the steps in the procedure 
are designed to take up time, doubtless in 
the hope that the parties will gradually 
"cool off". "In other words, our legislators 
have been led by fear rather than by 
freedom in the field of industrial conciliation 
of interests disputes," the object feared 
being the strike, he pointed out. 

"The strike, however legal and peaceful, 
has never been a welcome institution in 
our society," and strikes are given undue 
publicity. "The public is easily bothered by 
a strike," Prof. Chartier said, and as a 
rule the employers naturally hate strikes. 
". . . The real importance of strikes is the 
public reaction which they provoke, inas- 
much as it is hostile to collective bargain- 
ing, the very foundation of democracy in 
union-management relations." 

By causing the parties to delay serious 
attempts to reach agreement until the con- 
ciliation procedure has been completed, 
and by frequently causing them to take 
up rigid positions during the long period 
of delay, "the prolonged intervention of the 
state in union-management relations for 
conciliation purposes unwittingly leads to 
more conflict of a more violent nature when 
it was originally intended to avoid con- 
flicting manifestations at all costs," Prof. 
Chartier argued. 

The fear of strikes has led law makers 
to create the legal means, which although 
designed to promote order and peace, 
actually foster the outbreak of violent con- 
flict, he said. "Fear has created its object, 
the strike, and has magnified and multiplied 
it." 

His main argument, the speaker said, was 
that the fear of strikes shared by the public 
and the legislators sprang from "an erron- 
eous notion of conflict, social and especially 
industrial, and from a false evaluation of 
its functions and dysfunctions for individ- 
uals, groups, and societies." 

Going on to discuss the nature and 
functions of social conflict, Prof. Chartier 
said in part: 

Conflict simply cannot be excluded from 
social life ... It is everywhere to be found : in 
the family and other primary groups, in and 
between political, economic, administrative and 
other groups and finally between nations. And 
once it is institutionalized it becomes an essen- 
tial ingredient of the social structures . . . Social 
conflict, despite the harm which it may cause 
under certain conditions, is a useful and neces- 
sary stimulus for social change ... In other 
words, groups cannot forever be perfectly 
harmonious or perfectly conflict-ridden . . . 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 7 



761 



Furthermore, conflict is a dynamic force which 
helps a group or a society rid itself of violently 
disagreeable elements which tend to weaken 
it, the end result being a more solid and better 
adjusted unity. Acting as a safety valve, it 
reduces conflict of a more violent and per- 
sistent nature . . . 

In the industrial relations field, Prof. 
Chartier said, the strike is only one of many 
expressions of conflict, and by no means 
the most costly one. In cost it is greatly 
exceeded by systematic slow-downs, sabo- 
tage, excessive turnover, absenteeism and 
lateness, grievances, waste, petty thefts, and 
so on. 

Other postulates regarding strikes laid 
down by the speaker were: 

In a society where lockouts are not socially 
acceptable and are seldom resorted to, a strike 
is the responsibility of both union and manage- 
ment, although the union by taking the first 
step appears as the aggressor. 

A world where either the employer or the 
union was too weak to make a stand or did 
not choose to do so, would not be a healthy 
world, and it would maintain a semblance of 
harmony at too high a price in a democracy. 

The strike is an essential part of collective 
bargaining, even though the threat of a strike 
is often sufficient. Without it, the parties would 
be dangerously complacent. 

The strike is a catharsis of industrial tensions, 
reducing them by airing grievances, suggesting 



improvements and establishing a new "order" 
that may be more acceptable to the parties 
than the old. 

The strike is a symbol of freedom and in- 
dependence in a democratic society. 

"The very fact that it occurs occasion- 
ally or can happen is a clear indication of 
the vitality of a society and of the liberty 
therein. One might say that here is an 
economically and socially expensive symbol; 
and yet, the alternative to it is totalitarian- 
ism ... It stands as a witness to the free- 
dom of a group of workers who, refusing 
their employer's terms, collectively refuse 
him their labour; it also bears witness to 
the employer's freedom to provoke more or 
less directly a test of strength with the 
union representing his employees. 

"Is freedom at that price really such an 
expensive gadget?" Prof. Chartier asked. 
"... I am firmly convinced that it is 
better to give freedom a chance and to 
run the risk of some inconvenience and 
abuse than to make the sure mistake, from 
the start, of accepting as a guide a fear 
which is totally unworthy of men who are 
supposed to be the embodiment of a 
genuine democracy." 



Government Supervised Strike Votes 



A summary of a new book by Prof. F. R. Anton, of the Department of Political 
Economy, University of Alberta, who was assisted in this work by a grant 
in aid of research under the Labour Department-University Research Program 



This study examines the proposal that 
governments should enact legislation pro- 
hibiting strikes until a supervised vote, by 
secret ballot, has been taken among 
employees involved in a dispute and a 
majority have authorized their leaders to 
take strike action. Proponents of such 
legislation rest their case, in the main, on 
two assertions: 

(1) that the existence of strike vote 
legislation reduces the number of strikes; 
and 

(2) that only by means of a supervised 
strike vote are employees assured of the 
opportunity of expressing their "true feel- 
lings" on strike action without fear of 
censure of intimidation. 

The proposal has already resulted in a 
certain amount of legislation. During 
World War II, the Dominion Government 
(under Order-in-Council P.C. 7307*) re- 
quired that supervised strike vote be taken — 



*Text of this Order in Council was published in 
the Labour Gazette, 1941, p. 1209. 



after all steps in conciliation had been 
exhausted — before a union might legally call 
a strike in any industry coming under the 
jurisdiction of the federal parliament. In the 
United States similar provisions were 
enacted under the War Labour Disputes Act 
(Smith-Connally Act), while currently, the 
Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947 
(Taft-Hartley Act) provides for a govern- 
ment conducted strike vote in national 
emergency disputes which are still unsettled 
after an injunction against a work stoppage 
has been in effect for sixty days. 

The Provinces of Alberta and British 
Columbia have also imposed a strike vote 
requirement. Alberta requires compulsory 
supervision of strike voting before a strike 
may legally take place. British Columbia 
provides for a strike vote which may, if 
requested by either party to the dispute, 
be supervised by an agent of the govern- 
ment. In the United States, the State of 
Michigan also calls for a government-con- 
ducted strike vote when the dispute in 
question comes under the jurisdiction of the 



762 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



State's labour legislation; likewise, a num- 
ber of other States in the Union have legis- 
lated that it is an unfair labour practice for 
workers to engage in a strike without 
majority authorization of the employees in 
the bargaining unit. 

Interest in strike voting was stimulated 
early in 1954 when President Eisenhower 
in his labour legislation recommendations 
to Congress suggested that on strike issues 
a worker should be given an opportunity to 
express his choice by secret ballot held 
under government supervision. In Canada, 
debate on the merit of strike vote legisla- 
tion is still active and widespread. Employer 
associations frequently adopt resolutions at 
their provincial or national conventions 
urging the federal and provincial govern- 
ments to implement strike vote legislation; 
provincial federations of labour generally 
oppose such resolutions. This study examines 
some of the issues involved in the proposal. 

The lines of investigation followed are: 

(1) The results of strike votes conducted 
under the legislation during World War II 
and in the post-war period are analyzed. 

(2) Arguments advanced in support of 
supervised strike vote legislation are 
examined in the light of strike voting results. 

(3) The strike vote legislation proposal 
is considered from the point of view of 
labour leaders and others who oppose it. 

Strike-Voting Legislation: A Background Study 

The study outlines the development of 
federal labour legislation in Canada and 
traces the influence of this legislation on 
subsequent provincial statutes. Supervised 
strike voting experience (under the 
Dominion Order-in-Council P.C. 7307 and 
the United States' War Labour Disputes 
Act) during World War II is reviewed in 
order to provide a background against which 
post-war strike vote legislation in Alberta 
and British Columbia may be examined. 
Within the framework of Alberta's labour 
laws certain compulsory voting provisions 
are considered and the link between manda- 
tory voting on conciliation board awards 
and strikes is established. A case history of 
a work-stoppage illustrates the subtler aspects 
of compulsory voting. The strike vote re- 
quirement under British Columbia labour 
laws is summarized as are data of the results 
of strike votes conducted in the province. 
Strike control provisions imposed on union 
locals by their international constitutions 
are tabulated and the strike procedures fol- 
lowed in Alberta by some union locals are 
considered. The results of strike votes con- 
ducted under the requirements of the Michi- 
gan Labor Mediation Act are also tabulated; 



A book on Government Supervised 
Strike Votes, written by Prof. F. R. 
Anton, of the Department of Political 
Economy, University of Alberta, has 
recently been published.* 

In the course of his work, Prof. Anton 
received grants in aid of research from 
the Labour Department-University 
Research Committee (L.G., 1958, p. 
1112). These grants are awarded for 
studies in the field of labour-management 
relations. 

Prof. Anton's book, divided into nine 
chapters, covers the federal strike vote 
experience in Canada and the United 
States during World War II; labour legis- 
lation in Alberta; supervised voting 
provisions in the Alberta Labour Act; 
supervised strike voting in British Colum- 
bia; strike vote procedures of local 
unions; compulsory strike vote legisla- 
tion; and general issues involved in 
supervised strike voting. 

Conclusions drawn by Prof. Anton 
concern strike vote legislation experience 
and procedures and arguments in favour 
of or against strike vote legislation. 

Appendix A summarizes and gives the 
text of important legal restrictions on the 
right to strike. Outline of the question- 
naire used in strike vote study in Alberta 
is given in Appendix B. A bibliography 
of pertinent literature is included. 

This summary of Government Super- 
vised Strike Votes has been prepared by 
the author for the Labour Department- 
University Research Committee. 



in addition, data on a number of union- 
conducted strike votes in Queensland, 
Australia, are given. Finally, there is a dis- 
cussion of the major issues involved in 
mandatory strike voting, with some tentative 
conclusions drawn on the basis of the 
evidence presented. 

Wartime Federal Legislation 

With the outbreak of World War II, steps 
were taken by the Dominion Government 
to improve the federal machinery for settl- 
ing the increasing number of industrial 
disputes. On November 7, 1939, under the 
powers conferred by Parliament under the 
War Measures Act, the scope of The 
Industrial Disputes Investigation Act was 
enlarged to include industries engaged in 
war production. Thus many industries 
previously under provincial jurisdiction were 
brought within the scope of the Act. 

•Available from the publisher, C.C.H. Canadian 
Limited, 1200 Lawrence Avenue West, Toronto; 
pp. 245; price $9.00. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



763 



Among extensions of the Act's provisions 
was a clause which made it unlawful for an 
employer to declare a lockout, or employees 
to go on strike, until a report had been sub- 
mitted to the Minister of Labour by a Board 
of Conciliation and Investigation. Further 
powers were granted the Minister, under 
Order-in-Council P.C. 7307 of September 
1941, to prohibit strikes until after a strike 
vote had been taken. The order required 
that before employees take a strike vote or 
go on strike they notify the Minister of their 
intent. If the Minister felt that a work-stop- 
page would hinder war production he could 
order that the strike vote be supervised by 
his Department. All employees who, in his 
opinion, were affected by the dispute were 
entitled to vote and only where a majority 
of those entitled to vote cast their ballots in 
favour of it could strike take place. 

P.C. 7307 remained in force until 
September 1944 during which period there 
were thirty-six applications for supervision 
of strike votes. Sixteen disputes were re- 
solved before a strike vote was taken. Votes 
were, however, conducted in twenty 
disputes: the employees involved voted in 
favour of strike action in fifteen cases, 
against strike action in five cases. Of the 
total number of employees participating in 
the twenty supervised elections, over 85 per 
cent voted in favour of going on strike. 
Twelve strikes occurred after all the provi- 
sions of the Order had been complied with. 

As in Canada, the War Labour Dispute 
Act of 1943, also provides for the taking 
of strike votes. The stated purpose of the 
strike vote caluse was to inform the 
President of disputes which threatened to 
interrupt war production and to allow 
employees "an opportunity to express them- 
selves, free from restraint and coercion, as 
to whether they will permit interruption in 
war time." The Act authorized the President 
to seize establishments needed for the war 
effort if production was threatened by a 
work-stoppage; it was a criminal offence for 
a trade union to call a strike in any plant 
seized by the government. 

Strikes were also prohibited in privately 
operated establishments unless a 30-day 
strike notice had been filed. If the dispute 
was not settled, the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board was required to conduct a secret 
ballot vote to find out whether the employees 
concerned wished to go on strike. The vote 
was conducted among those employees 
regarded as forming the collective bar- 
gaining unit. No criminal penalties were 
imposed for violating the strike vote pro- 
vision of the Act, but a civil suit could be 
brought against violators by either the 
government or any other party injured by 



the strike. It was legal, if the government 
had not seized the plant, for the union to 
strike after the thirty-day "cooling-off" 
period, irrespective of whether a majority 
of the employees involved had voted against 
strike action. 

During the two-and-a-half years that these 
provisions were in effect the N.L.R.B. con- 
ducted over 2,000 strike votes involving 
almost three million eligible voters. Eighty- 
five per cent of the voting units gave their 
leaders majority authorization to call a 
strike. Of the total number of eligible voters 
who cast ballots, 80 per cent voted for a 
strike. Strikes occurred in about 15 per cent 
of the cases where all the provisions of the 
Act had been fiulfilled. 

Provincial Legislation 

By an amendment to the Industrial Con- 
ciliation and Arbitration Act of 1938, the 
Province of Alberta has required a super- 
vised strike vote since 1945. The current 
Labour Act requires that: 

(a) no trade union, no officer or repre- 
sentative of a trade union . . . shall author- 
ize or call a strike, and 

(b) no employee shall go on strike, until 
a vote has taken place under the supervision 
of the Board (of Industrial Relations) . . . 
and a majority of the employees entitled to 
vote have voted in favour of a strike. 

The results of strike votes conducted in 
Alberta during the years 1954-1958 indicate 
that over 71 per cent of the valid votes cast 
were in favour of strike action. Fifteen legal 
strikes occured in the period under review. 
The majority authorization required for a 
strike is not a majority of the votes cast by 
each voting unit, but rather a majority of 
those workers entitled to vote in each unit. 

In common with Alberta, the 1937 
Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 
of British Columbia required that on ques- 
tions of acceptance or rejection of what were 
called arbitration awards, an award should 
be submitted to a vote supervised by the 
Minister of Labour. After the war, when the 
Province resumed its normal jurisdiction 
over labour relations, the above Act was 
repealed and replaced by a new Act of the 
same name. The latter was based on the 
old Act, the innovations consisting mainly 
of features contained in the wartime federal 
labour code. One such innovation was the 
compulsory supervised strike vote provision. 
In principle the statute followed that of the 
Alberta Labour Act, particularly with 
regard to the conciliation procedures to be 
followed by a union before members could 
strike or an employer cause a lockout. One 
important difference was that majority 



764 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



authorization of the employees who voted 
was considered adequate for union leaders 
to take strike action, rather than majority 
approval of those entitled to vote, as in 
Alberta. 

The British Columbia Act no longer 
stipulates that the strike vote be govern- 
ment supervised, but requires that "at the 
request of either party to a dispute, the 
Minister shall appoint a person or persons 
to conduct the taking and counting of the 
vote . . ." It is, however, compulsory that 
a strike vote be taken and a majority vote 
in favour of strike action before a strike 
may legally occur; but if no request is made 
to the Minister, the vote is not supervised. 
The experience of the Department of 
Labour has been that in almost every case 
supervision is requested by either the 
employer, the union or both. 

In British Columbia, during the seven- 
year period 1952-1958 for which data are 
available, a total of 120,000 eligible voters 
were involved in strike votes; nearly 90 per- 
cent of these voters cast valid ballots. Of 
the valid votes cast, 88 per cent favoured 
strike action. An average of 28 legal strikes 
occurred each year during this interval. 

The State of Michigan requires, under its 
Labor Mediation Act, that when parties to 
an industrial dispute are unable to resolve 
their differences, they must submit the 
dispute to a tripartite mediation board. 
Failing settlement, the Labor Mediation 
Board may conduct a supervised strike 
vote by secret ballot among the employees 
in the bargaining unit involved. Strikes are 
forbidden under the Act unless a majority 
of the employees, casting valid ballots, 
authorize strike action. Of the strike votes 
conducted by the Board during the period 
1952-1958, over 55 per cent resulted in 
strike authorization by a majority of those 
casting votes in the units involved; slightly 
over 55 per cent of the valid votes cast, 
were in favour of strike action. As in 
Alberta and British Columbia, non-union 
members are permitted to vote in elections 
conducted by the Board. 

Reasons for Strike Vote Regulations 

Strike vote legislation was enacted in 
wartime with the aim of limiting the power 
of trade unions to call strike indiscrim- 
inately. The intention was to keep the num- 
ber of strikes to a minimum and thus enable 
war production to be maximized. There is 
no evidence available to indicate if the 
legislation achieved this desired aim, but 
spokesmen for both the Canadian and 
United States governments have expressed 
the view that the requirement did little to 



impede strikes. In fact the results indicate 
that in no imporant dispute did workers vote 
against strike action. 

Reasons have been given by observers, 
from time to time, why strike vote legisla- 
tion is required in Alberta and British 
Columbia. An outbreak of strikes followed 
in the wake of World War II. It was alleged 
that some of these strikes occurred because 
the unions involved were Communist- 
dominated. To curb such influence, employer 
associations and members of the public 
agitated for tighter legislative controls, 
including the requirement of a secret strike 
vote to be conducted by the government. It 
was also argued that such legislation was 
desirable on the ground that it would 
guarantee both union and non-union 
employees the right to express their feel- 
ings on strike action without fear of censure, 
discrimination or retribution. 

The results of strike voting conducted in 
British Columbia and Alberta suggest that 
workers in the former province granted 
approval for strike action more readily than 
did workers in Alberta. The assertion that 
supervised strike voting tends to reduce the 
number of strikes does not gain much sup- 
port from the results of this study. The fact 
that a number of votes were conducted in 
which majority authorization to strike was 
withheld need not imply that strikes were 
avoided solely because of the voting provi- 
sion. There is no way of knowing whether 
or not strikes would have taken place in the 
absence of a supervised vote. 

The second assertion, that only by means 
of a secret ballot strike vote can employees 
involved in a dispute express their "true 
feelings" about striking, is a subjective mat- 
ter concerning the procedure some think it 
is desirable for unions and employees to 
follow before being permitted to strike. The 
evidence available on strike control provi- 
sions imposed on union locals, by their inter- 
national constitutions, suggests that most 
unions are obliged to follow "democratic" 
procedures when seeking strike authorization 
from their membership. In addition, unions 
usually must obtain head office permission 
before calling a strike. 

Supporters of strike voting question the 
ethics of union strike control procedures. 
They also assert that some union leaders are 
able to exert persuasive power over the rank- 
and-file. In their view, the government is 
justified in requiring impartial supervision 
of strike votes. Union leaders deride these 
views and point to the evidence available on 
strike voting to show that there were many 
instances where strike authorization was 
withheld. They also argue that a strike 
is resorted to only after all attempts at a 
peaceful settlement have failed; some 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



765 



leaders add that, occasionally, it is the rank- 
and-file who are strike-prone and must be 
restrained. The supervised strike vote 
requirement is seen as a restriction on the 
right to strike and an attempt to jeopardize 
the security of the union. More significantly, 
a number of union spokesmen maintain that 
the vote militates against sound labour-man- 
agement relations in that it delays "real" 
negotiations until the legislative hurdle has 
been cleared. 

Conclusions 

The author of the study concludes that 
there is no strong evidence available to sup- 
port or deny the assertion that the require- 



ment of supervised strike votes acts as a 
deterrent to work-stoppages. On the basis of 
the results and the tentative conclusions 
derived from these, there does not appear 
to be any clear-cut, Prima facie case why 
strike vote legislation should be adopted by 
the federal government or those provinces 
which are under pressure to enact such a 
measure. It is emphasized, however, that 
because of the limitations of the data, any 
conclusions drawn and observations made 
in the study from these separate lines of 
investigation are tentative only — suggesting 
tendencies rather than offering positive 
evidence. 



Need Seen to Adapt our Motives 

and Methods in Collective Bargaining 

Karl E. Scott, President of the Ford Motor Co. of Canada, suggests three 
changes to improve the state of industrial relations in Canada and lays 
down four main tactical principles that should govern future negotiations 



Our system of collective bargaining in 
Canada is seriously hampered by our out- 
dated attitudes toward it, and of all the 
various phases of our evolving economy our 
motives and methods in collective bar- 
gaining have least adapted themselves to the 
new demands of world competition. This 
was the opinion expressed by Karl E. Scott, 
President of the Ford Motor Co. of Canada, 
in an address delivered before the British 
Columbia Chamber of Commerce in Van- 
couver recently. 

Under the stimulus of the problems that 
are harassing Canadians in a changing 
world economy, "there is a solemn realiza- 
tion that our historic Canadian qualities 
of ingenuity and boldness are being severely 
tested. Growing out of this, there is a 
willingness among an increasing number of 
our business leaders to jettison outdated 
practices and habits, no matter how tradi- 
tional, which jeopardize our ability to com- 
pete. There is a vigorous spirit of inquiry 
into new and better methods of managing 
the nation's business for the greater benefit 
of all Canadians," said Mr. Scott. 

For this reason, he asserted, it is timely 
that our present collective bargaining atti- 
tudes and methods be exposed to public 
scrutiny and discussion, and it is right that 
our labour-management relations should be 
"dissected in the same forthright manner 
in which, as I have indicated, Canadians are 
re-evaluating other factors which directly 
affect the present-day lives and future pros- 
pects of every Canadian man, woman and 
child." 



Three suggestions for improving the state 
of industrial relations in Canada were made 
by the speaker: 

First, business leaders must re-affirm their 
belief in the principle of collective bargain- 
ing. Acceptance of this principle by manage- 
ment must, however, presuppose that col- 
lective bargaining is rendering service to 
the economy as a whole. "All too intoler- 
able, as is too often the fact, are the repeti- 
tive excessive demands made on individual 
industries, penalizing their competitive abili- 
ties, and jeopardizing the economy." 

Secondly, all Canadians, including union 
leaders and union members, must recognize 
that the Canadian industrial system, and 
with it the system of collective bargaining, 
is at a crossroads in its development. The 
competition of overseas products in both 
quality and price is strong, and "obviously, 
collective bargaining cannot create jobs 
for Canadians if, in the first place, we can- 
not get customers for our products." 

Finally, all Canadians engaged in indus- 
try, including management, employees and 
responsible union leaders, must in their 
own interests, voluntarily re-orient their 
attitudes toward collective bargaining in the 
context of Canada's new world environ- 
ment. "Postures taken at Canadian bargain- 
ing tables should be governed by the reali- 
ties of the world economic explosion." 

The adoption of new attitudes toward 
collective bargaining does not imply the 
surrender of traditional prerogatives by any 
participant, Mr. Scott said, but it does mean 



766 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



a recognition by all concerned that the 
nation's economic dilemma is urgent. It 
also means that the recognition should be 
stated publicly so that there shall be "no 
deception of the public at this critical period 
in our history." 

"There is no further room for cynicism 
or selfish interest if Canada is to achieve 
a constructive, rather than, as is too fre- 
quently the case at present, a disruptive 
collective bargaining climate. Dissenting 
individuals and groups, therefore, must be 
held accountable to the public to the degree 
that further aggravations of our economic 
maladies will be attributable to them," the 
speaker said. 

He pointed out that the stage was admir- 
ably set for the eradication of obstructive 
abuses from Canadian collective bargaining, 
because "never before in our history have 
the people who manage our companies and 
the people who work in our companies 
been so similar in so many ways." 

"For example, management of our free 
enterprise companies increasingly is directed 
by managers who are employees, rather than 
proprietors." Present day managers do not 
comprise a "preordained elite class," and 
do not wield extensive powers over the 
economy. "Actually, they can fail to heed 
the discipline of the market only at peril 
to themselves, their businesses and the jobs 
these create." 

The employees also have long outgrown, 
both intellectually and materially, the posi- 
tion that at one time justified the now 
outdated slogans about the "exploitation 
of the masses." 

Mr. Scott laid down four main tactical 
principles that he said should in future 
govern negotiating postures taken by all 
participants: 

First, there should be a minimum of 
government intervention in private enter- 
prise, or recourse to government. Our 
ability to continue to compete internation- 
ally in the long-term cannot be legislated 
or subsidized." 

"Second, economic factors in foreign 
countries are not necessarily valid in 
Canada. Attempts to apply them in Cana- 
dian collective bargaining needlessly create 
fictitious bases for disagreement." For 
example, for Canadian labour negotiators 
to aim at wage parity with the United 
States "is certainly sentimentally desirable, 
but practically unsound because of the 
fundamental differences between the two 
national economies, including Canada's 
small domestic market and lack of mass 
production volumes." 



It was also unreasonable for management 
to take the lower wage rates that prevail 
in Europe as a guide in collective bargain- 
ing. For Canadians to reduce their living 
standard drastically did not appear to be 
necessary, "provided each of us can dili- 
gently back it up by contributing to the 
growth of our national productivity made 
necessary by world-wide competition." 

"Third, short-term economic situations 
should not be exploited in order to enforce 
unreasonable or unfair demands, either by 
management or organized labour." 

"Fourth, there should be no abdication of 
basic rights by either labour or manage- 
ment." Management employees must con- 
tinue to recognize the unions' right to 
organize and to expect management to 
bargain in good faith. Management em- 
ployees, on the other hand, cannot consider 
anything that would significantly impair 
the right of management to manage. 

"It is my sincere conviction that if man- 
agement and labour honestly and resolutely 
will subscribe to such basic principles of 
collective bargaining in Canada, the attain- 
ment of our most urgent economic objec- 
tives will be assured. 

"These objectives include the following: 
Contrary to frequent claims, management 
does share with all Canadians the desire 
to stabilize and expand employment in 
this country. Apart from purely humane 
reasons, this is essential to provide us with 
a growing domestic market. 

"Let me warn, however, that employ- 
ment growth must result from competitive 
achievements. It cannot be created and 
sustained through artificial arrangements. 
Such devices or gimmicks may provide a 
few temporary jobs, but they also will im- 
pose burdensome costs on the industry 
involved, thus creating competitive dis- 
advantages which inevitably must result in 
fewer customers and more layoffs," Mr. 
Scott said. 

Employees represented by unions must 
share management's recognition of the need 
to keep on modernizing and expanding 
plants where necessary, in order to compete 
better. 

Improving the quality of our products, 
the speaker said, is important from a 
competitive point of view, and it is in this 
sphere that trade unionism can make one 
of its most vital contributions. "Quality 
must be built into our products during the 
manufacturing process — it cannot be in- 
spected into products afterward. This calls 
for special dedication by all Canadians to 
their jobs — a dedication which union leaders 
and members can help inspire. 

"Finally, both management and labour 
in Canada are increasingly aware of the 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



767 



premium placed on industrial skills of an 
ever-increasing variety by the demands of 
the new world economy. The result will be 
an ever-increasing flow of new opportunities 
for more people, if we provide the proper 
educational and training climate." 

Collective bargaining can help Canadians 
to seek and find new and better ways to 



industrial and social achievements; but, on 
the other hand, it can retard the pursuit 
of economic objectives and thus place 
Canada's economic independence in jeo- 
pardy, Mr. Scott said. "Surely, since so many 
millions of Canadians are affected, nobody 
at the bargaining table dares evade the 
challenge." 



Canadian Industry Must Close the Gap Between 

the Skills it Has and the Skills it Needs 



To the extent that technological changes 
result in stable or increasing opportunities 
for employment within an industry, the 
industry itself can deal with the situation 
by means of on-the-job training directed to 
the upgrading and adjustment of the skills 
of the workers, said K. Hallsworth, Director 
of Industrial Relations, Ford Motor Co. 
of Canada, in a recent address given at 
the Notre Dame Industrial College School, 
Welland, Ont. 

"If, on the other hand, these dislocations 
result in layoffs of workers in individual 
industries, as well as lack of employment 
opportunity for new entrants into the labour 
market, a social problem is created which 
is national in its scope," the speaker con- 
tinued. "This is the situation in which our 
country finds itself today." 

There is a prevailing notion that workers 
displaced by technological change can be 
isolated and placed in a distinct group 
separate from those displaced from other 
causes, such as changes in demand, Mr. 
Hallsworth said. This, , however, is not the 
case. In both Canada and the United 
States it has been found almost impossible 
to distinguish between workers laid off 
because of automation and those who 
become unemployed from other causes. 

It is evident, however, that new tech- 
nology makes greater demands for skill, 
and some industries are unable to fill posi- 
tions that call for special knowledge or 
higher skills, the speaker said. At the same 
time, there are many unemployed persons 
who, because of low educational qualifica- 
tions and lack of skill, stand little chance 
of obtaining employment unless they get 
more training. 

Together with an urgent demand for 
more graduates in the engineering, scientific 
and managerial fields, at vocational schools 
and universities there is "a widening recog- 
nition of the need for a perspective which 
will permit graduates to meet changing 
requirements throughout their working 
careers." If Canada is to retain its position 
in the world economy, it cannot afford to 



lag in the provision of highly trained peo- 
ple, Mr. Hallsworth asserted. 

He went on to speak of the urgent need 
to impress upon school pupils and their 
parents the importance of an adequate 
education, quoting a recent report of the 
Ontario Department of Education to the 
effect that 70 out of every 100 who go 
through school do not pass junior matricula- 
tion. "Surely the drop-out rate from our 
school requires urgent and continuing atten- 
tion. Similarly, avenues for providing train- 
to those who have already left school 
should be explored to the greatest extent 
possible." 

With new and complex machinery it is 
essential for even skilled workers con- 
tinually to keep their knowledge up to 
date, and most companies have programs 
of staff development and training, Mr. 
Hallsworth pointed out. "The gap between 
the skills we have and the skills we need 
must be filled, to the extent possible, by 
the training and development of our own 
employees. Additions to the work force must 
possess the skills required to do the jobs 
concerned." 

Canadian industry, the speaker said, faces 
a continual increase in competitive pressures 
both at home and abroad, and in this 
struggle we possess no particular natural 
advantage and some disadvantages. "The 
answer, obviously, is to develop new tech- 
niques for economical production designed 
to meet the size of our markets, and in- 
creased sales effort in order to improve our 
markets." 

These new conditions are having "pro- 
found effects on organizational structure 
and management needs." Employees must 
be people "to whom change and challenge 
are exciting. We need employees who are 
flexible and alert to the need for change 
and constant improvement." 

"Buildings and machinery, no matter how 
modern or expensive," said Mr. Hallsworth, 
"can do nothing without thoroughly com- 
petent people to operate and manage the 
enterprise of which they form a part." 



768 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



Labour Legislation of the Past Decade— VIII 

Eighth of a series of articles reviewing developments in labour legislation since 
1950 deals with the changes in coverage of Canadian labour relations legislation 

Part 7— Labour Relations and Trade Union Legislation 



The present system of labour relations 
legislation in Canada was a comparatively 
new venture ten years ago. Government 
intervention to assist in the settlement of 
disputes dates back to the beginning of this 
century, but it was not until the late 1930's 
that the concept of the obligation of an 
employer to recognize and bargain with a 
trade union supported by the majority of 
his employees was adopted as a principle in 
the legislation of some provinces, and it 
was not until the 1940's, during the war 
years, that the further step was taken of 
providing effective means for determining 
questions of representation, defining appro- 
priate bargaining units, requiring negotiation 
between management and bargaining agents, 
and laying down the ground rules within 



which the collective bargaining relationship 
was to operate. 

Federal jurisdiction was greatly extended 
during the war, with the result that manage- 
ment and labour became accustomed to a 
uniform labour code across the country. As 
a result of this experience, and also because 
of a deliberate effort of the federal author- 
ities in 1947 and 1948 to work out legislation 
that might be acceptable both in the federal 
field of jurisdiction and in each of the 
provinces, the legislation adopted in the 
first post-war years had many principles and 
provisions in common. This article will 
describe the major changes which have been 
made in the 1950's. The legislation with 
which it deals is indicated in the accompany- 
ing table. 



Coverage 



The federal Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act applies through- 
out Canada to the employers and employees 
in industries and enterprises under federal 
jurisdiction. 

Each of the provincial labour relations 
Acts applies with few exceptions to the 
employers and employees in the province 
operating within the jurisdiction of the pro- 
vincial legislature. In the period, the field 
of operations of the federal Act has been 
widened by several court decisions which 
have held that Parliament has exclusive 
authority in interprovincial and interna- 
tional road transport, pipe lines extending 
beyond the limits of a province, over 
stevedoring operations serving out-of-the- 
province shipping, and over uranium mining 
and the processing of nuclear material. 

Industry and Occupational Exclusions 

Several of the provincial Acts exclude 
certain industry or occupational groups. 
Domestic service and agriculture are 
excluded in Alberta, British Columbia, 
New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec; and 
horticulture, hunting and trapping in 
British Columbia, New Brunswick and 
Ontario. No change has been made with 
respect to these exclusions, except that in 
Ontario in 1960 the Act was amended with 
respect to the exclusion of horticulture to 
make it clear that an employee of a munici- 



pality or a person employed in silvaculture 
is not excluded by reason of the fact that he 
may be engaged in horticulture work. It is 
only the employees of employers whose 
primary business is horticulture who are 
excluded. 

In 1950 the federal Act and the Acts of 
all the provinces except British Columbia, 
Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan 
excluded employees who are members of 
certain professions and employed in their 
professional capacity. The professions ex- 
cluded are the medical, dental, architectural, 
engineering or legal professions (in Quebec, 
professions covered by the Bar Act, Notarial 
Code, Medical Act, Study of Anatomy Act, 
Homeopathists' Act, Pharmacy Act, Dental 
Act, Veterinary Surgeons' Act, Civil 
Engineers' Act, Land Surveyors' Act, Archi- 
tects' Act, and Dispensing Opticians Act, and 
any person admitted to the study of one of 
these professions). When the British Colum- 
bia legislation was replaced in 1954, pro- 
fessional persons were excluded as in the 
other provinces. The only other change 
during the period was that in Manitoba in 
1956 the dietetic profession was added to 
the list of excluded professions in the Mani- 
toba Act. 1 

•Dietitians were excluded from the New Bruns- 
wick Act by a 1961 amendment, as were also nurses 
and teachers. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



769 



Managerial and Confidential Employees 

Managerial employees and certain con- 
fidential employees are excluded in all the 
Acts. The federal Act, and the Acts of 
Alberta, British Columbia (since 1954), 
Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland 
and Nova Scotia, state that a manager or 
superintendent, or any other person who, in 
the opinion of the Board, exercises manage- 
ment functions or is employed in a confi- 
dential capacity in matters relating to labour 
relations, is not an employee under the 
Act. The Ontario Act, as passed in 1950, 
stated that no person shall be deemed to be 
an employee who is a manager or super- 
intendent or who exercises managerial func- 
tions or is employed in a confidential capa- 
city in matters relating to labour relations. 
The words "in the opinion of the Board" 
were added by a 1957 amendment, making 
it clear that, as in the federal Act and the 
Acts of the other provinces listed above, the 
decision as to what constitutes managerial or 
confidential functions rests with the Board. 



The Crown and Crown Agencies 

The federal Act and the Acts of all the 
provinces except Saskatchewan exclude 
Government employees, either in direct 
terms as in Section 55 of the federal Act, or 
by virtue of the rule of interpretation that 
if an Act does not specifically state that it 
binds the Crown, the Crown is not bound by 
it. The Saskatchewan Act specifically states 
(Section 2 (5)) that Her Majesty in right of 
Saskatchewan is bound by the Act. 

In Quebec, the Labour Relations Act 
applies to public services and their 
employees, whether carried on by the 
government or by commercial enterprises, 
subject to the modifications set out in the 
Public Services Employees Disputes Act. 

The position ' with respect to companies, 
boards and commissions set up to carry out 
a government function varies somewhat in 
the different jurisdictions. The federal Act 
and the Acts of New Brunswick, Newfound- 
land, Nova Scotia, Manitoba and Quebec 
deal specifically with the position of such 



Labour Relations Legislation in Canada, 1950-1960 



Legislation in effect in 1950, 
with date of enactment 

Canada: Industrial Relations and Disputes 

Investigation Act. 1948. 
Alberta: Alberta Labour Act. 1947. 

Amended in 1948, 1950. 
British Columbia: Industrial Conciliation 

and Arbitration Act, 1947. Amended 

in 1948. Trade-unions Act, R.S.B.C. 

1948, c. 342 (enacted 1902). 
Manitoba: Labour Relations Act. 1948. 

Amended in 1950. 
New Brunswick: Labour Relations Act. 

1949. 
Newfoundland: Labour Relations Act, 

1950. 



Nova Scotia: Trade Union Act. 1947. 
Amended in 1948, 1949. 

Ontario: Labour Relations Act, 1950. 

Prince Edward Island: Trade Union Act, 
1945. Amended in 1948, 1949. 

Quebec: Labour Relations Act. 1944 
(R.S.Q. 1941, c. 162A) Amended in 
1945, 1946. Quebec Trade Disputes 
Act, R.S.Q. 1941, c. 167 (enacted in 
1901). 

Saskatchewan: Trade Union Act. 1944. 
Amended in 1945, 1946, 1947, 1950. 



Amendments in period 1950-60, with 
citation in 1960 

None. R.S.C. 1952, c. 152. 



Amended in 1954. R.S.A. 1955, c. 167, 

amended in 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960. 

Replaced in 1954 by Labour Relations 

Act, 1954, c. 17. R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 205. 

Trade-union Act replaced in 1959. 

R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 384. 

R.S.M. 1954, c. 132. Amended in 1956, 

1957, 1958, 1959, 1960. 

R.S.N.B. 1952, c. 124. Amended in 1953, 

1955, 1956, 1959, 1960. 

R.S.N. 1952, c. 258. 

Amended in 1959, 1960. Trade Union 

Act, 1960, c. 59. 

Amended in 1951, 1953. 

R.S.N.S. 1954, c. 295, amended in 1957. 

Amended in 1954, 1956, 1957, 1958, 

1959, 1960. 

R.S.O. 1960, c. 202. 

R.S.P.E.I. 1951, c. 164. Amended in 

1953, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960. 

Amended in 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 

1959. 



R.S.S. 1953, c. 259. 

Amended in 1954, 1955, 1956, 1958. 






770 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



bodies. Any corporation established to per- 
form any function or duty on behalf of 
the Government of Canada is covered by 
the federal Act unless it is excluded by 
Order-in-Council. In 1948, the National 
Research Council and Canadian Arsenals 
Limited were excluded, and in 1958 part of 
the Canadian Arsenals operations, the plants 
at Long Branch and Lindsay, were brought 
back under the Act. 

The Newfoundland Act has the same pro- 
vision as the federal Act. No crown com- 
panies have been excluded. 

In New Brunswick, the Act does not 
apply to any government agency acting for 
or on behalf of or as an agent of Her 
Majesty unless an order in council is passed 
to make it apply. The New Brunswick 
Electric Power Commission has been 
brought under the Act with respect to cer- 
tain classifications of employees. 

The Nova Scotia Act does not apply to 
any government body whose employees are 
subject to the Civil Service Act or the Pub- 
lic Service Superannuation Act. An order 
in council passed February 8, 1956, and 
still in effect, granted to government 
employees who are not covered by the 
Civil Service Act the right to become mem- 
bers of trade unions and established a 
procedure for negotiation. The Nova Scotia 
Liquor Commission have entered into col- 
lective agreements with unions representing 
their employees in the unit approved by the 
Minister of Labour under this order. Per- 
mission has also been granted to certain 
trade unions to act as agents of certain 
employees of the Department of Highways, 
Health and Public Works. 

As passed in 1948, the Manitoba Act 
excluded any government body if the man- 
agement board was appointed by Act of 
the Legislature or by order-in-council. In 
1958 the Act was amended to bring under 
it five specified corporations and to provide 
special measures for dispute settlement in 
these undertakings. 

The Acts of the other provinces make no 
mention of coverage of government corpora- 
tions. When they do not, it is a question of 
interpretation whether the general rule that 
the Crown is not bound by a statute except 
by specific terms applies to crown corpora- 
tions. Government bodies set up to carry 
out public utility functions have been con- 
sidered to be subject to the labour relations 
legislation in some instances. The situation 
was clarified in Ontario by the Crown 
Agency Act, 1959, which specifies that every 
crown agency of the province with the 
exception of the Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission is for all its purposes an agent of 
Her Majesty. As a result, the interpreta- 
tion has been that government corporations 



in Ontario, other than that Commission, 
are not governed by the Labour Relations 
Act. 

Municipalities and their employees are 
governed by the Acts of most provinces. 
The Ontario Act, as passed in 1950, provided 
that any municipality may declare that the 
Act does not apply to it, and this provision 
still stands. 

The New Brunswick Act, as passed in 
1949, did not deal specifically with the 
position of municipalities. It was amended 
in 1951 to provide that any municipality 
or any municipal board or commission 
could, by resolution, bring itself under the 
Act. In 1959 a new provision was sub- 
stituted, bringing municipalities under the 
Act unless the municipality by resolution 
removes itself from the application of the 
Act, the same situation as prevails in 
Ontario. 1 

In all the other provinces municipalties 
are subject to the Act. In Quebec, municipal 
and school corporations, while subject to 
the Labour Relations Act, are subject to 
special legislation in regard to dspute settle- 
ment. 

With respect to certain categories of 
municipal employees, policemen, firemen 
and teachers, there has been a trend during 
the period either to remove them from the 
scope of the general labour relations legisla- 
tion and place them under special Acts, or 
to provide special measures for dispute 
settlement. 

Members of a municipal police force are 
excluded from the labour relations legisla- 
tion and are subject to special legislation 
both as regards bargaining and dispute 
settlement in Ontario and Alberta; they are 
within the scope of the labour relations 
legislation but subject to special provisions 
with respect to dispute settlement in British 
Columbia, Quebec and Saskatchewan; they 
are under the Manitoba Act but are subject 
to the provision that they may not strike; 
they are under the Act unless excluded 
by declaration in New Brunswick (the same 
position as other municipal employees) 1 ; 
they have been held by a court decision not 
to be "employees" within the meaning of 
that term in the Nova Scotia Act, and are 
therefore excluded; and the question of their 
position under the Acts of Newfoundland 
and Prince Edward Island 2 does not appear 
to have arisen. 



1 In 1961 the provision relating to municipalities 
was repealed, with the effect that municipalities will 
be subject to the Act in the same way as other 
employers. 

2 A 1961 amendment in Prince Edward Island pro- 
vides that members of a city, town or village police 
force may not strike. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



771 



Firemen are excluded and subject to 
special legislation both as regards collective 
bargaining and dispute settlement only in 
Ontario. They are under the general labour 
relations legislation and subject to special 
dispute settlement provisions in Alberta, 



British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and 
Saskatchewan. In the other provinces their 
position appears to be the same as that 
of other municipal employees. 1 

Teachers are excluded in Manitoba and 
Ontario 2 . 



Certification of Bargaining Agents 



f„ 



Provision for the certification of a trade 
union as the bargaining agent of the 
employees in an appropriate bargaining unit 
was in 1950 a common feature of the 
federal Act and of all the provincial Acts 
except that of Prince Edward Island. The 
Canada Labour Relations Board for the 
field of federal jurisdiction, and a labour 
relations board in each province, had been 
set up and empowered to determine the 
issues necessary to decide questions of repre- 
sentation. By the end of the decade Prince 
Edward Island had also provided for a 
certification procedure. 

The basis for certification under the 
federal Act and under most of the provincial 
Acts is that the Board must be satisfied that 
the majority of the employees in a unit 
appropriate for collective bargaining are 
members in good standing of a trade union, 
or that, as a result of a vote of the employees 
in the unit, the Board is satisfied that a 
majority of them have selected the trade 
union to be a bargaining agent on their 
behalf. 

The general rule is that a Board may cer- 
tify a union if it establishes that a majority 
of the employees in the unit are members 
of it, and if the Board orders a vote, it may 
certify if a majority , of the employees in 
the unit vote in favour of the union as a 
^bargaining agent. Under the Nova Scotia 
Act as amended in 1949, as in the other 
Acts, the Board may certify a union if it is 
satisfied that the majority of the employees 
in the unit are members in good standing 
of the trade union, but, if a vote is taken, 
the Board may certify if not less than 60 
per cent of the employeess vote and a 
majority of such 60 per cent vote in favour 
of the union. The Ontario Act, since 1950, 
has authorized the Board to certify a union 
on the basis of union membership only 
where it has established that 55 per cent 
of the employees in the unit are members 
(or on the basis of more than 50 per cent 
membership in an exceptional case where 
the Board is satisfied "that the true wishes 
of the employees are not likely to be 
disclosed by a representation vote"). The 
Board is required to order a vote if not less 
than 45 per cent nor more than 55 per cent 
are members, and may do so in other cases. 
The Board may certify on the basis of a vote 



if more than 50 per cent of all those eligible \ 
to vote cast their ballots in favour of thej 
trade union. Employees who are absent from 
work during voting hours and who do not 
cast their ballots are not counted as eligible. 
A similar provision was placed in the 
Alberta and British Columbia Acts in 1954, 
the Alberta amendment being spelled out 
to cover employees absent from work on 
the day of the vote who did not vote by 
reason of illness, authorized leave of 
absence, annual vacation or weekly day of 
rest. Two new categories were added to this 
provision in 1960, namely those who have 
been laid off or whose employment has 
terminated. 

The basis for certification remains some- 
what different in the Saskatchewan Act. A 
vote is to be directed if the applicant union 
establishes that in the six months preceding 
the application 25 per cent of the employees 
have indicated their choice of the union by 
membership or by written authorization. 
Unless the Board is satisfied that another 
union has a clear majority, or unless a repre- 
sentation vote has been held in the preceding 
six months, it is required by the Act to hold 
a vote. The Act further provides that a 
majority of those eligible to vote constitute 
a quorum and a majority of those voting 
determine the question of representation. 
C^ Each Board has had to determine what 
) rules it will apply in determining who is a 
member in good standing for the purposes 
of the Act. Most of the Acts specifically 
state that "if in any proceedings before the 
Board a question arises under this Act as to 
whether ... a person is a member in good 
standing of a trade union, the Board shall 
decide the question and its decision is final 
and conclusive for all the purposes of this 
ActJ Another question that has arisen under 
some Acts has been the date as of which 
evidence of membership should be accepted. 
On both these matters a number of amend- 
ments to Acts and regulations have been 
made in the ten-year period. 

1 A 1961 amendment in Prince Edward Island pro- 
vides that full-time employees of a fire department 
may not go on strike. 

2 In British Columbia and New Brunswick also 
by 1961 amendments. 



772 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST J 96 7 



Two principles have been followed in lay- 
ing down the conditions under which a 
person will be recognized as a union mem- 
ber for the purposes of the Act: that the 
Board satisfy itself that the requirements of 
the particular union constitution have been 
met in each case, or, alternatively, that the 
applicant union be required to produce 
certain prescribed evidence of membership 
satisfactory to the Board. 

The Alberta Act as amended in 1954 
adopts the first principle — "membership in 
good standing according to the constitution 
and by-laws of the union". Under the British 
Columbia Act, since it was replaced in 1954, 
the other principle is followed. If the appli- 
cant union claims that a person is a union 
member, two conditions, laid down in 
Board regulations, have to be met to estab- 
lish union membership for the purposes of 
the Act; first, the person must have signed 
an application for membership, and second, 
must have paid at least one month's dues 
for or within a defined period (approxi- 
mately three months) before the date of 
the application. A person who has joined 
the union during that period has to have 
paid an admission fee at least equal to one 
month's dues. 

The Manitoba requirements, also amended 
during the period, are a combination of the 
two approaches. The test for determining 
membership, adopted in the rules of pro- 
cedure and practice of the Board in 1953 
and incorporated in the Act when it was 
amended in 1957, specify that no person is 
a member in good standing of a union for 
the purpose of certification if, at the date of 
the application, he is excluded from mem- 
bership in the union by the express terms of 
the union constitution. A person must have 
been a member in the three month period 
before the application, not suspended "either 
by direct action by the union or auto- 
matically by the terms of the constitution of 
the union," and have paid at least a month's 
dues at the regular rate during that period. 
A new member during that three-month 
period, as well as making application in writ- 
ing, and paying the initiation fee prescribed 
by the union constitution, or, if none is 
pescribed, paying one month's union dues 
or one dollar, whichever is the greater, 
must have been "received into the union in 
the manner prescribed in the constitution 
of the union." 

The Prince Edward Island Regulations 
and Rules of Procedure approved in 1960 
also require that the Board must be satis- 
fied that a person was "admitted to mem- 
bership in the trade union in accordance 
with its constitution rules and by-laws," as 



well as requirements with respect to the 
payment of an initiation fee and monthly 
dues. 

Under the federal Act and the Acts of 
New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova 
Scotia, Ontario and Quebec the rules for 
establishing membership in good standing 
were not changed in the period. Except in 
Nova Scotia, where the Board must be satis- 
fied that a person has been admitted to 
membership in the trade union "in accord- 
ance with its constitution, rules or by-laws" 
the evidence of membership required is 
generally signed applications for member- 
ship and receipts showing payment of 
union dues in or for a defined period, or, in 
the case of a new member, an initiation fee 
in a prescribed amount. 

To remove doubt as to the Board's final 
authority to determine who is a member in 
good standing, the New Brunswick Act was 
amended in 1952 to give specific authority 
for the making of regulations determining 
when a person was to be deemed a member 
in good standing of a trade union. Similarly, 
a provision was inserted in the Ontario Act 
in 1954 empowering the Board to determine 
the form in which evidence of membership 
in a trade union should be presented to the 
Board. 

Several Acts were amended (Alberta, 
British Columbia and Saskatchewan in 1954 
and Manitoba in 1957 )* to state expressly 
that, in dealing with an application for 
certification, the Board should consider the 
number of members in good standing at the 
date of the application. In the Saskatchewan 
amendment, the Board was given absolute 
discretion to refuse to consider evidence 
concerning any event happening after the 
date on which the application was filed with 
the Board. 

In Quebec, a similar rule was laid down 
in 1955. An amendment to By-law No. 1 of 
the Quebec Labour Relations Board stated 
that the date used for computing the mem- 
bership of a union should be the one on 
which the application was filed with the 
Board. Previous to 1950, the same date 
had been fixed upon in the federal, New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland 
jurisdictions. 

In order to prevent any discrimination 
against an individual by reason of the 
exercise of his right to joint a trade union 
of his choice, the Acts of most jurisdictions 
stipulate that membership records placed 
before the Board are to be confidential. 

Amendments were made to the New 
Brunswick Act in 1952 providing that mem- 
bership records of a trade union which were 
produced in proceedings before the Board 

1 New Brunswick in 1961. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1 96 1 

98232-2—3 



773 



were for the exclusive use of the Board 
and were only to be disclosed with the 
Board's consent. They further provided that, 
unless the Board gave its consent, no person 
might be compelled to disclose whether a 
person was or was not a member of a trade 
union or did or did not desire to be repre- 
sented by a trade union. 

In the latest (1960) revision of the 
Alberta Act a new section was added, 
clearly stating that the Board is not 
required to divulge the names of any per- 
sons who are or are not members of a trade 
union. 

Applications during the Term of an Agreement 

f All of the Acts lay down certain condi- 
tions under which an application for certifi- 
cation is barred because of an existing col- 
le ctive ag reemen tj Under the federal Act, an 
^application may not be made during the 
I first ten months of the term of a collective 
' agreement — a so-called "closed season"yThe 
Quebec and Saskatchewan Acts, from the 
time of enactment, have always had a dif- 
ferent approach, providing for an "open 
season" from the 60th to the 30th day before 
the expiry date of an agreement, no matter 
what its duration. When the Ontario Act 
was passed in 1950, regard was had to the 
trend towards long-term agreements. The 
Act retained the ten-month "closed season" 
that had been a feature of the earlier 
legislation and in addition a new provision 
set up a new "open season" of two months' 
duration at the end of each year of the life 
of a long-term agreement. [ The Act was 
again amended in 1958 to provide that 
where a collective agreement is for a term 
of not more than two years, an application 
may be made only after the commencement 
of the last two months of its operation. That 
is, there is now no "open season" at the 
end of the first year of a two-year agree- 
ment. 

Alberta in 1954 and 1957, British Colum- 
bia in 1954, and Manitoba in 1957, have 
also enacted provisions to give greater 
stability and greater protection to a bar- 
gaining agent that is a party to a long-term 
agreement. Under these Acts there is now 
an "open season" only during the 11th 
and 12th month of each year of the term 
of an agreement, or during the last two 
months (to take care of an agreement for 
a term not in even years). Under the 
Manitoba Act, notwithstanding the above 
general rules, the Board is permitted under 
a 1959 amendment to allow an application 
to be made at any time if it considers that 
the employer or employees or both would 



774 



suffer substantial and irremediable damage 
or loss if an application were not enter- 
tained. 

New provisions added to the Alberta Act 
in 1960 specify that where the parties to an 
agreement, either before or after the expiry 
of an agreement, agree to continue its opera- 
tion for a period less than one year or for 
an unspecified period while they are bar- 
gaining, the continued operation of the 
agreement does not act as a bar to an 
application for certification as a bargaining 
agent. Similarly, where notice to commence 
bargaining has been given, and the agree- 
ment in force provides for its continuation 
beyond the first fixed date for its termina- 
tion, such a continuation does not constitute 
a bar to an application for certification by a 
third party. 

Bargaining Units 

One of the important functions of Labour 
Relations Boards in all jurisdictions in 
Canada is to determine whether the unit in 
respect of which an application for certifica- 
tion is made is appropriate for collective 
bargaining. Any of the Boards, before deter- 
mining whether the applicant union has suf- 
ficient support for certification, may include 
additional employees in a unit or exclude 
employees from it. 

CThe Ontario Act was amended in 1954 to 
specify that the Board may, before deter- 
mining the unit, conduct a vote of any of 
the employees of the employer for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the wishes of the 
employees as to the appropriateness of the 
unit. Other Boards may also have such 
authority, if they choose to exercise it, 
through the general authority to conduct 
votes on any question affecting employees 
that is before the Board. 

In most of the Acts it is specified that a 
unit means a group of employees and an 
appropriate unit may be an employer unit, 
craft unit, technical unit, plant unit, or any 
other unit. The test of appropriateness has to 
be applied by the Board in accordance with 
the circumstances of each case. The Nova 
Scotia Act is the only one which seeks to 
lay down general rules for the Board to 
follow. It states that the Board in deter- 
mining the appropriate unit shall have 
regard to the community of interest among 
the employees in such matters as work 
location, hours of work, working condi- 
tions, and methods of remuneration. The 
discretion given the Boards in Alberta and 
British Columbia to determine appropriate 
units has been considered to permit the 
determination of a unit consisting of all 
the operations which an employer may have 
or may undertake throughout a defined 
geographic area. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796! 






As amended in 1954, the Ontario Act 
directed the Board not to include in a 
bargaining unit with other employees "a 
person employed as a guard to protect the 
property of his employer". At the same 
time, since division into different units would 
serve no purpose if the same trade union 
were certified to represent a unit of guards 
and a unit of other employees, it was 
provided that if a trade union admits to 
membership, or is chartered by, or is 
affiliated, directly or indirectly, with an 
organization that admits to membership per- 
sons other than such guards, it may not be 
certified to represent them. 

While a union is normally composed of 
the employees of one employer, the federal 
Act and the Acts of several of the provinces 
specifically provide that a unit which 
includes employees of two or more 
employers may be a nappropriate unit, sub- 
ject to two conditions: that all of the 
employers consent and that the Board is 
satisfied that the trade union has majority 
support among the employees of each of 
the employers. The British Columbia legis- 
lation, until 1954, permitted a multiple 
employer unit if the majority of the em- 
ployers consented and the union had a 
majority in the unit as a whole. The 1954 
revision required the union to have majority 
support among the employees of each of 
the employers. 1 

Craft Units 

Although all the boards have a wide dis- 
cretion in determining whether a proposed 
bargaining unit is appropriate, most of the 
Acts do lay down a firm direction in 
respect to craft units. In 1950, most of the 
Acts (all except those of Quebec, Saskat- 
chewan and Alberta) directed the boards to 
recognize a craft unit as appropriate if cer- 
tain conditions were met. The conditions 
differed slightly, but, in general, there had 
to be a group of employees belonging to a 
craft or group exercising technical skills 
distinguishing them from the employees as a 
whole, and a majority of the group had to 
be members of a trade union pertaining to 
such crafts or skills. The British Columbia 
and Ontario Acts also laid down the condi- 
tion of an established trade union practice of 
separate craft bargaining. (In both these 
Acts, this condition has been removed during 
the period. ) 

In both Manitoba and Ontario, the 
direction to the board to recognize a craft 
unit was substantially changed. In a 1957 

1 A 1961 British Columbia amendment requires all 
the employers to consent, with the result that condi- 
tions for multiple employer units are now the same 
as under the federal Act. 



amendment in Manitoba, the conditions 
under which a separate unit within an 
industrial unit may be considered appro- 
priate for a separate certification were 
stated in terms giving the Board more dis- 
cretion. Certification is to be granted if, in 
the board's opinion, the group is otherwise 
appropriate as a unit for collective bargain- 
ing and the circumstances warrant a separa- 
tion of the group from the employees as 
a whole. 

When the Ontario Act was amended in 
1960, the direction to recognize a craft unit 
was similarly modified. The section which 
says that if the board finds that any group 
of employees meets the craft tests it "shall 
be deemed by the board to be a unit 
appropriate for collective bargaining" was 
amended by adding "but the board shall 
not be required to apply this subsection 
where the group of employees is included 
in a bargaining unit represented by another 
bargaining agent at the time the application 
is made". The effect is that where the 
employees in a craft group are a part of a 
plant unit, the board is given discretion to 
determine whether the craft principle is to 
override other considerations in the deter- 
mination of the appropriate bargaining unit. 

Apart from the question of membership 
and support, each of the Boards is required 
to satisfy itself that an applicant for certifi- 
cation is a trade union within the definition 
in the Act, and that it is not company 
dominated. There have been no substantial 
changes in respect to these matters in the 
period, but the legislation has been amended 
in several provinces to require the Board 
to take other matters into account. 

The Quebec Labour Relations Board was 
directed, by a 1954 amendment to the Act, 
not to certify an association which had 
among its officers or organizers any person 
adhering to a Communist party or move- 
ment. The amendment was made retro- 
active to 1944, and the Board was directed 
to revoke any order made contrary to this 
provision. 

In 1960, in Alberta, the Act was amended 
to state that a trade union was not to be 
certified if, in the opinion of the Board, 
application for membership or membership 
directly resulted from picketing. It provided 
further that a collective agreement negotiated 
by an employer and a trade union after such 
picketing was not to be considered a valid 
agreement for the purposes of the Act. 

An amendment to the Newfoundland Act 
in 1959 making a union ineligible for certifi- 
cation if persons who had been convicted 
of certain crimes or offences were retained 
as officers in a body outside the province 
with which it was affiliated was removed in 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

98232-2— 3i 



• AUGUST 7967 



775 



1960. In 1959, during a dispute in the woods 
industry in Newfoundland, two local unions 
were decertified by a special Act of the 
legislature. 

When the Ontario Act was amended in 
1960, a provision was added directing the 
Board not to certify a union if it dis- 
criminates against any person because of 
his race, creed, colour, nationality, ancestry 
or place of origin. Discrimination by a 
trade union (or an employer) on these 
grounds is prohibited by the Fair Employ- 
ment Practices Act passed in Ontario in 
1951, and the Labour Relations Act as 
enacted in 1950 contained a provision 
stating that a collective gareement would 
not be deemed to be a collective agreement 
for the purposes of the Act if it discriminates 
against any person because of his race or 
creed. The amendment in 1960 takes the 
further step of directing the Board to deny 
certification to a union which discriminates. 1 

In Alberta in 1960 the time within which 
the Board is required to complete its inquir- 
ies into an application for certification was 
extended. Previously 21 days plus a further 
7 days, if necessary, the time now allowed 
is 21 days plus a further 21 (in either case 
exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays or holi- 
days). Alberta is the only province which 
has sought to deal with the problem of 
delays by adhering to a statutory time limit. 
The problem of increased workloads has led 
to a panel system in Ontario and Quebec. 
Amendments in 1959 and 1960 in these 
provinces have made provision for the 
appointment of a vice-chairman (and several 
deputy vice-chairmen in Ontario) so that 
the Board may sit in two or more panels, 
perhaps in different parts of the province. 
To permit this, the legislation now provides 
that the chairman or a vice-chairman and 
a representative of employers and a repre- 
sentative of employees constitutes a quorum, 
and such a three-member panel of the Board 
may exercise any of its powers. The New 
Brunswick Act was also amended in 1960 
to authorize the appointment of a vice- 
chairman and to permit the Board to func- 
tion in two divisions. An admendment in 
Newfoundland in 1960 empowered the 
Board to authorize any person or board to 
exercise any of its powers. 2 

Review of Labour Relations Board Decisions 

All of the Acts provide that the decisions 
the Boards are empowered to make are 
final. On the other hand, each Board has the 
power to review its own decisions or orders 



1 A similar provision was added to the British 
Columbia Act in 1961. 

2 A 1961 amendment to the Department of Labour 
Act in Manitoba authorized the Manitoba Board 
also to sit in panels. 



whenever, in the opinion of the Board, such 
review is warranted. For example, the 
federal Act states that "a decision or order 
of the Board is final and conclusive and not 
open to question or review, but the Board 
may, if it considers it advisable so to do, 
reconsider any decision or order made by it 
under this Act, and may vary or revoke 
any decision or order made by it under this 
Act." In some of the provincial Acts, the 
legislatures have gone even further by 
enacting expressly that no decision or ruling 
of the Board may be questioned or reviewed 
in any court by way of prerogative writs. 

However, in the period under study a 
number of decisions of the various Boards 
have been reviewed by the courts. It has 
usually been held that it was the clear 
intention of the legislature to make the 
Board's decision final on the issue of facts, 
the way the evidence before the Board is 
interpreted, and the conclusions to be drawn 
from the evidence presented. But on an issue 
of law, it has been commonly held that a 
decision of the Board may be open to 
review, by way of the prerogative writs such 
as certiorari, mandamus or prohibition, on 
the following grounds: that the Board in 
exercising its statutory power of discretion 
acted in bad faith or contrary to natural 
justice; that it acted without jurisdiction, or 
exceeded its jurisdiction, or refused to 
exercise its jurisdiction; that it made an error 
in law; or the decision was procured by 
fraud; or that some condition precedent 
was not fulfilled or some fact collateral to 
the main issue was not established; or that 
a decision on a matter preliminary to the 
main issue was wrong. 

Altering Wages and Conditions of Employment 

To protect the wages and working condi- 
tions of employees during the period when 
negotiations and conciliation procedures are 
in progress, and the legislation prohibits 
strikes, a provision designed to prevent an 
employer from unilaterally decreasing wages 
or altering conditions of employment was 
common to all the Acts in 1950. To pre- 
vent undermining the bargaining agent's 
position, the Acts of Alberta, British Colum- 
bia, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan also 
prohibited increases in wages during the 
same period, and in Saskatchewan the 
changes were also prohibited while an 
application for certification was before 
the Board. 

In 1957, Manitoba and Nova Scotia, and 
in 1960, Newfoundland, amended their 
Acts to prohibit increases in wages as well 
as decreases. 

Another change since 1950 has to do 
with the "freeze" period. In Alberta a 1954 



776 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 196 1 



amendment provided that wages and condi- 
tions of employment could not be changed 
from the date of an application for certifi- 
cation until it is disposed of and the new 
British Columbia Act of that year contained 
a similar provision. In Alberta in 1960 the 
period was extended until 30 days after the 
date of certification unless a collective 
agreement has been entered into. In Nova 
Scotia in 1957 and in Newfoundland in 
1960, changes were prohibited during the 
time when an application for certification is 
pending and, if a union is certified, until 
notice to bargain has been given, as well 
as during negotiation and conciliation. 



A 1957 amendment to the Ontario Act 
enables a difference between the parties as 
to whether or not working conditions were 
altered during the period specified to be 
referred to arbitration as if the collective 
agreement concerning which no^ic^was 
given were still in operation/in Prince 
Edward Island, a provision was inserted in 
the Act in 1959, stating that, from the 
time certification is granted until a collective 
agreement has been signed, an employer is 
forbidden to alter any wage rate or any 
other term or condition of employment 
without the consent of the employees con- 
cerned. 



Unfair Practices 



The postwar labour relations legislation 
aimed to provide the ground rules, a code 
complete in itself, for the parties to the 
collective bargaining relationship. Besides 
setting out the rights and obligations of the 
parties, each of the Acts specified certain 
things that they were not to do. 
f~ The basic rules for employers, found, in 
[slighly different form, in all the Acts, were, 
first, that they were not to participate in or 
interfere with the formation or administra- 
tion of a trade union; second, they were not 
to intimidate employees with a view to dis- 
couraging union membership; and, third, 
they were not to discriminate against any 
person in regard to employment because of 
his trade union membership. 

f On the trade union side, it was prohibited 
\for any person (in some of the Acts, 
specifically any trade union, in some, 
specifically any person acting on behalf of 
a trade union) to use intimidation to coerce 
an employee with respect to trade union 
membership. Further, except with the con- 
sent of the employer, a trade union may not 
solicit the membership of an employee at 
his place of employment during his working 
hours. 

r* It was also a provision of the federal Act 
and of most provincial Acts that a trade 
union not entitled to bargain on behalf of 
a unit of employees was prohibited from 
calling a strike in that unit; and that a 
bargaining agent was prohibited from calling 
a strike during bargaining and until 
the conciliation processes were completed; 
and during the term of a collective agree- 
ment. In these same circumstances, also, 
employees are not to go on strike. Strike 
action was appropriate only at the point 
where a recognized bargaining agent, after 
duly bargaining in accordance with the 
Act, had failed to conclude a collective 
agreement, and the conciliation board's 
report was in the hands of the parties. 



In 1959 and 1960, the legislation of 
British Columbia, Newfoundland, Alberta 
and Ontario was amended to attempt to 
define and prevent certain other activities of 
employees and trade unions. 

In British Columbia, the Trade-unions" 
Act of 1959 made it illegal for a trade union 
or other person, unless a legal strike or a 
lockout is in progress, to persuade or 
endeavour to persuade anyone not to (a) 
enter an employer's place of business, 
operations or employment; or (b) deal in or 
handle the products of any person; or (c) do 
business with any person. Where there is a 
legal strike or a lockout, the Act specifies 
that such persuasion is permitted, if author- 
ized by the trade union whose members are 
on strike or locked out, and if it is under- 
taken at the employer's place of business 
and without acts that are otherwise unlaw- 
ful. A trade union which does, authorizes 
or concurs in anything that is contrary to 
this provision is liable in damages to anyone 
injured thereby. The act of a member of a 
trade union is presumed, unless the contrary 
is shown, to be done, authorized or con- 
curred in by the trade union. Since the 
most usual form of persuasion is picketing, 
these provisions have the effect, among 
others, of making all picketing illegal except 
picketing at the employers' place of business 
in support of a legal strike. 

In Newfoundland, in the same year, a pro- 
vision was added to the Labour Relations 
Act prohibiting "a concerted refusal to use, 
manufacture, transport or otherwise handle 
or work on any goods or to perform any 
services" for certain purposes. These pur- 
poses are (a) to force or require an 
employer or other person to boycott any 
other person; (b) to force or require any 
other employer to recognize or bargain with 
or reach agreement with a trade union; (c) 
to force or require any employer to assign 
particular work to employees in a particular 
trade union or in a particular trade or craft; 



l 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



777 



( 



(d) to force or require any employee or 
self employed person to join a trade union. 
Not only is the activity denned above pro- 
hibited, but it is prohibited to encourage any 
person to engage in the activity. The penalty 
on conviction for a breach of this section is 
a fine, not exceeding $5000 for a trade 
union and, for an individual, a fine not ex- 
ceeding $500 and in default of payment, 
imprisonment for not more than three 
months. 

In the following year, the Alberta legisla- 
tion was amended to prohibit certain activi- 
ties in connection with a strike that is 
illegal, under the Act. Where a strike is 
illegal, a trade union or a member of the 
trade union or any other person may not 
"dissuade or endeavour to dissuade anyone 
from (a) entering an employer's place of 
business, operations or employment (b) 
dealing in or handling the products of any 



\ 



flerson, or (c) doing business with any 
person. " The penalties for contravention of 
this section are the general penalties under 
the Act, a fine of not more than $250 and 
in default of payment, imprisonment for not 
more than 90 days. 

In 1960, also, Ontario added a new provi- 
sion which states: 

No person shall do any act if he knows or 
ought to know that, as a probable consequence 
of the act, another person or persons will engage 
in an unlawful strike or an unlawful lockout. 

The provision does not apply to any act 
done in connection with a lawful strike or 
lawful lockout. The penalty on summary 
conviction is a maximum fine of $100 for 
an individual, $1,000 for a trade union or 
corporation, and each day that the provi- 
sion is contravened constitutes a separate 
offence. 



Union Security Clauses 



J As the Acts stood in 1950, it was clear in 
Imost of them that the parties to a collective 
^agreement were free to include in an agree- 
ment a provision requiring, as a condition of 
employment, membership in a specified trade 
union, or granting a preference of employ- 
ment to members of a specified trade union. 
The Prince Edward Island Act specifically 
prohibited an employer and a trade union 
from entering into an agreement containing 
a closed shop clause. The Quebec legislation 
did not deal specifically with the question of 
union security clauses — unions and em- 
ployers are free to enter into agreement 
"respecting conditions , of employment". In 
the Paquet case, (1959) 18 D.L.R. (22) p. 
346, the Supreme Court of Canada held 
that a Rand formula type clause was a 
"provision respecting conditions of em- 
ployment." The Saskatchewan Act alone 
required an employer to accede to a request 
of a union with majority support to include 
a union shop clause in an agreement. 

Newfoundland and Ontario, in 1960, in- 
serted provisions which somewhat modified 
the complete freedom of the bargaining 
agent and the employer to enter into 
agreements requiring union membership as 
a condition of employment. The effect of 
the Newfoundland amendment is that, while 
such agreements may be made, an employer 
may employ a person who is otherwise 
qualified for employment and who has 
applied for membership in the union but 
has been refused membership by the union. 



/ The Ontario amendment provides that an 
employer and an uncertified trade union 
may not enter into a first agreement con- 
taining a clause requiring union membership 
as a condition of employment unless the 
union has established at the time it entered 
into the agreement that not less than 55 per 
cent of the employees in the bargaining unit 
were members of the trade union. This 
limitation does not apply where an employer 
joins an employers' organization and agrees 
to be bound by an existing agreement requir- 
ing union membership as a condition of 
employment, nor does it apply to employers 
and employees engaged on construction pro- 
jects at the building site. Further, where an 
agreement requiring membership in the 
union as a condition of employment has 
been entered into, an employer may not 
discharge an employee who has been ex- 
pelled from the union or denied member- 
ship in it because he has engaged in activity 
against the union or because he is a member 
of another trade union. 
f The provisions in the Acts of six provinces 
( requiring an employer to check off union 
dues at the request of the bargaining agent 
if the individual employer authorizes such 
deduction have remained substantially un- 
changed during the period. 1 



1 A 1961 amendment in British Columbia pro- 
hibited the check-off of union dues unless the union 
submits to the employer a statement to the effect 
that none of the checked -off dues will be used for 
political purposes. 



778 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



Older Workers 



Executive Retirement and Effective Management 

A study of the practices in 274 companies throws light on the problem of the 
retirement of executives on the basis of capability rather than chronological age 



Retirement of executives on the basis of 
chronological age, rather than capability, is 
being increasingly questioned. Are valuable 
skills and knowledge discarded and in- 
effectiveness tolerated merely to accom- 
modate uniform application of an arbitrary 
retirement age? A recent study of retirement 
policies and practices in 274 companies 
throws considerable light on this question. 

Complex forces determine corporate 
policy and practice in executive retirement. 
Retirement policy is integrated with many 
other elements, all designed to maintain 
executive morale and motivation and to 
assure continuity of effective management. 

The study shows that there is a consider- 
ably more practical bent to the handling of 
executive retirement than the mere observ- 
ance of a mandatory or flexible retirement 
age policy. Where the realities of a current 
situation require the retention of a man, a 
company seems likely to retain him. Retire- 
ment decisions were found to be generally 
in the interest of achieving management con- 
tinuity, which may demand the retention of 
special skills and talents. 

Many situations present themselves to a 
company in dealing with the retirement of 
executives, and in most instances the prob- 
lems encountered could not have been 
foreseen. These unpredictable developments 
appear to account largely for policy shifts, 
innovations, temporary devices, and devia- 
tions from established practice. Looking 
over the total picture of reported policy 
and practice by the companies studied brings 
into focus the fact that, regardless of policy 
intent, there is in practice a high degree 
of flexibility in effecting retirements. 

A seemingly inflexible policy of fixed 
retirement may take on a quite different 
character in application when it establishes 
an age for retirement and then allows varia- 
tions that postpone the retirement of some 
men. The book shows that companies have 
postponed retirements to serve corporate 
needs, even where policies did not so 
provide. On the basis of actual practices, it 
seems reasonable to classify some companies 
as being more flexible than rigid in applying 
a so-called "mandatory" or "normal" retire- 
ment age. 

In terms of the interaction of retirement 
policy and executive staffing needs, forced 
early retirement and retention of an 



employee beyond retirement age are clearly 
corporate tools in maintaining an effective 
management organization. These are the pri- 
mary indicators of flexibility in retirement 
practice to serve company interests. 

The study points out that manpower 
developments, national productivity, and a 
growing upblic opinion about the aged and 
their problems must be taken into account 
in longrun executive staffing and retirement. 
Typically, public reaction is either for or 
against — it does not distinguish by recogniz- 
ing subtle issues involved, such as the differ- 
ences between one class of employees and 
another, or between who is truly capable and 
who is not. There is a popular belief that 
longevity gains have been significant, even 
though this is not the case, and that they 
should be recognized in determining retire- 
ment age. Evaluations of corporate policies 
and practices by executives themselves, as 
well as the public, give considerable weight 
to this popular idea about longevity. If, 
therefore, a mandatory retirement age were 
to be universally followed, there could be 
public reaction against this. Yet, if retirement 
determinations were entirely individualized, 
pressure would inevitably be felt to permit 
more than a selected few to stay on in their 
assignments, regardless of ability to adjust 
to new methods and techniques and to 
continue to be effective employees. 

The report examines the effects of changes 
on the establishment of retirement practices 
and policies. It states that executive retire- 
ment might be considered as being far 
removed from the challenges corporations 
face in today's world. This is not so, because 
of the changes constantly pressed upon 
corporations. Change is the rule, and it is 
occurring faster today than at any other time 
in the history of industrial society, for 
technological innovation continues at an 
accelerated pace, and corporations are com- 
peting on an international scale to an extent 
never conceived of in past years. 

Changes in competition demand new 
ideas, new approaches and, frequently, new 
people. It demands an ability to move with 
the times, in fact, ahead of the times. The 
management organization must, therefore, 
be typified not only by a systematic 
approach to retirement, but also by a higher 
degree of selectivity than ever before, in 

(Continued or. page 843) 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796J 



779 



Women's Bureau 



Occupations of Farm Daughters 



The decline in the number of farm workers is most evident among women. Today 
women agricultural workers comprise 4 per cent of the female labour force 



The decline in the number of workers on 
Canadian farms during this century is 
especially marked among women. Since 
1945 the number of men employed in 
agriculture has dropped by 40.5 per cent 
while the number of women 1 has declined 
by 68.2 per cent. Today women agricultural 
workers comprise four per cent of the 
female labour force. 

A rural survey carried out by the federal 
Department of Agriculture a few years ago 
disclosed the fact that while almost 90 
per cent of the young men who were inter- 
viewed said that they intended to farm when 
they finished school, only 24 per cent of 
the young women declared an intention 
to stay on the farm. 

What occupations then do the daughters 
of farmers take up? This was one of the 
questions answered by the Special Study of 
Ontario Farm Homes and Homemakers 
carried out in 1959 by the Ontario Depart- 
ment of Agriculture with the cooperation of 
the Rural Sociology Unit of the federal 
Department of Agriculture 2 . 

The 352 Ontario farm homemakers in- 
terviewed had 365 children who had com- 
pleted school and entered the adult phase 
of their lives. There were 182 girls and 
183 boys. 

While 4 out of 10 adult sons were 
engaged in farming only 2 out of 10 adult 
daughters had followed their mothers' life 
pattern of becoming farm homemakers. 
At the time of the survey 129 daughters 
were married and of these only 34 were 
living on a farm with their husbands. 

Practically all the 53 single adult daugh- 
ters were in some type of paid employment 
away from the farm. About half had moved 
to a city or town where they were em- 
ployed and about half were living with 
their parents on a farm and commuting 
daily to their place of work. Only four of 
the single adult daughters were not in some 
type of paid employment at the time of 
the study. Two of them had just finished 

1 Women are included in the agricultural labour 
force if they contribute 20 hours or more a week 
towards the operation of farms other than by house- 
keeping or tending a kitchen garden solely for the 
use of the household. 

2 Statistical information used in this article was 
supplied by Dr. Helen Abell, Head of The Rural 
Sociology Unit, Department of Agriculture. 



school and were at home temporarily before 
deciding on their future occupation. The 
other two girls were fully occupied in their 
parents' homes assisting their mothers. Of 
the 129 daughters who had married about 
one quarter had some type of paid employ- 
ment in addition to homemaking respon- 
sibilities. 

% of 182 
Occupation : Number daughters 

Married homemaker 96 53 

Clerical or Sales 

Office worker 31 17 

Sales clerk 3 2 

Professional 
Teacher in primary 

school 23 13 

Nurse in a hospital 7 4 

Religious 1 — 

Pharmacist 1 — 

Music teacher 1 — 

Unskilled or semi-skilled 
Waitress and other 

unskilled worker 8 4 

Semi-skilled worker 3 2 

Service 

Hairdresser 2 1 

Domestic 2 1 

Managerial 

Manager of motel or 

grocery business 2 1 

Temporarily in parents' 

home 9 2 1 

The majority of both the married and the 
single girls were in professional or clerical 
work. Only eight were performing unskilled 
jobs. Seven of the 12 daughters who were 
registered nurses were actively practising 
their profession at the time of the survey 
and five of these were married. Similarly 
among the 23 daughters who were teaching 
in an elementary school at the time of the 
survey, 11 were married and 12 were 
unmarried. 

8 In temporary transition between completion of 
formal education and starting in an occupation. 



780 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7961 



From the Labour Gazette, August 1911 



50 Years Ago This Month 



Some 6,000 coal miners of British Columbia and Alberta out on strike for more 
than six months. The "check-off" is one of the main obstacles to an agreement 



A dispute between the coal operators 
comprising the Western Coal Operators' 
Association and District 18, United Mine 
Workers, was the subject of a report by 
a conciliation board that was received 
by the Minister of Labour on July 11, 1911. 
The full text of the report was published 
in the Labour Gazette of August 1911. 

Failure to reach agreement on wages, 
working conditions and the degree of recog- 
nition to be accorded to the union by the 
operators when a working agreement ex- 
pired on March 31, led to a strike that 
began on April 1, 1911, involving an 
estimated 6,000 men in eastern British 
Columbia and southern Alberta. The con- 
ciliation board was appointed under the 
chairmanship of Rev. Charles W. Gordon 
of Winnipeg, on the application of the 
union, soon after the strike started. 

The board soon found that the relations 
between the parties to the dispute were 
bad, and it set itself to discover, in the 
words of the report, "the causes of this 
perennial strife . . . feeling that there must 
be some deep-rooted reason ... for the spirit 
of hostility approaching to bitterness, and 
of distrust that clouds their every relation." 

Of the many grievances brought forward 
by the miners, the board found that some 
were due to misunderstandings, some to 
petty tyranny of subordinate officials, some 
to mismanagement of the mines, and some 
to unwise interference of union officers. It 
found that there were fewest complaints 
in the best managed mines. 

The board considered, however, that 
although these grievances accounted for 
local irritation, they did not explain "the 
phenomena of recurring strikes, persistent 
antagonism and suspicion," that had marked 
the relations between the parties in recent 
years. 

One of the biggest obstacles to agreement 
between the parties, the board believed, 
was "the General Provisions of the Agree- 
ment, as they are called, and specifically 
the 'Check-off'." The check-off at that time, 
according to the board, seemed to be pecu- 
liar to the coal mining industry; and the 
reason why the check-off clause had become 
the bete noire of every conference between 
the parties was simply that it involved the 



principle of the open or closed shop, "as 
also the development, if not the existence, 
of the union." 

The operations were ready to accept, 
"grudgingly perhaps", a form of check-off, 
but there was one form that they resolutely 
rejected. The check-off was apparently con- 
nected with the open or closed shop, and 
in the particular form of check-off objected 
to by the operators, both sides "believe they 
see the closing of the door. At every con- 
ference both parties sit with their eyes 
upon that door. Let it move ever so little, 
open or shut, and the guns are out," the 
report said. 

The union professed frankly and fully to 
concede the open shop, and the employers 
professed frankly and fully to concede the 
right of their employees to organize. "Thus 
the union, professing the policy of the 
*Open Door', gently proceeds to close it a 
little, and are surprised and grieved to 
find behind the door the whole body of 
the operators shoving as for dear life." 
The report suggested that "a little more 
sincerity on the part of both parties and 
a definite understanding upon the question 
would eradicate what in the opinion of the 
board, is a deep-rooted cause of this con- 
tinuous strife . . ." If the open shop question 
were settled, the check-off would present 
little difficulty, the board thought. 

The board also found great inequality in 
the wages being earned by miners in dif- 
ferent mines, and even in the same mine, 
and this it believed to be another main 
cause of discontent. It recommended in- 
creases for the lower paid miners, and 
certain changes in the method of remuner- 
ating "pillar work", which it appeared under 
existing arrangements in many cases yielded 
very high pay. The object of these changes 
in pay would be to reduce inequalities. 

The board was not successful in settling 
the dispute. The report was accepted by 
the operators as a basis for negotiation, but 
the employees accepted a minority report 
submitted by their nominee on the board. 
The result was that the strike dragged on 
for more than six months, and it was not 
until November 20, that work was resumed 
after a new agreement had been reached 
on the basis of the Gordon report. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 
98232-2—4 



781 



INTERNATIONAL 
LABOUR ORGANIZATION 



45th International Labour Conference 

The session adopts a Recommendation and a Resolution on workers' housing and 
other various Resolutions dealing with freedom from hunger, holidays with pay, 
problems of older workers, freedom of association, and the right to organize 



The 45th session of the International 
Labour Conference, held in Geneva from 
June 7 to 29, accomplished the following: 

— Adopted a Recommendation and a 
Resolution concerning workers' housing. 

— Held a general discussion of employ- 
ment problems and policies and adopted a 
Resolution concerning employment policy 

— Examined the role of the ILO in the 
promotion of economic expansion and social 
progress in developing countries, and 
adopted a Resolution on economics and 
technical assistance for the promotion of 
such expansion and progress. 

— Adopted a number of Resolutions on 
matters not mentioned in the agenda for 
the session, including: a call for the with- 
drawal of the Republic of South Africa from 
the ILO, freedom from hunger, holidays 
with pay, problems of older workers, and 
freedom of association and protection of 
the right to organize. 

— Took preliminary action toward the 
adoption of international instruments on 
vocational training and on equality of treat- 
ment of nationals and non-nationals in 
social security. 

— Admitted three new member states, 
Kuwait, Mauritania and Sierra Leone, 
increasing the membership of the Inter- 
national Labour Organization to 100 nations. 

— Adopted an International Labour 
Organization budget for 1962 of $11,1 15,458 
(United States dollars) for 1962. Canada's 
share will be 3.4 per cent, or $377,925. 

— Examined a report on the way in which 
member countries have applied ILO 
standards. 

— Held a general debate on the Director- 
General's Annual Report dealing with 
"Labour Relations — Present Problems and 
Prospects for the Future." 

A message from President John F. 
Kennedy of the United States was conveyed 
to the conference, in which the President 
pledged to the Organization the "full par- 



ticipation, encouragement and support" of 
the United States. 

During the session, the International 
Institute for Labour Studies was inaugurated. 
Several delegates announced that their 
governments were making contributions to 
the Institute's endowment fund. 

More than 1,000 delegates, technical 
advisers and observers from 94 member 
countries and four territories took part in 
the conference, including 42 cabinet 
ministers responsible for labour affairs in 
their respective countries. Observer delega- 
tions were present from the United Nations, 
specialized agencies and other official organ- 
izations. 

M. A. Raschid, Burma's Minister of 
Industry, Mines and Labour, was elected 
Conference President; Jovan Popovic, 
Government Delegate for Yugoslavia, Fran- 
cisco A. P. Muro de Nadal, Employers' 
Delegate for Argentina, and L. Lawrence 
Borha, Workers' Delegate for Nigeria, were 
elected Vice-Presidents. 

Canada's Worker and Government Dele- 
gates spoke in the debate on the Report of 
the Director-General, and Canada's 
Employer Delegate spoke briefly in support 
of the Report of the Committee on Social 
Security. 

A total of 205 speakers took part in the 
general discussion, to which 18 plenary sit- 
tings of the Conference were devoted. 

Workers' Housing 

The Conference unanimously adopted 
a Recommendation concerning workers' 
housing (full text on p. 788). 

The Recommendation applies to "the 
housing of manual and nonmanual workers, 
including those who are self-employed and 
aged, retired or physically handicapped 
persons." 

The Recommendation states that national 
policy should promote the construction or 
housing and related community facilities 
so as to make "adequate and decent housing 



782 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



CANADIAN DELEGATION 



Government Delegation: Head of Canadian 
Delegation — Gordon Cushing, Assistant 
Deputy Minister, federal Department of 
Labour; Delegate — Paul Goulet, Assistant 
to the Deputy Minister and Director of the 
International Labour Organization Branch, 
federal Department of Labour; Substitute 
Delegate — Max Wershof, QC, Ambassador 
and Permanent Representative of Canada to 
the European Office of the United Nations, 
Geneva; Advisers — A. E. Gotlieb, Canadian 
Permanent Mission to the European Office 
of the United Nations; R. H. MacCuish, 
federal Department of Labour; J. A. Mac- 
donald, Department of National Health and 
Welfare; John Mainwaring, Labour Attache, 
Canadian Embassy, Brussels; J. B. Metzler, 
Deputy Minister of Labour for Ontario; R. 
P. Opie, Central Mortgage and Housing 
Corporation; and Gil Schonning, federal 
Department of Labour. 

Worker Delegation: Delegate — Stanley H. 
Knowles, Executive Vice-President, Canadian 
Labour Congress; Substitute Delegate and 
Adviser — Kalmen Kaplansky, Director, 
International Affairs Department, Canadian 
Labour Congress; Advisers — Marius Ber- 
geron, Confederation of National Trade 
Unions; A. R. Gibbons, International Rail- 
way Brotherhoods; D. Hamilton, Ontario 



Federation of Labour; O. Hodges, United 
Glass and Ceramic Workers of North 
America; and A. Plante, International 
Association of Fire Fighters. 

Employer Delegation: Delegate — T. H. 
Robinson, Manager, Industrial Relations, 
Canadian International Paper Company; 
Substitute Delegate and Adviser — C. B. C. 
Scott, Assistant General Manager (Person- 
nel), Hydro-Electric Power Commission of 
Ontario; Advisers — A. J. Bates, Canadian 
National Railways; E. Benson, Pacific Press 
Ltd., Vancouver; A. Turner Bone, J. L. E. 
Price & Co., Ltd., Westmount; J. E. 
Laflamme, Hull Paving & Construction Co., 
Ltd., Hull; and F. A. Pouliot, Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company. 

Provincial Representatives Accompanying 
the Delegation: Hon. Rene Hamel, QC, 
Minister of Labour, Quebec; Charles 
Belanger, Secretary, Minimum Wage Com- 
mission, Quebec; Hon. S. T. Pyke, Minister 
of Labour, Nova Scotia; Hon. K. J. Webber, 
Minister of Labour, New Brunswick; and 
Hon. C. H. Ballam, Minister of Labour, 
Newfoundland. 

Secretary to the Delegation — R. H. 
MacCuish, federal Department of Labour; 
Assistant Secretary — Miss M. Sadinsky, 
federal Department of Labour. 



accommodation and a suitable living 
environment" available to all workers and 
their families. It adds that attention should 
also be given to the "upkeep, improvement 
and modernization of existing housing and 
related community facilities." 

The Recommendation lays down the prin- 
ciple that, in the matter of financing, the 
rent or payments toward the purchase by 
the worker for adequate and decent housing 
should not cost him "more than a reasonable 
proportion of income." 

The Recommendation states that workers' 
housing construction programs should 
provide "adequate scope for private, co- 
operative and public enterprise," that "hous- 
ing policy should be co-ordinated with 
general social and economic policy, so that 
workers' housing may be given a degree 
of priority which takes into account both the 
need therefor and the requirements of 
balanced economic development." It adds 
that "each family should have a separate, 
self-containing dwelling, if it so desires." 

The Recommendation goes on to say that 
a central body in each country should study 
and assess the needs for workers' housing 
and related community facilities and should 
formulate programs to meet these needs. 

It also urges the establishment of mini- 
mum housing standards, measures to pro- 
mote efficiency in the building industry and 
measures designed to allow a hastening of 
construction of workers' housing in slack 
periods and the reduction of seasonal 
unemployment in the building industry. 



A Resolution concerning international 
action in the field of workers' housing was 
also unanimously adopted. It appeals to 
governments of economically developed 
countries and international organizations 
to include as part of their technical co- 
operation programs assistance to develop- 
ing countries for workers' housing in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the Recom- 
mendation. It states that the cost of provid- 
ing adequate housing for workers should be 
considered as an "integral part" of the 
cost of establishing large-scale industrial 
undertakings distant from normal centres of 
population. 

Employment Problems and Policies 

Employment problems and policies, on the 
agenda for general discussion, was con- 
sidered in a tripartite committee. The com- 
mittee recognized that the "most difficult 
employment problems in the world today 
are those faced by the developing countries." 
The committee took up such matters as the 
nature and causes of unemployment and 
underemployment, employment objectives, 
the organization of the employment market, 
freer trade, stabilization of international 
commodity markets, the international flow 
of capital, the degree of government inter- 
vention in the economy, employment policies 
in both developing and industrially advanced 
countries, and international action to help 
to solve employment problems. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

98232-2— \\ 



• AUGUST 1961 



783 



► 






1^ 



>- 

r 






A unanimously approved Resolution calls 
upon governments of all countries to adopt, 
as a major goal of social and economic 
policy, the objective of full, productive and 
freely chosen employment. This goal is 
denned as including higher standards of 
living. 

Economic and Technical Assistance 

A Resolution on the promotion of 
economic and technical assistance in develop- 
ing countries was unanimously adopted. The 
Resolution embodied the main conclusions 
of a committee on technical co-operation 
to which the matter was referred. 

The Resolution invited the governments 
of member states to consider increasing 
economic and technical assistance to the 
developing countries, and reminds them of 
the goal of 1 per cent of national income of 
the economically advanced countries recom- 
mended by the General Assembly of the 
United Nations. 

The Resolution reaffirms the principle of 
full respect for national sovereignty and 
independence, emphasises the necessity of 
further increasing the operational activities 
of the ILO and their effectiveness, recom- 
mends priority for the training of national 
personnel urgently needed for the pro- 
motion of economic and social develop- 
ment, and invites the attention of govern- 
ments engaged in national development 
planning to the facilities available from the 
ILO to help them in assessing their needs 
and priorities in the labour and social field. 

Other Resolutions 

A Resolution calling for the withdrawal 
of the Republic of South Africa from the 
ILO was adopted by a vote of 163 to 0, 
with 89 abstentions. The Canadian and 
Employer Delegates abstained, while the 
Canadian Worker Delegate voted for the 
Resolution. 

The Resolution expressed "the utmost 
sympathy with those people of South 
Africa whose fundamental rights are sup- 
pressed by the apartheid policy of the 
South African Government," and declared 
that "the continued membership of the 
Republic of South Africa is not consistent 
with the aims and purposes of the Organiza- 
tion." 



A Resolution welcoming the Freedom 
from Hunger Campaign launched by the 
Food and Agriculture Organization in co- 
operation with the United Nations and its 
specialized agencies was adopted unani- 
mously. The Resolution draws the special 
attention of employers' and workers' organ- 
izations to the importance of this campaign 
and urges them to co-operate in it. 

A Resolution inviting the Governing Body 
to consider the desirability of placing the 
question of revision of the Annual Holidays 
with Pay Convention, 1936, as an item on 
the agenda of an early session of the Con- 
ference, was adopted by a vote of 164 to 
with 28 abstentions. 

A Resolution urging member states and 
employers' and workers' organizations to 
give special attention to the particular needs 
of older workers, and to the contributions 
older workers can make to economic and 
social development, was adopted without 
opposition. 

A Resolution on freedom of association 
and the right to organize was adopted by a 
vote of 147 to 35 with 10 abstentions. The 
resolution invites member states that have 
not already done so to ratify the Freedom of 
Association and Protection of the Right 
to Organize Convention, 1948, and the 
Right to Organize and Collective Bargain- 
ing Convention, 1949, and to place fully into 
effect the provisions of those Conventions. 

Vocational Training 

The Conference voted by 211 to 0, with 
one abstention, to "place on the agenda of 
its next ordinary session the question of 
vocational training for a second discussion, 
with a view to the adoption of a Recom- 
mendation." 

The Committee's report contains, in the 
form of a proposed draft, the text of such a 
Recommendation. The contemplated instru- 
ment would supersede the Vocational Train- 
ing Recommendation, 1939; the Apprentice- 
ship Recommendation, 1939, and the 
Vocational Training (Adults) Recom- 
mendation, 1950. 

The Text proposed by the Committee 
would apply "to all training designed to 
prepare any person for initial or later 
employment or promotion in any branch 
of economic activity" with the exception of: 
(1) training for management or high-level 



Canadian Delegation to the 45th ILO Conference— (left to right) Seated: S. H. Knowles, 
Hon. Remi Hamel, Max Wershof, Hon. S. T. Pyke, Gordon Cushing, Hon. K. J. Webber, 
Paul Goulet, T. H. Robinson; Standing: A. J. Bates, Gil Schonning, J. B. Metzler, A. E. 
Gotlieb, D. Hamilton, J. A. Macdonald, Marius Bergeron, E. Benson, F. A. Pouliot, 
A. Plante, A. R. Gibbons, R. P. Opie, J. E. Laflamme, John Mainwaring, A. T. Bone, 
C. B. C. Scott, Kalmen Kaplansky, O. Hodges, Charles Belanger, R. H. MacCuish. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



785 



supervisory posts, (2) training for seafarers 
(covered by a 1946 Recommendation) and 
(3) training in agriculture (covered by a 
1956 Recommendation). 

The text lays down the principle that 
"training is not an end in itself, but a means 
of developing as a "process continuing 
throughout the working life of the 
individual." It further states that "training 
should be free from any form or discrimina- 
tion on the basis of race, colour, sex, 
religion, political opinion, national extraction 
or social origin." It emphasizes the need for 
the continuous co-operation of all those 
concerned, notably public authorities, edu- 
cational bodies and employers' and workers, 
organizations. 

The proposals set forth in the text are 
grouped under the following headings: 
National Planning and Administration, 
Arrangements for Co-operation, Informa- 
tion and Training Opportunities, Arrange- 
ments for Vocational Guidance and Selec- 
tion, Pre-vocational Preparation, Organiza- 
tion of Training, Methods and Means of 
Training, Training by Undertakings, Accele- 
rated Training, Apprenticeship, Training of 
Supervisors up to the Level of Foremen, 
Teaching Staff, Countries in the Process of 
Industrialization and International Co- 
operation. 

Social Security 

Recognizing the need to draw up new 
international instruments to deal with the 
principle of equality of treatment of 
nationals and non-nationals in social 
security, the Conference decided to place 
this question on the agenda of its next 
ordinary session for a second discussion, 
with a view to the adoption of a Convention 
and a Recommendation. 

The conclusions proposed by the Com- 
mittee on Social Security and approved by 
the Conference have in view a Convention 
that would lay upon a member state ratify- 
ing it an obligation to grant within its ter- 
ritory to the nationals of any other ratifying 
member the same treatment as it grants to 
its own nationals under its social security 
laws and regulations. 

This undertaking would apply in every 
branch of social security in respect of which 
both member states concerned have ratified 
the Convention. A list of the branches of 
social security in respect of which the Con- 
vention might be ratified is given. 

Each member ratifying the proposed 
Convention would undertake to grant 
equality of treatment to refugees and state- 
less persons. Payment of certain benefits 
outside national territory would also be 
provided for. 



The Recommendation contemplated by 
the Conference would be conceived in such 
a way as to widen the scope of the Con- 
vention. 

The Conference also adopted, by a vote of 
199 to with 7 abstentions, a resolution 
requesting member states of the ILO 
urgently to consider the ratification and 
application of the Social Security (Mini- 
mum Standards) Convention, 1952. 

Hours of Work 

The Commmittee set up to examine the 
question of the reduction of hours of work 
put a draft Recommendation before the 
Conference. In a show of hands, 144 voted 
in favour, 41 against, and there were 28 
abstentions. For want of a quorum when the 
final record vote was taken, however, the 
proposed Recommendation was not adopted. 

Gordon Cushing 

In Canada, industrial and economic 
problems, both national and local, will have 
a greater bearing on industrial relations in 
the future than they have in the past; and 
settlements at the bargaining table will have 
to be tied more closely to the outlook for 
products, wages, prices, productivity and 
employment, said Gordon Cushing, Govern- 
ment Delegate and head of the Canadian 
delegation. 

Speaking to the Conference during the 
discussion on the report of the Director- 
General, Mr. Cushing gave a brief descrip- 
tion of the Canadian industrial relations 
system. This system, he said, "builds upon 
a bargaining relationship between the 
workers and the management at the level 
of the individual undertaking," and places 
upon the parties the joint responsibility 
for reaching a collective agreement that 
"will outline the essential characteristics of 
their relationship in the period ahead." 

Collective bargaining, in resolving the 
objectives of the parties cannot ignore the 
public interest, the speaker said. On all 
sides in Canada it has been realized that 
"there is little room for bargaining decisions 
by management and labour which are made 
in the belief that the normal workings of 
the economy will absorb their mistakes. 

"We believe that the parties to collective 
bargaining have largely developed a sound 
basis for reaching economically workable 
decisions," he continued. "Certainly, we 
could say that bargaining is becoming a 
more realistic exercise." 

The only measure we have of the suc- 
cess of the parties in reaching acceptable 
solutions is the extent to which they fail to 
do so, with the result that a strike occurs, 
Mr. Cushing said. But since the percentage 



786 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7961 



of working time lost in Canada through 
strikes last year had been only about a fifth 
of a day per worker — the lowest during the 
past decade — this seemed to indicate "that 
management and labour are finding ways of 
solving the many and complex problems 
before them." 

Referring to the question of technological 
change, Mr. Cushing said that too often 
the parties concerned with the human con- 
sequences of such change have not had an 
opportunity to make plans for, and give 
advice on meeting its effects. 

Problems arising out of economic and 
technological change have been dealt with 
at the bargaining table in a variety of ways, 
and solutions already produced by col- 
lective bargaining include severance pay 
and provisions regarding seniority and pro- 
motion, to give a few examples. "Other such 
problems will undoubtedly reach the bar- 
gaining table in the days to come, as the 
pace of the change quickens, whether it be 
in the form of new markets and products or 
new technology," the speaker said. 

The problem of making human adjust- 
ments to industrial change cannot be 
solved by collective bargaining alone, the 
speaker pointed out. Adjustment must be 
made to the new kinds of manpower require- 
ments that are arising in our economy 
under the impact of technological change. 
These requirements will change consider- 
ably, "at least in emphasis," he said. 
"Industry will require proportionately more 
professionals, technicians and skilled 
workers than it will require semi-skilled and 
unskilled workers." 

Stanley Knowles 

"The position taken by the trade union 
movement in Canada is that there are con- 
flicts of interest between employers and 
employees, and that these conflicts can 
best be resolved by a collective bargaining 
relationship," said Stanley Knowles, Can- 
adian Worker Delegate. 

"Such a relationship has meaning only if 
it is arrived at by a union and an employer 
whose identities are clear and distinct," he 
told the conference as he went on to discuss 
the position of trade unions in eastern 
Europe, to which the Director-General had 
referred in his report. The Director-General 
had said that in those countries the manage- 
ment personnel were members of the same 
union as the rest of the staff, and that the 
union did not bargain in fixing wage rates, 
although it did "carry out a wide range of 
social security and welfare functions." 

"If management is indistinguishable from 
employees to the extent that both belong to 
the same organization, then the trade union 



exists only in name," Mr. Knowles asserted. 
"To the extent that the union carries out 
social security and welfare functions, it 
might just as well be regarded as a branch of 
government. If . . . the union cannot bar- 
gain on so vital an issue as wages, its role 
as a union is hardly a vital one as the term 
'trade union' is understood in our country." 

Mr. Knowles took exception to something 
in the Director-General's report that seemed 
to imply that in the developing countries 
trade unions were "enjoined not to use the 
collective bargaining process to win for 
themselves economic gains which might 
otherwise be used for capital accumulation." 

Developing countries have problems of 
capital resources, the speaker agreed, "but 
are we to assume that such capital is to be 
obtained at the expense of the workers of 
these countries, by keeping their standards 
low?" he asked. "Are the developing 
countries to go through the same stages of 
ruthless exploitation that marked the begin- 
nings of the industrial revolution in some of 
our economically developed countries? I 
hope not. If free societies are to be estab- 
lished in the newer countries of Africa and 
Asia, let us hope they will not make the 
mistakes made in some of the now more 
developed countries." 

T. H. Robinson 

The full support of all the delegates for 
the report of the Committee on Social 
Security, together with the conclusions and 
recommendations attached to it, was asked 
for by T. H. Robinson, Canadian Employer 
Delegate, on behalf of the Employer mem- 
bers of the Committee. 

Mr. Robinson, who was one of the vice- 
chairmen of the Committee, said that there 
had been no disagreement within the Com- 
mittee on the principle that there should be 
equality of treatment of nationals and non- 
nationals in social security and although 
there had been differences with regard to the 
means to be employed in reaching this end, 
they had been amicably resolved. 

Director-General's Reply 

The Director-General, in his reply to the 
discussion on his report, defined the role of 
the International Labour Office in a chang- 
ing world. 

He said he believed that the two dynamic 
forces for change he had referred to in his 
report — the drive for economic development 
and the changing technology of production 
— in reality merged into one. It became one 
"accelerated process of changes in produc- 
tion, in economic organization, in social 
conditions and the structure of societies, 
which is affecting different countries and 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796! 



787 



areas in different ways, but which is active 
everywhere throughout the world." 

"The ILO's main responsibility today, as 
I see it, is to ensure that the goals of social 
improvement remain uppermost within 
this total process of change," Mr. Morse 
said. 

It was the function and duty of an inter- 
national organization to stand apart from 
competing ideologies, he held, and he 
advised against allowing general theories to 
determine important economic and social 
decisions. 

The Director-General reported that some 
of the developing countries had called on the 
ILO for help in formulating social pro- 
grams, and he suggested that the ILO should 
"equip itself more adequately to furnish this 
kind of assistance." 

He went on to discuss the importance in 
the developing countries of working condi- 
tions in the public sector, the social uses 
of fiscal policy, the part trade unions could 
play in shaping social policy, the importance 
of education and the labour mobilization 



schemes adopted by some countries, notably 
in Africa. 

Canadian Participation 

Canadians served on conference com- 
mittees as follows: Gordon Cushing, A. E. 
Gotlieb, T. H. Robinson, and Kalmen Kap- 
lansky (Vice-Chairman) on the resolutions 
committee; J. B. Metzler, T. H. Robinson 
and Marius Bergeron on the committee on 
hours of work; R.P. Opie, (Reporter), T. H. 
Robinson and D. Hamilton on the com- 
mittee on workers' housing; Gil Schonning 
(Reporter), T. H. Robinson and Stanley 
Knowles, on the committee on employment; 
R. H. MacCuish, T. H. Robinson and A. R. 
Gibbons on the committee on vocational 
training; J. Macdonald, T. H. Robinson 
(Vice-Chairman) and A. Plante on the com- 
mittee on social security; John Mainwaring, 
T. H. Robinson and O. Hodges on the com- 
mittee on technical co-operation, and Gor- 
don Cushing, Paul Goulet, T. H. Robinson 
and Kalmen Kaplansky on the selection 
committee. 



Text of the Recommendation Concerning Workers' Housing 



The General Conference of the International 

Labour Organisation, 
Having been convened at Geneva by the 
Governing Body of the International 
Labour Office, and having met in its 
Forty-Fifth Session on 7 June 1961, and 
Having decided upon the adoption of certain 
proposals regarding workers' housing, 
which is the fifth item on the agenda of 
the session, and 
Having determined that these proposals shall 
take the form of a Recommendation, 
adopts this 26th day of June of the year one 
thousand nine hundred and sixty-one the follow- 
ing Recommendation, which may be cited as 
the Workers' Housing Recommendation, 1961: 
Whereas the Constitution of the International 
Labour Organisation provides that the Organisa- 
tion shall promote the objects set forth in the 
Declaration of Philadelphia, which recognises 
the solemn obligation of the International 
Labour Organisation to further among the 
nations of the world programmes which will 
achieve the provision of adequate housing; and 
Whereas the Universal Declaration of Human 
Rights adopted by the General Assembly of the 
United Nations recognises that "everyone has 
the right to a standard of living adequate for 
the health and well-being of himself and of his 
family, including . . . housing"; and 

Whereas the United Nations and the Inter- 
national Labour Organisation have agreed, as set 
forth in the Integrated Work Programme of 
the United Nations and the Specialised Agencies 
in the Field of Housing and Town and Country 
Planning, noted by the Economic and Social 
Council and by the Governing Body of the 
International Labour Office in 1949, that the 



United Nations has an over-all responsibility 
within the general field of housing and town 
and country planning and the International 
Labour Organisation a special concern for 
matters relating to workers' housing; 

The Conference recommends that each Mem- 
ber should, within the framework of its 
general social and economic policy, give effect 
to the following General Principles in such 
matter as may be appropriate under national 
conditions: 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES 
7. Scope 

1. This Recommendation applies to the hous- 
ing of manual and non-manual workers, includ- 
ing those who are self-employed and aged, 
retired or physically handicapped persons. 

77. Objectives of National Housing Policy 

2. It should be an objective of national policy 
to promote, within the framework of general 
housing policy, the construction of housing 
and related community facilities with a view to 
ensuring that adequate and decent housing 
accommodation and a suitable living environ- 
ment are made available to all workers and their 
families. A degree of priority should be 
accorded to those whose needs are most urgent. 

3. Attention should also be given to the up- 
keep, improvement and modernisation of exist- 
ing housing and related community facilities. 

4. The aim should be that adequate and 
decent housing accommodation should not 
cost the worker more than a reasonable pro- 
portion of income, whether by way of rent for, 
or by way of payments towards the purchase of, 
such accommodation. 



788 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 196 1 



5. Workers' housing programmes should 
provide adequate scope for private, co-operative 
and public enterprise in house building. 

6. In view of the fact that programmes of 
large scale permanent housing construction may 
compete directly with programmes for economic 
growth and development — since scarce skilled 
and semi-skilled labour or scarce material 
resources may be needed for housing as well 
as for other types of production required for 
the expansion of production capacity — housing 
policy should be co-ordinated with general 
social and economic policy, so that workers' 
housing may be given a degree of priority 
which takes into account both the need therefor 
and the requirements of balanced economic 
development. 

7. Each family should have a separate, self- 
contained dwelling, if it so desires. 

///. The Responsibility of Public Authorities 

8. (1) The competent national authorities, 
having due regard to the constitutional struc- 
ture of the country concerned, should set up a 
central body with which should be associated 
all public authorities having some responsibility 
relating to housing. 

(2) The responsibilities of the central body 
should include — 

(a) studying and assessing the needs for 
workers' housing and related community 
facilities; and 

(b) formulating workers' housing programmes, 
such programmes to include measures for 
slum clearance and the rehousing of 
occupiers of slum dwellings. 

(3) Representative employers' and workers' 
organisations, as well as other organisations 
concerned, should be associated in the work of 
the central body. 

9. National housing programmes should aim 
at ensuring, consistently with other national 
goals and within limits set by housing and 
related needs, that all private and public 
resources which can be made available for the 
purpose are co-ordinated and utilised for the 
construction of workers' housing and related 
community facilities. 

10. Where a substantial permanent increase of 
house-building capacity is required in order to 
meet national needs for workers' housing on a 
continuing basis, economic development pro- 
grammes should include, consistently with other 
national goals, measures to provide in the long 
run the skilled manpower, materials, equip- 
ment and finance required for house building. 

11. Public authorities should, to the extent 
required, and as far as practicable, assume 
responsibility either for providing directly or 
for stimulating the provision of workers' hous- 
ing on a rental or home-ownership basis. 

IV. Housing Provided by Employers 

12. (1) Employers should recognise the 
importance to them of the provision of housing 
for their workers on an equitable basis by 
public agencies or by autonomous private 



agencies, such as co-operative and other housing 
associations, separate from the employers' 
enterprises. 

(2) It should provide housing for their 
workers directly, with the exception of cases 
in which circumstances necessitate that 
employers provide housing for their workers, 
as, for instance, when an undertaking is located 
at a long distance from normal centres of 
population, or where the nature of the employ- 
ment requires that the worker should be avail- 
able at short notice. 

(3) In cases where housing is provided by 
the employer — 

(a) the fundamental human rights of the 
workers, in particular freedom of associa- 
tion, should be recognised; 

(b) national law and custom should be fully 
respected in terminating the lease or 
occupancy of such housing on termina- 
tion of the workers' contracts of employ- 
ment; and 

(c) rents charged should be in conformity with 
the principle set out in Paragraph 4 above, 
and in any case should not include a 
speculative profit. 

(4) The provision by employers of accom- 
modation and communal services in payment for 
work should be prohibited or regulated to the 
extent necessary to protect the interests of the 
workers. 

V. Financing 

13. (1) The competent authorities should 
take such measures as are appropriate to ensure 
the execution of the accepted programmes of 
workers' housing by securing a regular and 
continuous provision of the necessary financial 
means. 

(2) For this purpose — 

(a) public and private facilities should be made 
available for loans at moderate rates of 
interest; and 

(b) such facilities should be supplemented by 
other suitable methods of direct and 
indirect financial assistance such as sub- 
sidies, tax concessions, and reduction of 
assessments, to appropriate private, co- 
operative and public owners of housing. 

14. Governments and employers' and workers' 
organisations should encourage co-operative and 
similar non-profit housing societies. 

15. Public authorities should endeavour to 
ensure that public and private facilities for 
loans on reasonable terms are available to 
workers who wish to own or to build their 
dwellings, and should take such other steps as 
would facilitate home ownership. 

16. National mortgage insurance systems or 
public guarantees of private mortgages should 
be established as a means of promoting the 
building of workers' housing in countries where 
a sound credit market exists and where such 
systems are considered appropriate. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



789 



17. Appropriate measures should be taken 
in accordance with national practice — 

(a) to stimulate saving by individuals, co- 
operative societies and private institutions 
which can be used to finance workers 
housing; and 

(b) to encourage investment by individuals, co- 
operative societies and private institutions 
in construction of workers' housing. 

18. Workers' housing built with assistance 
from public funds should not become the object 
of speculation. 

VI. Housing Standards 

19. As a general principle, the competent 
authority should, in order to ensure structural 
safety and reasonable levels of decency, hygiene 
and comfort, establish minimum housing stan- 
dards in the light of local conditions and take 
appropriate measures to enforce these standards. 

VII. Measures to Promote Efficiency in 
the Building Industry 

20. Governments, in association with 
employers' and workers' organisations, should 
promote measures to achieve the most efficient 
use of available resources in the building and 
associated industries and, where necessary, 
should encourage the development of new 
resources. 

VIII. House Building and Employment 
Stabilisation 

21. National housing programmes should be 
planned so as to permit a speeding up of the 
construction of workers' housing and related 
community facilities during slack periods. 

22. Appropriate measures should be taken by 
governments and employers' and workers' 
organisations to increase the annual output of 
workers' housing and related facilities by 
reducing seasonal unemployment in the build- 
ing industry, subject to the principles referred to 
in Paragraph 6 above. 

IX. Town, Country and Regional Planning 

23. The development and execution of 
workers' housing programmes should conform 
to sound town, country and regional planning 
practice. 

24. (1) Public authorities should take all 
appropriate steps to prevent land speculation. 

(2) Public authorities should — 

(a) have the power to acquire land at a fair 
price for workers' housing and related 
community facilities; and 

(b) create land reserves in appropriate situa- 
tions in order to facilitate advance planning 
of such housing and facilities. 

(3) Such land should be made available for 
workers' housing and related community 
facilities at a fair price. 

X. Application of General Principles 

25. In applying the General Principles set 
forth in this Recommendation, each Member 
of the International Labour Organisation and 



the employers' and workers' organisations con- 
cerned should be guided, to the extent possible 
and desirable, by the accompanying Sug- 
gestions concerning Methods of Application of 
the Recommendation. 

SUGGESTIONS CONCERNING METHODS 
OF APPLICATION 

/. General Considerations 

1. Workers' housing programmes adopted and 
pursued in accordance with Paragraph 8 of the 
General Principles should be such as to lead 
to maximum improvement in workers' housing 
conditions as quickly as relevant considera- 
tions — such as available national resources, 
state of economic development, technology and 
priorities competing with housing — permit. 

2. Special consideration should be given in 
national housing programmes, particularly in 
developing countries, to the housing needs of 
workers employed in, or required by, industries 
or regions which are of great national import- 
ance. 

3. In establishing and carrying out workers* 
housing programmes, special attention should 
be given at the local level to — 

(a) the size and age and sex composition of the 
worker's family; 

(b) the relationship of the persons within the 
family; and 

(c) the particular circumstances of physical 
handicapped persons, persons living on their 
own and aged persons. 

4. Measures should be taken, where appro- 
priate, to achieve a more effective utilisation of 
the existing supply of rental housing by encour- 
aging an exchange of occupancies in accord- 
ance with housing needs, arising for example 
from size of family or place of work. 

5. The competent authorities should give 
special attention to the particular problem of 
housing migrant workers and, where appro- 
priate, their families, with a view to achieving as 
rapidly as possible equality of treatment between 
migrant workers and national workers in this 
respect. 

6. The collection and analysis of comprehen- 
sive building and population statistics as well as 
the undertaking of sociological studies should 
be encouraged as essential elements in the 
formulation and execution of long-term housing 
programmes. 

//. Housing Standards 

7. The housing standards referred to in 
Paragraphs 19 of the General Principles should 
relate in particular to — 

(a) the minimum space per person or per 
family as expressed in terms of one or 
more of the following, due regard being 
had to the need for rooms of reasonable 
dimensions and proportions: 
(i) floor area; 
(ii) cubic volume; or 
(iii) size and number of rooms; 



790 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



(b) the supply of safe water in the workers' 
dwelling in such ample quantities as to 
provide for all personal and household 
uses; 

(c) adequate sewage and garbage disposal 
systems; 

(d) appropriate protection against heat, cold, 
damp, noise, fire, and disease-carrying 
animals, and, in particular, insects; 

(e) adequate sanitary and washing facilities, 
ventilation, cooking and storage facilities 
and natural and artificial lighting; 

(/) a minimum degree of privacy both — 

(i) as between individual persons within 

the household; and 

(ii) for the members of the household 

against undue disturbance by external 

factors; and 

(g) suitable separation of rooms devoted to 

living purposes from quarters for animals. 

8. Where housing accommodation for single 
workers or workers separated from their 
families is collective, the competent authority 
should establish housing standards providing, as 
a minimum, for — 

(a) a separate bed for each worker; 

(b) separate accommodation of the sexes; 

(c) adequate supply of safe water; 

(d) adequate drainage and sanitary conven- 
iences; 

(e) adequate ventilation and, where appropriate, 
heating; and 

(/) common dining rooms, canteens, rest and 
recreation rooms and health facilities, 
where not otherwise available in the 

community. 

9. Workers' housing standards should be 
revised from time to time to take account of 
social, economic and technical development 
and increase of real income per head. 

10. In general, and in localities where employ- 
ment opportunities are not of a temporary 
character, workers' housing and related com- 
munity facilties should be of durable con- 
struction. 

11. The aim should be to construct workers' 
housing and related community facilities in the 
most suitable materials available, having regard 
to local conditions, such as liability to earth- 
quakes. 

///. Special Schemes 

12. In the developing countries special con- 
sideration should be given, as an interim 
measure pending development of a skilled 
labour force and of a building industry, to 
schemes such as large-scale aided self-help 
schemes for short-life housing, which offer 
one means for improvement in housing condi- 
tions, particularly in rural areas. Simultaneously, 
steps should be taken in these countries for 
the training of unemployed and unskilled 
workers for the building industry, thereby in- 
creasing the capacity for building permanent 
dwellings. 



13. All appropriate measures should be taken 
by governments, employers and employers' and 
workers' organisations to assist home ownership 
by workers and, where desirable, self-help hous- 
ing schemes. Such measures might include, for 
example — 

(a) the provision of technical services such as 
architectural assistance and, where neces- 
sary, competent supervision of the work; 

(b) research into housing and building matters 
and publication and dissemination of 
manuals and simple, illustrated pamphlets 
containing information on such matters as 
housing design, housing standards, and 
building techniques and materials; 

(c) training in simple building techniques for 
self-help housing; 

(d) the sale or hire of equipment, materials or 
tools at less than cost; 

O) reduced interest rates and similar con- 
cessions, such as direct financial subsidies 
towards the initial capital outlay, the sale 
of land at less than developed cost and 
long leases of land at nominal rents. 

14. All appropriate measures should be taken, 
where necessary, to give families information 
concerning the maintenance and rational use of 
facilities in the home. 

IV. Housing Provided by Employers 

15. In cases where housing is provided by 
the employer the following provisions should 
apply unless equivalent protection of the 
worker is ensured, whether by law or by col- 
lective or other binding agreements: 

(a) the employer should be entitled to repos- 
sess the accommodation within a reason- 
able time in the event of termination of 
employment; 
(h) the worker or his family should be entitled 
to a reasonable period of continued occu- 
pancy to enable a satisfactory alternative 
dwelling to be obtained when he ceases 
to exercise his employment by reason of 
sickness, incapacity, the consequences of 
employment injury, retirement or death; 
(c) the worker who, in the event of termination 
of his employment, is obliged to vacate his 
accommodation, should be entitled to 
receive fair compensation — 
(i) for crops which he is growing, with 
permission, on land belonging to the 
employer; and 
(ii) as a general rule, for improvements 
enhancing permanently the amenities 
of the accommodation, which are made 
with the agreement of the employer, 
and the value of which has not yet 
been written off through use. 

16. A worker occupying housing provided 
by his employer should maintain the premises 
in the condition in which he found them, fair 
wear and tear excepted. 

17. Persons having social relations or business 
including trade union business, with a worker 
occupying accommodation provided by the 
employer, should be entitled to free access to 
the house occupied by such worker. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



791 



18. The possibility should be examined, where 
appropriate, of a public authority or other 
institution or worker-occupants acquiring, for 
a fair price, ownership of housing provided by 
the employer, except in cases where such 
housing is within the operational area of the 
undertaking. 

V. Financing 

19. Public authorities should either finance 
directly or give financial assistance to rental 
housing schemes, especially for certain groups 
of workers, such as heads of newly formed 
families, single persons and those whose 
mobility is desirable for a balanced develop- 
ment of the enonomy. 

20. Loans granted to workers in accordance 
with Paragraph 15 of the General Principles 
should cover all, or a substantial part of, the 
initial cost of the dwelling unit and should be 
repayable over a long period of time and at 
a moderate rate of interest. 

21. Provident funds and social security insti- 
tutions should be encouraged to use their 
reserves available for long-term investment to 
provide facilities for loans for workers' housing. 

22. In the case of loans granted to workers 
to promote home ownership, adequate provi- 
sion should be made to protect the worker 
against the loss of his financial equity in his 
house on account of unemployment, accident or 
other factors beyond his control, and in partic- 
ular to protect his family against the loss of 
his financial equity in the event of his death. 

23. Public authorities should render special 
financial assistance to workers who, by reason 
of inadequate income or excessively heavy 
outlay in respect of family responsibilities, are 
unable to obtain adequate accommodation. 

24. In cases where public authorities provide 
direct financial assistance ,toward home owner- 
ship, the recipient should assume financial 
and other responsibilities with respect to such 
housing in so far as his capacity permits. 

25. Public authorities giving financial assist- 
ance to housing programmes should ensure that 
tenancy or ownership of such workers' houses 
should not be refused on grounds of race, 
religion, political opinion or trade union mem- 
bership. 

VI. Measures to Promote Efficiency in 
the Building Industry 

26. Workers' housing programmes should be 
carried out on a long-term basis, and should be 
spread over the whole year, in order to obtain 
the economies of continuous operation. 

27. Appropriate measures should be taken for 
improving and, where necessary, expanding 
facilities for the training of skilled and semi- 
skilled workers, supervisory personnel, con- 
tractors and professional personnel, such as 
architects and engineers. 

28. Where there is a shortage of building 
materials, tools or equipment, consideration 
should be given to such measures as giving 



priority to the construction of factories produc- 
ing these goods, importing equipment for such 
factories and increasing trade in these goods. 

29. Having full regard to consideration of 
health and safety, building codes and other 
regulations pertaining to design, materials and 
as to permit the use of new building materials 
construction techniques should be so formulated 
and methods, including locally available 
materials and self-help methods. 

30. Special attention should be given, among 
other measures, to improved planning and 
organisation of work on the site, to greater 
standardisation of materials and simplification 
of working methods and to the application of 
the results of building research. 

31. Every effort should be made to eliminate 
restrictive practices on the part of contractors, 
building-material suppliers and workers in the 
building-industry. 

32. National institutions should be developed 
for the purpose of undertaking research into 
social, economic and technical problems of 
workers' housing. Where appropriate, use might 
be made of such services as can be made avail- 
able by the Regional Housing Centres sponsored 
or assisted by the United Nations and other 
appropriate international organisations. 

33. Every effort should be made to promote 
the efficiency of small scale building contractors, 
for example by placing at their disposal in- 
formation on low-cost materials and methods of 
building, by the provision of centralised 
facilities for hiring tools and equipment, by 
specialised training courses and by establish- 
ing suitable financial facilities where they do 
not already exist. 

34. Measures for reducing building costs 
should not result in a lowering of the standards 
of workers' housing and related facilities. 

VII. House Building and Employment 
Stabilisation 

35. Where unemployment in the construc- 
tion industry is markedly in excess of the 
transitional unemployment which occurs during 
the period between the cessation of a construc- 
tion workers' employment on one site and the 
commencement of his employment on another 
site, or where there is substantial unemployment 
outside the construction industry, programmes 
for workers' housing and related facilities 
should be expanded, where appropriate, to offer 
employment to as many unemployed persons as 
possible. 

36. In periods of declining private construc- 
tion or declining economic activity in general 
and in cases where there is a need for an 
increased volume of construction, the govern- 
ment should take special action to stimulate 
the construction of workers' housing and 
related facilities by local authorities, or private 
enterprise or both, by such means as financial 
assistance or extension of their borrowing 
powers. 



792 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 196? 



37. Measures for increasing, if necessary, the 
volume of private housing might include a 
reduction in the rate of interest and in the size 
of downpayment required, and the lengthening 
of the amortisation period. 

38. Where appropriate, measures to be taken 
to reduce seasonal unemployment in the con- 
struction industry may include — 

(a) the use of all appropriate plant, machinery, 
materials and techniques to enable con- 
struction work to be carried out in a safe 
and satisfactory manner and to protect the 
worker during periods traditionally regarded 
as unfavourable for the carrying out of 
construction operations; 

(b) education of those concerned regarding 
the technical feasibility and social desir- 
ability of not interrupting construction in 
unfavourable climatic conditions; 

(c) the payment of subsidies to offset in whole 
or in part additional costs which might be 
involved in construction under such condi- 
tions; and 

(d) the timing of various operations in pro- 
grammes of workers' housing and related 
facilities in such manner as will help to 
reduce seasonal unemployment. 

39. Appropriate steps should be taken, where 
necessary, to ensure administrative and financial 
co-ordination between the various central and 
local public authorities, and between them and 
private bodies, in carrying out an employment 
stabilisation programme affecting the con- 
struction of workers' housing and related 
facilities. 

VIII. Rent Policy 

40. (1) Although in the highly industrialised 
countries with a high and rising standard of 
living one of the long-term objectives should be 
that rents should tend to cover the normal 
costs of housing accommodation, taking into 
account the principles laid down in Paragraph 
4 of the General Principles, it should be a 
general aim that as the result of higher real 
wages and increased productivity in the build- 
ing industry the percentage of the workers' 
income devoted to rent covering the normal cost 
of the dwelling should progressively diminish. 

(2) No increase in rent should permit more 
than a reasonable rate of return for the invest- 
ment. 

(3) During periods of acute housing shortage, 
measures should be taken to prevent an undue 
rise in rents of existing workers' housing. As 
the housing shortage eases and a sufficient num- 
ber of workers' dwellings of decent quality 
become available to meet the need, these 



measures may be, where appropriate, progres- 
sively relaxed, subject to the provisions of this 
Paragraph. 

IX. Town, Country and Regional Planning 

41. Workers' housing should, in so far as 
practicable and taking into account available 
public and private transport facilities, be 
within easy reach of places of employment, and 
in close proximity to community facilities, 
such as schools, shopping centres, recreation 
areas and facilities for all age groups, religious 
facilities and medical services, and should be so 
sited as to form attractive and well-laid out 
neighbourhoods, including open spaces. 

42. In the design of houses and the planning 
of new communities for workers, every effort 
should be made to consult those bodies repre- 
sentative of future occupants best able to advise 
on the most suitable means of meeting their 
housing and environmental needs. 

43. The siting of workers' housing should 
take into consideration the possibility of air 
pollution from factories, and topograpical 
conditions which may have an important bearing 
on the disposal of surface run-off and of sewage 
and other wastes. 

44. In the construction of short-life housing 
it is particularly important to ensure com- 
munity planning and control over density of 
occupancy. 

45. It is desirable to adopt the principle of 
providing in towns and cities for inter-related 
zones, such as residential, commercial and 
industrial zones, with a view to ensuring as 
agreeable an environment as possible for the 
worker and his family and to minimising the 
time spent and risks incurred by workers 
in going to and from work. 

46. With a view to combatting slums, the 
competent authorities, in collaboration, as 
appropriate, with civic and other organisations 
concerned, as well as with landlords, home 
owners and tenants, should take all practicable 
measures for the rehabilitation of slum areas by 
means such as renovation and modernisation of 
structures which are suitable for such action 
and the conservation of buildings of archi- 
tectural or historical interest The competent 
authorities should also take appropriate action 
to ensure adequate housing accommodation for 
families, which may be temporarily displaced 
during the period when such rehabilitation is 
being carried out. 

47. In order to lessen overcrowding in large 
urban centres, plans for future development 
should be formulated on a regional basis, with 
a view to preventing over-concentration of in- 
dustry and population and to achieving a better 
balance between urban and rural development. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 J 



793 



INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
AND CONCILIATION 



Certification and Other Proceedings before 

the Canada Labour Relations Board 



The Canada Labour Relations Board met 
for four days during June. The Board issued 
thirteen certificates designating bargaining 
agents, rejected one application for certifica- 
tion and one application for revocation of 
certification. During the month the Board 
received ten applications for certification, 
one request under Section 61 (2) of the 
Act for review of an earlier decision, and 
allowed the withdrawal of two applications 
for certification. 

Applications for Certification Granted 

1. Marconi Salaried Employees Associa- 
tion (Special Services Division, Field Serv- 
ice Group), on behalf of a unit of salaried 
employees of the Canadian Marconi Com- 
pany employed in its Special Services 
Division (L.G., May, p. 470). 

2. National Association of Broadcast Em- 
ployees and Technicians, on behalf of a unit 
of technical personnel employed by Vantel 
Broadcasting Co. Ltd. at Station CHAN-TV 
in Vancouver, B.C. (L.G., May, p. 470). 

3. Vancouver-New Westminster Guild, 
Local No. 115, American Newspaper Guild, 
on behalf of a unit of certain administrative 
personnel including clerks and stenograph- 
ers, and certain program and production 
personnel including cameramen, reporters, 
editors, staff performers and announcer- 
operators, employed by Vantel Broadcasting 
Co. Ltd. at Station CHAN-TV in Van- 
couver, B.C. (L.G., June, p. 567). 

4. International Alliance of Theatrical 
Stage Employees and Moving Picture Mach- 
ine Operators of the United States and 
Canada, on behalf of a unit of program and 
production employees employed by Vantel 
Broadcasting Co. Ltd. at Station CHAN- 
TV in Vancouver, B.C. (L.G., June, p. 
568). 

5. The Association of Employees of 
M & P Transport, on behalf of a unit of 
employees of M & P Transport Ltd, com- 
prising longhaul drivers, city drivers and 
dockmen operating in and out of Edmonton, 
Alta., and dockmen and pick-up men based 



at Calgary, Alta. (L.G., June, p. 568). 
Locals 880 and 938 of the International 
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America had 
intervened. 

6. International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, General Truck Drivers' 
Union, Local 938, and Transport Drivers, 
Warehousemen and Helpers Union, Local 
106, on behalf of a unit of employees of 
St. Johns (Iberville) Transport Co. Ltd., 
working in and out of Toronto, Ont., and 
Iberville, Que. (L.G., June, p. 568). 

7. Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship 
Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and Sta- 
tion Employees, on behalf of a unit of 
longshoremen employed by Upper Lakes 
Shipping Ltd. in the loading and unloading 
of ships at the Port of Toronto (L.G., June, 
p. 568). 

8. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 501, on 
behalf of a unit of checkers, mechanics, 
drivers, shedmen and janitors, regularly 
employed by the Canadian Stevedoring 
Company Limited on or about the Terminal 
Docks in Vancouver, B.C. (L.G., July, p. 
672). 

9. International Longshoremen's and 
Warehousemen's Union, Local 501, on 
behalf of a unit of dock machine operators 
regularly employed by the Empire Steve- 
doring Company Ltd. on or about the 
C.P.R. docks in Vancouver, B.C. (L.G., 
July, p. 672). 

10. National Association of Broadcast 
Employees and Technicians, on behalf of a 
unit of employees employed by Channel 
Seven Television Ltd. at CJAY-TV in Win- 
nipeg, Man. (L.G., July, p. 672). 

11. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of deckhands, cooks and steward- 
esses, employed aboard the M.V. Pacific 
Prince by the Northwest Shipping Co. Ltd., 
Vancouver, B.C. (L.G., July, p. 672). 



This section covers proceedings under the Industrial Relations and Disputes Investi- 
gation Act, involving the administrative services of the Minister of Labour, the Canada 
Labour Relations Board, and the Industrial Relations Branch of the Department. 



794 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 






12. International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers, Local Union No. 2096, on 
behalf of a unit of testers and utility men 
employed by the Eastern Telephone and 
Telegraph Co. at Sydney Mines and Hard- 
wood Hill, N.S., Clarenville, Nfld., and 
Spruce Lake, N.B., in its microwave and 
undersea cable telephone communication 
system (L.G., July, p. 673). 

13. International Brotherhood of Team- 
sters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Help- 
ers of America, Local 419, Warehousemen 
and Miscellaneous Drivers, on behalf of 
a unit of employees of Middup Moving & 
Storage Limited, working in and out of 
Toronto, Ont. (L.G., July, p. 673). 

Application for Certification Rejected 

International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, Local 938, General Truck Driv- 
ers' Union, applicant, and Fleet Express 



Lines, Limited, Toronto, Ont., respondent 
(L.G., June, p. 568). The application was 
rejected because the Board was not satisfied 
that the employees concerned were mem- 
bers in good standing of the applicant in 
accordance with the provisions of Section 
15 of the Board's Rules of Procedure. 

Application for Revocation of Certification 



The Board rejected an application for re- 
vocation of certification affecting Sidney E. 
Odger, et al, applicants, Canadian National 
Railways, Winnipeg, Man., respondent, and 
the Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, respondent 
(L.G., June, p. 568). The Board rejected 
the application for revocation because, in 
its opinion, contrary to the position taken 
by the applicants, the original application 
for certification was made and dealt with 
in a proper manner, and because, on the 



Scope and Administration of Industrial Relations and Disputes Investigation Act 



Conciliation services under the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act are 
provided by the Minister of Labour through 
the Industrial Relations Branch. The branch 
also acts as the administrative arm of the 
Canada Labour Relations Board, in matters 
under the Act involving the board. 

The Industrial Relations and Disputes 
Investigation Act came into force on Sep- 
tember 1, 1948. It revoked the Wartime 
Labour Relations Regulations, P.C. 1003, 
which became effective in March, 1944, and 
repealed the Industrial Disputes Investigation 
Act, which had been in force from 1907 
until superseded by the Wartime Regulations 
in 1944. Decisions, orders and certificates 
given under the Wartime Regulations by the 
Minister of Labour and the Wartime Labour 
Relations Board are continued in force and 
effect by the Act. 

The Act applies to industries within 
federal jurisdiction, i.e., navigation, shipping, 
interprovincial railways, canals, telegraphs, 
interprovincial and international steamship 
lines and ferries, aerodromes and air trans- 
portation, radio broadcasting stations and 
works declared by Parliament to be for the 
general advantage of Canada or two or 
more of its provinces. Additionally, the Act 
provides that provincial authorities, if they 
so desire, may enact similar legislation for 
application to industries within provincial 
jurisdiction and make mutually satisfactory 
arrangements with the federal Government 
for the administration of such legislation. 

The Minister of Labour is charged with 
the administration of the Act and is directly 
responsible for the appointment of con- 
ciliation officers, conciliation boards, and 
Industrial Inquiry Commissions concerning 
complaints that the Act has been violated 
or that a party has failed to bargain collec- 
tively, and for application for consent to 
prosecute. 

The Canada Labour Relations Board is 
established under the Act as successor to 



the Wartime Labour Relations Board to 
administer provisions concerning the certi- 
fication of bargaining agents, the writing of 
provisions — for incorporation into collective 
agreements — fixing a procedure for the final 
settlement of disputes concerning the mean- 
ing or violation of such agreements and the 
investigation of complaints referred to it by 
the minister that a party has failed to 
bargain collectively and to make every 
reasonable effort to conclude a collective 
agreement. 

Copies of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, the Regulations 
made under the Act, and the Rules of 
Procedure of the Canada Labour Relations 
Board are available upon request to the 
Department of Labour, Ottawa. 

Proceedings under the Industrial Rela- 
tions and Disputes Investigation Act are 
reported below under two headings: (1) 
Certification and other Proceedings before 
the Canada Labour Relations Board, and 
(2) Conciliation and other Proceedings 
before the Minister of Labour. 

Industrial Relations Officers of the De- 
partment of Labour are stationed at Vancou- 
ver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Fredericton, Halifax and St. John's, New- 
foundland. The territory of four officers 
resident in Vancouver comprises British 
Columbia, Alberta and the Yukon and 
Northwest Territories; two officers stationed 
in Winnipeg cover the province of Saskat- 
chewan and Manitoba and Northwestern 
Ontario; four officers resident in Toronto 
confine their activities to Ontario; five 
officers in Montreal are assigned to the 
province of Quebec, and a total of three 
officers resident in Fredericton, Halifax and 
St. John's represent the Department in the 
Maritime Provinces and Newfoundland. The 
headquarters of the Industrial Relations 
Branch and the Director of Industrial Rela- 
tions and staff are situated in Ottawa. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 7 



795 



evidence, the Board was satisfied that the 
employees affected were not unaware of 
the application for certification at the time 
when it was processed. 

Applications for Certification Received 

1. Vancouver Harbour Employees' Asso- 
ciation, on behalf of a unit of security 
guards employed by the National Harbours 
Board at the Port of Vancouver (Investigat- 
ing Officer: D. S. Tysoe). 

2. International Association of Machin- 
ists, on behalf of a unit of fueling service 
personnel employed by Consolidated Avia- 
tion Fueling Services Limited at the Mont- 
real International Airport, Dorval, Que. 
(Investigating Officer: R. L. Fournier). 

3. Marconi Salaried Employees Associa- 
tion (CFCF-TV), on behalf of a unit of 
employees of the Canadian Marconi Com- 
pany employed at CFCF-TV in Montreal, 
Que. (Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

4. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, Inc., 
on behalf of a unit of deck officers em- 
ployed aboard vessels operated by Redwood 
Enterprises Ltd., Montreal, Que. (Investi- 
gating Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

5. Canadian Merchant Service Guild, 
Inc., on behalf of a unit of deck officers 
employed aboard vessels operated by the 
Winona Steamship Co. Limited, Montreal, 
Que. (Investigating Officer: C. E. Poirier). 

6. Transport Drivers, Warehousemen and 
Helpers Union, Local 106, and General 
Truck Drivers' Union, Local 938, of the 
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, on behalf of a unit of employees 
of Central Truck Lines Limited, Val d'Or, 
Que. (Investigating Officer: Remi Duquette). 

7. Local 5197, United Steel workers of 
America, on behalf of a unit of longshore- 
men employed by the Eastern Canada 
Stevedoring Co. Ltd., at Port Cartier, Que. 
(Investigating Officer: Remi Duquette). 

8. General Truck Drivers' Union, Local 
938, of the International Brotherhood of 
Teamsters, Chauffeurs. Warehousemen and 
Helpers of America, on behalf of a unit 



of employees of MacCosham Van Lines 
Limited working in and out of Kingston, 
Ont. (Investigating Officer: A. B. Whitfield). 

9. Brotherhood of Railway and Steam- 
ship Clerks, Freight Handlers, Express and 
Station Employees, on behalf of a unit of 
longshoremen employed by Upper Lakes 
Shipping Ltd. at Fort William and Port 
Arthur, Ont. (Investigating Officer: J. S. 
Gunn). 

10. Transport Drivers, Warehousemen 
and Helpers Union, Local 106, and General 
Truck Drivers' Union, Local 938, of the 
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, 
Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of 
America, on behalf of a unit of employees 
of Overnite Express Limited, working in 
and out of Montreal, St. Jerome, and Hull, 
Que., and Toronto, Ont (Investigating 
Officer: G. A. Lane). 

Applications for Certification Withdrawn 

1. Line Drivers, Warehousemen, Pickup 
Men ft Dockmen's Union, Local No. 605, 
and Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen 
and Helpers, Local No. 514, of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauf- 
feurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of Amer- 
ica, on behalf of a unit of employees of 
Vancouver Alberta Freightlines Ltd., oper- 
ating in and out of Vancouver, B.C., and 
Edmonton, Alta. (L.G., July, p. 672). 

2. Canadian Brotherhood of Railway, 
Transport and General Workers, on behalf 
of a unit of employees of the Canadian 
National Railways, employed in the office 
of the General Material Supervisor at 
Moncton, N.B. (L.G., July, p. 673). 

Request for Review of Decision under Section 
61 (2) of Act 

Request for amendment of the certificate 
issued by the Board on November 9, 1959, 
affecting the Brotherhood of Maintenance 
of Way Employees, applicant, and the 
Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway 
Companv, respondent (L.G., January, 1960, 
p. 52). 



Conciliation and Other Proceedings 

before the Minister of Labour 



Conciliation Officers Appointed 

During June, the Minister of Labour 
appointed conciliation officers to deal with 
the following disputes: 

1. Canuk Lines Limited, Montreal, and 
Seafarers' International Union of Canada 
(Conciliation Officer: Remi Duquette). 



2. H. W. Bacon Limited, Toronto, and 
Local 419 of the International Brotherhood 
of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen 
and Helpers of America (Conciliation Offi- 
cer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

3. United Keno Hill Mines Limited, Elsa, 
Yukon Territory, and Local 924 of the 



796 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



International Union of Mine, Mill and 
Smelter Workers (Conciliation Officer: D. S. 
Tysoe). 

4. Eldorado Mining and Refining Lim- 
ited, Port Hope, Ont., and Local 13173, 
Region 77, District 50, United Mine Work- 
ers of America (Conciliation Officer: T. B. 
McRae). 

5. The Shipping Federation of Canada, 
Inc., Montreal, and Local 1657 of the 
International Longshoremen's Association 
(checkers and cargo repairmen) (Concilia- 
tion Officer: Remi Duquette). 

6. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(dining, cafe and buffet car employees) and 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen (Con- 
ciliation Officer: F. J. Ainsborough). 

7. Quebec Paper Sales and Transporta- 
tion Company Limited, Donnacona, Que- 
bec, and Seafarers' International Union of 
Canada (Conciliation Officer: Remi Du- 
quette). 

8. Guy Tombs Marine Service Limited 
and Davie Transportation Limited, Mont- 
real, and Seafarers' International Union of 
Canada (Conciliation Officer: Remi Du- 
quette). 

9. K.L.M. Royal Dutch Airlines, Mont- 
real, and International Union, United Auto- 
mobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Imple- 
ment Workers of America (Conciliation 
Officer: Remi Duquette). 

10. Polymer Corporation Limited, Sar- 
nia, Ont., and (1) Local 16-14 of the Oil, 
Chemical and Atomic Workers Interna- 
tional Union and (2) Oil, Chemical and 
Atomic Workers International Union (Plant 
Unit) (Technicians) (Conciliation Officers: 
F. J. Ainsborough and T. B. McRae). 

11. The Commercial Cable Company, 
and Seafarers' International Union of 
Canada (S.S. Cable Guardian) (unlicensed 
personnel) (Conciliation Officer: Remi Du- 
quette). 

12. The Commercial Cable Company, 
and Seafarers' International Union of 
Canada (S.S. Cable Guardian) (licensed 
engineers) (Conciliation Officer: Remi Du- 
quette). 

13. Canadian National Railways (Atlan- 
tic, St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, Mountain 
and Prairie Regions, including Newfound- 
land District) and Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Firemen and Enginemen (Concilia- 
tion Officer: Remi Duquette). 

14. Canadian Pacific Railway Company 
(Atlantic, Eastern, Prairie and Pacific Re- 
gions, including Quebec Central Railway 
Company and Dominion Atlantic Railway 
Company) and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Enginemen (Conciliation Offi- 
cer: Remi Duquette). 



Settlements Reported by Conciliation Officers 

1. Boyles Bros. Drilling (Alberta) Ltd., 
Edmonton, Alta. (Yellowknife Branch) and 
Western District Diamond Drillers' Union, 
Local 1005 of the International Union of 
Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers (Concilia- 
tion Officer: D. S. Tysoe) (L.G., July, p. 
674). 

2. Seaway Forwarding Agencies Limited, 
Sarnia, Ont., and Local 1854 of the Inter- 
national Longshoremen's Association (Con- 
ciliation Officers: F. J. Ainsborough and 
T. B. McRae) (L.G., March, p. 257). 

3. Saguenay Terminals Limited, Port 
Alfred, Quebec, and National Syndicate of 
Longshoremen of Ha! Ha! Bay (Conciliation 
Officer: R. Duquette) (L.G., March, p. 257). 

4. Saguenay Terminals Limited, Port 
Alfred, Quebec, and National Syndicate of 
Salaried Employees of Saguenay Terminals 
Limited (Conciliation Officer: Remi Du- 
quette) (L.G., March p. 257). 

5. Eldorado Mining and Refining Lim- 
ited, Port Hope, Ont., and Local 13173, 
Region 77, District 50, United Mine Work- 
ers of America (Conciliation Officer: T. B. 
McRae) (see above). 

Conciliation Board Appointed 

Canadian National Railways and Brother- 
hood of Railroad Trainmen (no Concilia- 
tion Officer appointed previously). 

Conciliation Boards Fully Constituted 

1. The Board of Conciliation and Inves- 
tigation established in May to deal with 
a dispute between Federal Commerce and 
Navigation Company Limited, Montreal, 
and Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District (L.G., July, p. 
675) was fully constituted in June with 
the appointment of His Honour Judge Rene 
Lippe, Montreal, as Chairman. Judge Lippe 
was appointed by the Minister in the 
absence of a joint recommendation from 
the other two members, A. Stuart Hynd- 
man and Jean G. Lariviere, both of Mont- 
real, who were previously appointed on the 
nomination of the company and union, 
respectively. 

2. The Board of Conciliation and Inves- 
tigation established in May to deal with 
a dispute between Canadian National Rail- 
ways (Atlantic, Central and Western Re- 
gions) and Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers (L.G., July, p. 675) was fully 
constituted in June with the appointment 
of His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, 
Belleville, Ont., as Chairman. Judge Ander- 
son was appointed by the Minister in the 
absence of a joint recommendation from 
the other two members, T. R. Meighen, 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



797 



Q.C. and Marc Lapointe, both of Montreal, 
who were previously appointed on the 
nomination of the company and union, 
respectively. 

3. The Board of Conciliation and Inves- 
tigation established in May to deal with 
a dispute between Canadian Pacific Railway 
Company (Atlantic, Eastern, Prairie and 
Pacific Regions and Quebec Central Rail- 
way Company) and Brotherhood of Loco- 
motive Engineers (L.G., July, p. 675) was 
fully constituted in June with the appoint- 
ment of His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, 
Belleville, Ont., as Chairman. Judge Ander- 
son was appointed by the Minister in the 
absence of a joint recommendation from 
the other two members, R. V. Hicks, Q.C, 
Toronto, and Marc Lapointe, Montreal, 
who were previously appointed on the 
nomination of the company and union, 
respectively. 

Conciliation Board Reports Received 

1. Shell Canadian Tankers, Limited (M.V. 
Western Shell), Vancouver, and Seafarers' 
International Union of North America, 
Canadian District (L.G., July, p. 675). The 
text of the report is reproduced below. 



2. Northland Navigation Company Lim- 
ited, Vancouver, and Seafarers' International 
Union of North America, Canadian District 
(L.G., June, p. 569). The text of the report 
is reproduced below. 

3. Hamilton Shipping Company Ltd., 
Yorkwood Shipping & Trading Co. Ltd. 
and the Hamilton operations of Eastern 
Canada Stevedoring Co. Ltd., Cullen Steve- 
doring Co. Ltd., Caledon Terminals Ltd., 
Pittston Stevedoring Corp. of Canada, and 
Local 1654, Hamilton, of the International 
Longshoremen's Association (L.G., May, p. 
473). The text of the report is reproduced 
below. 

4. Eastern Canada Stevedoring Co. Ltd., 
Cullen Stevedoring Co. Ltd., Caledon Ter- 
minals Ltd., Pittston Stevedoring Corp. of 
Canada, and Local 1869 and 1842, Toronto, 
of the International Longshoremen's Asso- 
ciation (L.G., May, p. 473). The text of 
the report is reproduced below. 

5. The Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, Cable Division, and American Com- 
munications Association (L.G., April, p. 
369). The text of the report is reproduced 
below. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Shell Canadian Tankers, Limited M.V. Western Shell, Vancouver, B.C., 

and 

Seafarers' International Union of North America, Canadian District 



Dear Sir, 

The Board of Conciliation and Investiga- 
tion established by you to deal with matters 
in dispute ebtween the above mentioned 
parties, begs to submit its report. 

The Board was composed of Reginald 
James S. Moir, Barrister, as chairman, of 
Kenneth R. Martin, representing the em- 
ployer and of Joseph Whiteford, represent- 
ing the employees. 

We held meeting with the representatives 
of the parties on the 1st and 2nd June, 
1961, and the Board met alone on the 9th 
and 10th June, 1961. 



During June, the Minister of Labour 
received the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with a dispute between Shell Canadian 
Tankers, Limited M.V. Western Shell, Van- 
couver, and Seafarers' International Union 
of North America, Canadian District. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of Reginald J. S. Moir, Vancouver. He was 
appointed by the Minister on the joint 
recommendation of the other two members 
K. R. Martin and Joseph Whiteford, both 
of Vancouver, nominees of the company 
and union, respectively. 

The Report is reproduced here. 



Prior to the meetings of this Board the 
parties in the dispute had agreed on all 
matters in relation to a new collective agree- 
ment except the following: — 

1. Vacation pay; 

2. New clauses re duties of oilers; 

3. Wages; 

4. Overtime rates; 

5. Duration of Agreement. 

After careful consideration of the mate- 
rial placed before it by both parties, and 
after hearing the arguments advanced by 
the representatives of the parties, this Board 
unanimously reports and recommends as 
follows: — 

1. In respect to the Union's requests for 
changes in the provisions regarding vacation 
pay, and overtime rates and in respect of 
the Union's request for new clauses re duties 
of Oilers the Board recommends that no 
changes be made. 

2. In respect to the duration of the agree- 
ment the Board recommends that the agree- 
ment be for a period of two years, com- 
mencing the 1st January, 1961. 



798 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



3. In respect to wages the Board recom- 
mends that the following wage rates be paid 
retroactive to the 1st January, 1961. 

Able Seaman $325.00 

Ordinary Seaman $287.00 

Oiler $325.00 

Cook $395.00 

Messman $307.00 

and that the following wage rates be paid 
effective the 1st January, 1962: — 

Able Seaman $336.00 

Ordinary Seaman $298.00 



Oiler $336.00 

Cook $406.00 

Messman $318.00 

The whole respectfully submitted, 
Vancouver, British Columbia, this 12th 
day of June, A.D. 1961. 

(Sgd.) Reginald J. S. Mom, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) K. R. Martin, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Joseph Whiteford, 
Member. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Northland Navigation Company Limited, Vancouver, B.C., 

and 

Seafarers' International Union of North America, Canadian District 



This was a Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation which was appointed under 
the provisions of the "Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Act" to endeavour to bring 
about agreement between the parties to 
the said dispute and to find terms for a 
Collective Agreement which the parties will 
accept, and to report to the Honourable 
the Minister of Labour, pursuant to the 
provisions of Section 17 of the "Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Investigation Act". 

Messrs. Norman Cunningham, Captain 
H. J. C. Terry, appeared for the employer. 

Mr. Rod Heinekey appeared for the 
bargaining agent. 

The parties agreed that the Board had 
been properly constituted and had jurisdic- 
tion to make recommendations in relation 
to the matters in dispute. 

The Board met with the parties on April 
25th, May 1st, May 2nd, May 4th, May 
15th, May 16th, May 19th, May 23rd, 
May 25th and June 2nd, 1961. 

The parties agreed that they had reached 
an agreement in relation to the following 
section of the agreement: 

Article 1 — Section 4 — Grievance procedure 
It is recommended that the following 
sections of the agreement be amended as 
follows and be incorporated into the Agree- 
ment: 

Article 1 — Section 8 — Seniority and 
promotions 
It is agreed that there will be no transfers 
between Company ships unless by mutual 
consent of the Company and the Union. 
Crew of a ship laid up or withdrawn from 
service will not transfer to an operating 
ship. (It is also agreed that there will be 
no promotions aboard a vessel if the Union 



has capable competent members available 
for work.) If the Union hasn't members 
available to fill vacancies, the management 
will select employees on the basis of skill 
and efficiency, these being equal, prefer- 
ence shall be given to employees with 
greatest seniority of service with the com- 
pany. It is also agreed that such promotions 
are not made in a manner discriminating 
against other unlicensed personnel or the 
Union. 

Article 1 — Section 12 — Sailing board time 

The present clause shall be clause "A". 
Add the following clauses: 

B. The sailing time shall be posted at the 
gangway on arrival when the vessel's stay 
in port is twelve (12) hours or less. When 
the vessel's stay exceeds twelve (12) hours, 
the sailing time shall be posted eight (8) 
hours prior to scheduled sailing, if before 
midnight. If scheduled sailing is between 
midnight and eight a.m. sailing time shall 
be posted not later than five (5) p.m. 



During June, the Minister of Labour 
received the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with a dispute between Northland 
Navigation Company Limited, Vancouver, 
and Seafarers' International Union of North 
America, Canadian District. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of W. E. Philpott, LL.B. of Vancouver. He 
was appointed by the Minister in the absence 
of a joint recommendation from the other 
two members E. B. Clark and S. B. White- 
lock, both of Vancouver, nominee of the 
company and union, respectively. 

The Majority Report, which under the 
provisions of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, constitutes the 
Report of the Board, was submitted by Mr. 
Clark. 

The Majority and Minority Reports are 
reproduced here. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 



AUGUST 1961 



799 



C. If the vessel's departure is delayed, the 
new time of departure shall immediately 
be posted on the Board. 

Section 18 — Crew equipment 

Amend Clause (a) to read: 

"Sufficient suitable face and laundry soap 
or soap powder." 

Article 1 — Section 30 

Delete present clause and substitute 
therefor: 

"There shall be no change in the Man- 
ning Scale of unlicensed crew members 
attached, as Schedule "A", during the life 
of this agreement, save and except the S.B. 
"Canadian Prince" when during the winter 
months, October 31st up and until May 
1st, following, the Steward's Department 
shall be reduced by seven (7). All other 
vessels operated by the Company to retain 
crews as at the present time." 

Article 2 — Section 1 — Annual vacation 

No change in this section recommended 
at this time. 

Article 2 — Section 2 — Statutory holidays 
Add the following two statutory holidays 

to make a total of Nine (9): 
Remembrance Day 
Boxing Day. 

Article 2 — Section 6 — Coffee time 

No change in this section recommended 
at this time. 

Article 2 — Section 10 — New clause (e) 

(e) Overtime shall commence at the time 
any employee shall be called to report 
for work outside of his regular duties, 
provided such member reports for duty 
within fifteen (15) minutes. Otherwise over- 
time shall commence at the actual time 
such employee reports for duty, and such 
overtime shall continue until the employee 
is relieved. 

Present clauses (e) and (f) to become 
(f) and (g) respectively. 

Article 2, Section 11 — New clause — C. 

It is also agreed that after employees 
have accumulated seven (7) days' leave 
they may request to take this time off. This 
request may be granted provided the Union 
has competent and capable replacements 
available. The Company will make every 
effort possible to arrange a satisfactory 
leave system. 

Article 2 — Section 11 — Weekly leave 
Present clause (c) to become Clause (e). 

New clause (f) 

One half day's pay shall be paid to any 

employee paid off his ship prior and up 



to 12:00 noon; the employee relieving such 
man prior to 12:00 noon shall receive one 
day's pay. One day's pay shall be paid 
any employee paid off his ship after 12:00 
noon. The employee relieving such man 
will be paid one-half day's pay. 

New clause (G) 

It is agreed that clause (f) above will 
only apply to vessels arriving in Port in 
the morning and leaving Port the same 
evening. On all other vessels a man joining 
a vessel will receive a full day's pay. 

Article 2 — Section 12 — Working cargo 

Delete present clause and substitute 
therefor Clause "A". 

"When employees covered by this agree- 
ment are required to work cargo while on 
watch, they shall receive, in addition to 
their regular wages, compensation for such 
work at the rate of one dollar ($1.00) per 
hour with a minimum of one (1) hour. 
Thereafter cargo time shall be paid in one- 
half (t) hour periods, save and except 
in the case where work is continuous. In 
this event actual cargo time worked and 
actual overtime worked shall be paid at the 
respective rates for cargo time and over- 
time." 

(b) When crew are required to do work 
regularly done by longshoremen in the 
Port of Vancouver, they shall receive long- 
shore rates of pay with a minimum of one 
(1) hour and thereafter time to be com- 
puted in half (i) hour periods. 

(c) When cargo is being worked long 
hours on a continuous basis, and for the sake 
of safety, a member of the unlicensed per- 
sonnel may request the officer in charge 
to be knocked off and if this does not inter- 
fere with the discharge or loading of cargo, 
this request shall be granted. 

(d) The Company recognizes that cargo 
work outside the Port of Vancouver is 
seamen's work and they shall receive first 
call for all cargo work to be done. The 
present company practice in coastal ports 
shall remain in effect. 

Article 3 — Section 1 — Wages 

An increase of wages across the board 
as follows: 

Effective September 1st, 1960, $5.00 per 
month; Effective June 15th, 1961, $8.00 per 
month; Effective January 1st, 1962, $10.50 
per month; Effective September 1st, 1962, 
Increase welfare fund contribution to .30c 
per payroll day. 

Article 6 — Section 1 — Clause (d) New clause 

During the life of this agreement the 

parties herein shall endeavour to formulate 

a practical and satisfactory work schedule 



800 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



for members of the Steward's Department 
employed on passenger ships. 

Termination clause 

This agreement is effective September 1, 
1960 and shall remain in effect until Feb- 
ruary 26th, 1963 and thereafter from year 
to year subject to sixty (60) days' notice 
in writing of its desire to revise, amend, or 
terminate same. Such notice may be given 
any time after January 1st, 1963. 

Dated at Vancouver, B.C. this 7th day 
of June A.D. 1961. 

Respectfully submitted 

(Sgd.) W. E. Philpott, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) S. B. Whitelock, 

Member. 

MINORITY REPORT 

This was a Board of Conciliation and 
Investigation which was appointed under 
the Provisions of the Industrial Relations 
and Disputes Act, to endeavour to bring 
about agreement between the parties to 
the said dispute and to find terms for a 
collective agreement which the parties will 
accept, and to report to the Honourable 
Minister of Labour, pursuant to the pro- 
visions of Section 17 of the Industrial 
Relations and Disputes Act. 

Messrs. Norman Cunningham and Cap- 
tain H. J. C. Terry appeared for the 
employer. Mr. Rod Heinekey appeared for 
the bargaining agent. 

The parties agreed that the Board had 
been properly constituted and had jurisdic- 
tion to make recommendations in relation 
to the matter in dispute. 

The Board met with the parties on the 
following dates: April 25th, May 1st, May 
2nd, May 4th, May 15th, May 16th, May 
19th, May 23rd, May 26th, May 29th, and 
June 2nd, 1961. 

The following points in dispute were 
agreed to by the parties tentatively, it being 
made clear by the employer's representative 
that in the absence of an agreement cover- 
ing all matters in dispute, that the con- 
cessions tentatively agreed to by the em- 
ployer were withdrawn. 

Grievance Procedure — Article 1 — Section 
4. 

Seniority & Promotion — Article 1 — Sec- 
tion 8. 

Sailing Board Time — Article 1 — Section 
12. 

Crew Equipment — Section 18. 

Manning Scale — Canadian Prince Winter 
Months. 

Annual Vacation — Article 2 — Section 1. 



Statutory Holidays — Article 2 — Section 2. 
Coffee Time — Article 2 — Section 6. 
Overtime — Article 2 — Section 10. 
Article 2 — Section 11. 
Weekly Leave — Article 2 — Section 11. 
Working Cargo — Article 2 — Section 12. 

The principal matters in dispute, namely 
wage increases and working schedule for 
stewards on passenger ships were not agreed 
upon, consequently the efforts of the Con- 
ciliation Board appear to have failed, with 
less prospect of a settlement now than at 
the start of these proceedings. 

All this could have been avoided had 
the Union been willing to negotiate in 
good faith, which they failed to do. As 
proof of this statement I wish to point out 
that a settlement was so close that the one 
remaining matter in dispute was left to 
the Board to decide, the Union and the 
Employer each agreeing to accept our deci- 
sion. To the surprise and disgust of Chair- 
man Philpott and the writer, and I believe 
Mr. Whitelock also, we were informed by 
the Union's nominee, Mr. Whitelock, that 
the Union's representative, Mr. Rod Heine- 
key had instructed him, before the parties 
left the room, not to agree with the other 
members of the Board if their decision 
meant less for the Union than he had just 
demanded. 

While the Board would have gladly 
recommended that the difference be split 
50-50, which had been proposed and which 
would have brought an end to the dispute, 
their hands were tied by the actions of the 
Union in repudiating its promise and 
thereby preventing their nominee from 
performing his duties as an unfettered mem- 
ber of the Board — This is just one exam- 
ple of many where the Union's nominee 
was prevented from using his own judgment 
unhampered. 

Briefs 

The Brief submitted to the Board by 
the employer gave detailed information as 
to the individual earnings, as well as the 
average earnings of the employee members 
of the Union. This with employment con- 
ditions gave sufficient information to enable 
the Board to appreciate the employer's 
unwillingness to grant wage increases to 
unlicensed personnel who were now being 
paid more than some of the ship's officers. 

The statement covering earnings sub- 
mitted by the employer, and which was 
acknowledged by the Union as correct, con- 
tained the following information: 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 196 1 



801 



Monthly Earnings 

Average monthly earnings for 8 
hours per day (straight time) 
five day week $ 342.00 

Average monthly overtime earn- 
ings during entire year 1960 .... 148.00 



Average monthly cash earnings 

during 1960 $ 490.00 

In addition the Employer fur- 
nished board, linen and other 
essentials (free of charge) but 
at a cost to the Employer per 
month of 86.00 

Making the average cost to the 

Company per month of $ 576.00 

Average Yearly Earnings 
Average yearly earnings, wages (8 

hr. day, 5 day week) 4,104.00 

Average yearly overtime (1960) 1,776.00 

Average cash earnings for 1960 
for unlicensed personnel $5,880.00 

Plus cost of Board, linen, etc. 
supplied by the Company with- 
out cost to employees 1,041.00 

Total remuneration per man for 

12 months 1960 $6,921.00 



These figures covering earnings of the 
Union Members (unlicensed personnel) 
were not disputed by the Union but 
admitted they were correct, at the same 
time their brief was complaining that wages 
were so depressed that their present earn- 
ings were equivalent to subsidizing the 
Employer's operations. 

Genesis of Dispute 

The employer's troubles began with the 
compulsory signing of the 1958 agreement 
which expired some nine months ago. The 
methods employed by the Union in con- 
junction with a competitor, The Union 
Steamships Ltd., who was depending upon 
federal government subsidies to cover its 
losses, left this employer no option but 
to accept, or lose his business. When the 
expected subsidies failed to materialize the 
losses incurred through the agreement they 
had signed with this same bargaining agent 
less than a year before, forced them into 
liquidation, leaving all of its employees 
upon the labor market. 

This 1958 agreement gave the unlicensed 
personnel the equivalent of nearly 40 per- 
cent in their basic wage, also gave them 
a penalty of $1.00 per hour during their 



watch while performing the principal task 
they were engaged for. It made the handling 
of cargo either a penalty or overtime work 
and gave them a monopoly of both on 
every point of call except Prince Rupert. 

It made compulsory the carrying of an 
unreasonable number of stewards during 
the fall and winter months when passenger 
traffic is reduced by as much as fifty per- 
cent. Although this contract expired last 
Sept., two months before the slack passen- 
ger traffic begins the Union continuously 
refused to allow any change in the manning 
scale all winter, when a saving in operating 
cost of at least $20,000 could have been 
effected with no extra duties imposed or 
loss of earnings to those retained during 
this period. 

And now in the face of all this indiffer- 
ence and absence of co-operation on their 
part, they seek to add additional expense 
to the Company through a so-called "Work 
Schedule" for the stewards. This innocent 
looking demand on a run like the B.C. 
Coast where calls are numerous, is the key 
to the overtime paradise which the Union 
wishes to achieve for the stewards as it 
has for the AB, quartermaster, winchmen 
and is but another example of the impos- 
sibility of obtaining anything approaching 
a reasonable workable agreement. 

The Board Report 

This report signed by Chairman Philpott, 
and member Whitelock, does not represent 
the opinion of either of them as to the 
equity of the parties in dispute. The Chair- 
man stated time after time that the Union 
was not entitled to any increase whatever, 
that their earnings exceeded any similar 
class either ashore or afloat, and that the 
Company should never have offered them 
the same percentage of increase they gave 
to the licensed personnel, such as Cap- 
tains, Mates and Engineers. Member White- 
lock agreed that the Company's offer was 
very generous, but? 

The Report was prepared by the Chair- 
man without my knowledge or consultation, 
although I had been waiting ten days for 
the promised meeting to help prepare it, 
as nothing definite had been decided upon 
during previous discussions. When receiv- 
ing a copy of the report on the 14th the 
Chairman advised that he had prepared 
two or more reports as the first ones could 
not be approved by Member Whitelock, 
so it would appear that this Report of the 
Board is nothing more than a report of 
the Union nominee with the reluctant signa- 
ture of the Chairman attached for appear- 
ances only. If this is a fair example of the 
accomplishments of a Conciliation Board, 



802 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



it is the writer's opinion, and not his 
alone, that this farce should be discon- 
tinued and the cost of such put to better 
use, which would not be hard to do. 

Minority Recommendation 

I agree with Chairman Philpott that no 
increase should have been offered the Union 
at this time. The increase of slightly less 
than 7 per cent granted the licensed per- 
sonnel over a two year period was by way 
of an adjustment covering their agreement 
of 1958 which provided much less than 
the increases gained by the unlicensed 
personnel (the S.I.U.) covering the same 
period. Further it was the original request 
of the employer that the 1958 agreement 
be continued until Sept. 1st of the present 
year without change, but instead of accept- 
ing it the Union demanded a 10 per cent 
increase in wages and overtime for a one 
year period which would be equivalent to 
about 14 per cent in wages only against 
less than 7 per cent granted the Licensed 
personnel over a two year period. 



It is of urgent concern to the employer 
that the ill feeling which had been building 
up between the licensed and unlicensed per- 
sonnel, generated by the abnormal in- 
creases gained by the latter, be brought to 
a halt. Nothing like this occurred until this 
irresponsible Union strong armed itself into 
the employer's organization. The present 
situation calls for prompt and definite action 
from those who have the authority to act. 
Too much time and money has been wasted 
already. 

So I recommend a continuation of the 
present agreement without change until 
Sept. 1, 1961, when a new agreement should 
be negotiated, one which properly recog- 
nized all classifications and conditions. Such 
an agreement would produce co-operation 
and harmony which after all is the best and 
shortest road to prosperity. 

Dated at Vancouver, B.C. this 13th day 
of June A.D. 1961. 

Respectfully submitted 
(Sgd.) E. B. Clark, 
Member. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Hamilton Shipping Company Limited, Yorkwood Shipping & 

Trading Company Limited, and the Hamilton operations of 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company Limited, Cullen Stevedoring 

Company Limited, Caledon Terminals Limited and Pittston 

Stevedoring Corporation of Canada 

and 

International Longshoremen's Association 



The Conciliation Board, Mr. W. J. Whit- 
taker, company nominee, Mr. Drummond 
Wren, union nominee and Mr. R. G. Geddes, 
chairman, met with the representatives of 
the parties. 

Present for the companies were: 



Mr. A. J. Clarke 
Mr. W. Cochrane 
Mr. H. Cullen 
Mr. G. J. Harfoot 
Mr. B. J. B. Tice 
Mr. R. Wright 
Mr. J. Lees 
Mr. D. H. Brown 



Counsel 

Committee 

Committee 

Committee 

Committee 

Committee 

Committee 

Observer 



Present for the union were: 



Mr. B. J. Doherty 
Mr. P. J. Campbell 
Mr. A. Ridout 
Mr. G. Fortman 
Mr. T. Richard 
Mr. H. Saunders 



International Rep. 

Committee 

Committee 

Committee 

Observer 

Observer 



After several meetings with various com- 
binations of the aforementioned representa- 
tives concerning the Hamilton dispute and 
after a number of executive meetings and 
after meeting frequently with the Hamilton 



During June, the Minister of Labour 
received the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with a dispute between Hamilton Ship- 
ping Company Ltd., Yorkwood Shipping & 
Trading Co. Ltd. and the Hamilton opera- 
tions of Eastern Canada Stevedoring Co. 
Ltd., Cullen Stevedoring Co. Ltd., Caledon 
Terminals Ltd. and Pittston Stevedoring 
Corp. of Canada and Local 1654 of the 
International Longshoremen's Association. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of R. G. Geddes, Toronto, Ont. He was 
appointed by the Minister on the joint 
recommendation of the other two members 
W. J. Whittaker, Toronto, and Drummond 
Wren, Agincourt, nominees of the com- 
panies and union, respectively. 

The Report is reproduced here. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



representatives together with the represen- 
tatives of the Toronto stevedoring com- 
panies and unions a Memorandum of 
Terms of Settlement was signed setting out 
the terms upon which collective agreements 
were to be signed. 

Representatives of the companies and the 
unions then met together and agreed upon 
the language and details of the Hamilton 
agreement. 

A draft collective agreement incorporat- 
ing all terms agreed upon is attached to 
this report. The conciliation board recom- 
mends that the parties sign an agreement 
incorporating these terms. 

Memorandum of Agreement 

Article I — Purpose 

1.01 The general purpose of this agree- 
ment is to establish mutually satisfactory 
relations between the Companies and their 
employees and to provide machinery for 
the prompt disposition of grievances and 
to establish satisfactory working conditions, 
hours of work and wages for all employees 
who are subject to the provisions of this 
agreement. 

Article II — Recognition 

2.01 The Companies recognize the Union 
as the exclusive bargaining agent of all their 
employees employed at the Port of Hamil- 
ton classified as gang foremen, sub fore- 
men, shed foremen, hatchmen, winchmen, 
cooper, stevedore, towmotor operator, crane 
operator, stevedores handling freight in 
sheds, checkers and gearmen, excluding 
superintendents, walking bosses, head check- 
er, manifest clerks, guards and watchmen 
acting as guards. 

2.02 It is agreed that for all work that 
the Companies are instructed to perform 
including the sweeping of holds, cleaning of 
ballast tanks, lining of ships, opening and 
closing of hatches, shall be done by mem- 
bers of the Union except only in the case 
of hatch covers of a special type. 

2.03 The Companies agree that they will 
not discriminate against any employee by 
reason of his Union activities, however, it 
is understood and agreed that foremen will 
not be appointed or selected to act as 
members of the grievance committee and if 
they are, then the Company employing such 
foremen shall have the right to displace 
them as foremen. 

Article III — Relationship 

3.01 At the opening of each operating 
season, or at any other time should it 
become necessary, the Companies as a 
group, shall discuss with the Union the 
number of gangs (herein referred to as 



Regular Gangs) and at that time shall 
name a person, from among the Union 
membership, who shall be the foreman of 
each gang. 

3.02 The Companies agree that every 
foreman named by them shall be a member 
of the Union. 

3.03 Foremen shall be paid twenty cents 
per hour in excess of the established wage 
scale rates for longshoremen. 

3.04 Each foreman of a Regular Gang 
shall select the normal complement of his 
gang, from among the Union membership, 
and at all times will be responsible for his 
gang and have the men available for work 
when called. 

3.05 Each Company shall inform the 
Union according to the provisions of this 
agreement as to the number of gangs 
required by it from time to time. So that 
Union members will get preference, the 
Union shall despatch the regular gangs 
according to requirements of the Com- 
panies, and such gangs shall be rotated 
in accordance with their total weekly earn- 
ings. 

3.06 If all available regular gangs are 
working then the Union may despatch 
another gang or gangs (herein called Irre- 
gular Gangs) but the Company affected 
shall have the right to name the foreman 
of such gangs. 

3.07 If the Union fails to provide the 
number of gangs ordered for work then 
the Companies shall have the right to hire 
such gangs directly (herein called Non- 
Union Gangs). However, there shall be 
no abuse of this provision by either party 
and where either party claims there is an 
abuse, a meeting shall be held immediately 
to correct any abuse that may exist. 

3.08 When at any time gangs are short 
of the number of men required, the Com- 
pany affected shall select additional men 
from among Union members not working. 
If no Union members are available then the 
gang will be brought to full strength with 
Non-Union men. 

3.09 In the event that a foreman is dis- 
charged, or quits, or is not available for 
work, then the Company shall name a new 
foreman in his place who on becoming a 
foreman of a regular gang shall have the 
right of selection set forth in paragraph 
3.04 and subject to the provision of para- 
graph 3.10. 

3.10 Once a man has been assigned to 
a gang, he will not transfer to any other 
gang, except as may be required for the 
purpose of forming additional gangs as 
under paragraphs 3.06 and 3.07, without 
the consent of his foreman and will not be 
removed from the gang without just cause. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



3.11 When ordering gangs the Companies 
shall have the right to name the gangs 
desired where the type of operation requires 
special experience and the gangs so named 
shall be supplied if they are available and 
willing to work. 

3.12 It is understood and agreed that 
where non-union employees are engaged by 
any Company, such non-union employees, 
will be put to work on those operations 
where it is expected the least number of 
man hours of work are involved. Regular 
gangs shall not be laid off by a Company 
so long as that Company is employing either 
irregular or non-union gangs and union 
men employed on irregular or non-union 
gangs shall, if laid off, revert to their 
regular gangs (if working) after their 
regular gang has completed two hours 
work. 

Article IV — Gang sizes 

4.01 Each Company shall have the sole 
right to decide how the men in the gang 
are to be distributed and shall also have the 
sole right to work with falls together or 
with any other practical and safe method 
of loading or unloading ships. 

4.02 A minimum longshore gang em- 
ployed on general merchandise cargo shall 
consist of fourteen men including the fore- 
man with not less than eight men in the 
hold, provided that when cargo is sorted 
or piled in the shed or on an open dock, 
then men from the hold which is being dis- 
charged may be used in the shed or upon 
the dock to sort or pile the cargo being 
unloaded by their own gang when such 
sorting or piling on the dock or in the shed 
is performed as provided for above, it is 
understood no greater work load or burden 
shall be placed on those of the gang re- 
maining in the hold. 

4.03 When general merchandise cargo is 
not involved or when loading or unloading 
lake or coasting vessels, the number of men 
that shall constitute a gang shall be deter- 
mined by the Companies but in each case 
shall not be less than eight. 

Article V — Hours of service and wage rates 

5.01 For the purpose of this agreement, 
the work periods shall be as follows: 

From 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon 
From 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 
From 6.00 p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 
From 12.00 midnight to 5.00 a.m. 

5.02 It is agreed that work will normally 
terminate at 10.00 p.m. but that at the 
Companies' request, work shall continue 
to as late as 12.00 midnight when the 
Companies consider it to be necessary in 
order to complete the loading or unloading 
of a vessel. 



5.03 Except for work on bulk or homo- 
geneous cargos where, by the terms of the 
charter party it is necessary for a vessel to 
be worked continuously to a finish, all 
work is to cease at midnight except during 
the last two weeks of the navigation season 
when, because of weather conditions, it may 
be necessary to work vessels day and night 
to clear them from the lakes. 

5.04 During the term of this agreement, 
the Companies and the Union agree that all 
payments of wages will be made in accord- 
ance with the wage rates set forth in 
Schedule A hereto which is hereby made a 
part of this agreement. 

5.05 Meal hours: 

Meal hours shall be as follows: 
From 5.00 a.m. to 8.00 a.m. 
From 12.00 p.m. to 1.00 p.m. 
From 5.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. 
From 11.00 p.m. to 12.00 midnight 

Employees required to work through any 
meal hour shall be paid at double the basic 
rate and thereafter for all time so worked 
until relieved for meals. Employees must 
work through the meal hour when and as 
ordered by the Companies. 

5.06 The rate of pay for handling nitrate, 
bulk sulphur, bulk-ore, potash, lamp-black 
or carbon-black, cement in bags, wet or 
dry hides, lime in bags or on the cleaning 
of holds in which the above commodities 
were stored or on the cleaning of oil tanks 
shall be increased by fifteen cents per hour 
or part thereof worked. This premium shall 
not be pyramided in overtime rates but is 
a flat fifteen cents for each hour or part 
thereof worked. It is understood that the 
foregoing shall only apply when the volume 
of any one commodity above listed exceeds 
twenty-five long tons in any one hold or 
hatch. 

5.07 Double the basic rate to be paid for 
work on ships in port with cargos on fire. 
This only applies to hatches affected by 
fire, smoke, steam or gas. If any cargo 
in any hatch is submerged in water, double 
time will also be paid for handling such 
cargo. 

5.08 The rate of pay for all hours worked 
on New Year's Day, Good Friday, Victoria 
Day, Dominion Day, Civic Holiday, Labour 
Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas 
Day or where any of the above named days 
falls on a Sunday then on the day pro- 
claimed by the Dominion Government for 
the celebration of such holiday shall be 
double the basic rate, provided that no 
work shall be performed on Labour Day 
except for passenger's baggage and mail. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1967 

98232-2—5 



5.09 Four percent of total earnings shall 
be paid to employees as vacation pay, such 
payment to be made at the close of the 
navigating season but not later than Decem- 
ber 20th in any year. No employee shall 
take his vacation during the navigating 
season. Earnings for the purpose of this 
clause shall not include pension and welfare 
payments. 

5.10 When men or gangs have worked 
past the hour they shall be paid for the 
quarter hour, and if past the uqarter hour 
they shall be paid for the half hour, and if 
past the half hour they shall be paid for 
the three quarter hour, and if past the three 
quarter they shall be paid for the full hour. 

Effective April 1st, 1962, the Companies 
agree to pay the sum of eleven cents per 
man hour worked to a fund to be established 
for the purpose of providing welfare and/or 
pension benefits. 

Article VI — Call hours 

6.01 Call hours shall be 8.00 a.m., 1.00 
p.m., 6.00 p.m. and 12.00 midnight. Orders 
for the above call hours shall be placed 
not later than 4.00 p.m. the day before for 
the 8.00 a.m. call; 11.00 a.m. for the 1.00 
p.m. call and 4.00 p.m. for the 6.00 p.m. 
call. All orders when placed shall not be 
subject to cancellation. 

6.02 All orders for Sunday work, day or 
overtime must be placed with the Union 
office not later than 4.00 p.m. the day 
before (i.e. Saturday). If Monday is a 
holiday, then all orders for day or overtime 
work for such day must be placed with the 
Union office not later than 4.00 p.m. the 
day before (i.e. Sunday). On any holiday, 
all orders for day or overtime work must 
be placed with the Union office not later 
than 4.00 p.m. the day before. 

6.03 The Union office will be opened 
for one hour from 3.00 p.m. to 4.00 p.m. 
on Sundays and holidays for the purpose 
of receiving orders. 

6.04 A minimum of two hours at the 
prevailing rate shall be paid to any em- 
ployee started to work provided that if 
work is stopped during such two hour 
period due to weather conditions, then the 
Company may require the employee to 
stand by for the remainder of the two 
hour period. 

6.05 If an employee reports for work 
pursuant to a call or an order back to work 
but the Company does not start him to 
work due to weather conditions, then he 
shall be paid for two hours at the prevailing 
rate and at the Company's request, shall 
stand by for the said two hours. 



6.06 If an employee reports for work 
pursuant to a call or an order back to 
work and the Company fails to supply him 
with work, he shall be paid a minimum of 
two hours at the prevailing rate and at the 
Company's request shall stand by for the 
said two hours. 

6.07 Any employee who refuses to stand 
by or who refuses to start to work while 
standing by shall not be paid the standby 
pay provided for in clauses 6.04, 6.05 and 
6.06. 

6.08 The Companies shall be the sole 
judge of weather conditions and in each 
case shall determine whether work shall 
commence, shall continue or shall be halted. 
The Companies shall not unreasonably 
require work to be done in inclement 
weather. 

6.09 If a gang despatched by the Union 
is not complete when reporting for work, 
then the Company need not start them to 
work and pay shall start only when such 
gang has been brought to full complement 
or when the gang proceeds to work, which- 
ever first occurs. However, union men 
forming part of non-union gangs shall be 
paid if they report for work pursuant to 
a call. 

Article VII — General 

7.01 The Companies agree that any new 
stevedoring operation undertaken by them 
or any subsidiary of them in the Port of 
Hamilton, involving the handling of cargo 
or freight shall be governed by the provi- 
sions of this agreement, however the special 
rates to be paid for off season operations 
shall be negotiated with the Union. 

7.02 Hatch beams must be taken off or 
bolted or properly secured when men are 
working in the hold. 

7.03 When a hatch tender cannot be seen, 
an extra man shall be employed at the 
discretion of the Company to give signals. 

7.04 All orders to the men must be 
issued through their foreman, who in turn 
shall be subject to orders from the Com- 
pany's superintendent or his representative. 

7.05 When working in deep tanks an 
additional man may be employed to give 
signals in order to steady the sling load 
if deemed necessary by the Company. 

7.06 Where it appears necessary to the 
Company, two men shall assist crane oper- 
ators in the handling of cargo. 

7.07 Pay day shall be as follows: between 
11.30 a.m. and 1.00 p.m. each Friday, if 
a holiday falls on a Friday, pay day shall 
be the preceding day at the above stated 
times. The parties agree to discuss a satis- 
factory method of distributing pay. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 196 J 



7.08 It is recognized that the work of 
opening and closing hatches is to be per- 
formed by employees under the provisions 
of this agreement. In the event that hatches 
other than mechanical type hatches are 
opened by persons other than employees 
covered by this agreement, then the gang 
effected shall commence work and shall 
be paid a sum equivalent to fifteen minutes 
at the prevailing rate. 

7.09 It is agreed that the men shall have 
one night free each month to attend their 
regular monthly union meeting. At least 
three days advance notice in writing must 
be given by the union to the Companies 
of the date of such meeting. Arrangements 
for special meetings to be agreed upon 
between the parties. 

Article VIII — Grievances 

8.01 The Companies acknowledge the 
right of the Union to appoint or otherwise 
select a business agent and the Companies 
agree to recognize him for the following 
purposes only: 

(a) In the despatching of employees pur- 
suant to calls made by the Com- 
panies. 

(b) For the processing of grievances 
which have reached Stage No. 3 of 
the grievance procedure. 

8.02 It is understood that the business 
agent may be involved in the general admin- 
istration of the agreement insofar as the 
Union is concerned but the Companies 
are under no obligation to recognize him 
or deal with him save as aforesaid. Nothing 
herein shall give the business agent the 
right to enter the property of the Com- 
panies, to be on board vessels or to inter- 
view employees during working hours to 
discuss grievances or working methods. 

8.03 The Companies acknowledge the 
right of the Union to appoint or otherwise 
select from among the members of the 
bargaining unit other than foremen, a Griev- 
ance Committee to consist of not more than 
seven persons. Upon being advised in writ- 
ing of the names of members of the Griev- 
ance Committee and the Chairman thereof, 
the Companies agree to recognize and 
deal with the Committee on all grievances 
properly arising out of this agreement. 

8.04 No grievance shall be considered 
where the circumstances giving rise to it 
occurred or originated more than three full 
working days before the filing of the griev- 
ance. 

8.05 Grievances properly arising under 
this agreement shall be adjusted and settled 
as follows: 

Stage No. I — The aggrieved employee, 
accompanied by his Grievance Committee 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7961 
98232-2— 5h 



member shall present the grievance orally 
to the foreman concerned in the presence 
of the walking boss. The Company may 
continue the practice or working method 
giving rise to the grievance while the griev- 
ance is being processed. The grievor and 
his committeeman may leave their work to 
process a grievance provided they first 
obtain the permission of their foreman, 
and permission may be withheld until other 
arrangements have been made if their 
absence would seriously hamper operations 
of a gang. If a satisfactory settlement is 
not reached then within three working days, 
the grievance may be presented as follows. 

Stage No. 2 — The aggrieved employee, 
accompanied by the Chairman of the Griev- 
ance Committee and by not more than 
one member thereof may present his griev- 
ance which shall be in writing on the 
prescribed form and signed by the aggrieved 
employee, to the manager of operations of 
the Company involved who shall consider 
same and render a decision in writing on 
or attached to the form. Should no settle- 
ment satisfactory to the employee be reached 
within two working days, the next stage 
may be taken at any time within two 
working days hereafter. 

Stage No. 3 — The aggrieved employee 
accompanied by the Chairman of the Griev- 
ance Committee and not more than one 
member thereof together with the Union 
business agent, if his presence is requested 
by either of the parties, shall meet with 
representatives of the Company involved 
(representatives of other Companies may 
be present at this stage) in an endeavour 
to settle the grievance. The Companies 
reply at this stage shall be in writing. 

Stage No. 4 — If a satisfactory settlement 
is not reached within three working days 
then at any time within ten days of the 
meeting at Stage 3 and if the grievance 
concerns the interpretation, administration, 
application or alleged violation of the 
agreement, the grievance may, at the re- 
quest of either of the parties be referred 
to a Board of Arbitration composed of one 
person appointed by the Company, one 
person appointed by the Union and a third 
person to act as Chairman chosen by the 
other two members of the Board. If the 
two appointees are unable to agree on a 
Chairman, the Minister of Labour of the 
Dominion of Canada will be requested to 
appoint a person to act as Chairman. 

8.06 The majority decision of a Board 
of Arbitration chosen or appointed in the 
above manner or failing a majority deci- 
sion then the decision of the Chairman 
shall be binding on both parties. 



807 



8.07 The Board of Arbitration shall not 
have any power to alter or change any of 
the provisions of this agreement or to sub- 
stitute any new provisions for any existing 
provisions nor to give any decision incon- 
sistent with the terms and provisions of 
this agreement. 

8.08 Each of the parties will bear the 
expenses of the arbitrator appointed by it, 
and the parties will jointly bear the ex- 
penses of the Chairman. 

8.09 Nothing in this agreement shall be 
interpreted as allowing any member of 
the Grievance Committee or any Union 
official to give orders to the men in con- 
nection with their work and no rules, regu- 
lations or resolutions shall be passed by 
either the Companies or the Union which 
are inconsistent with the provisions of this 
agreement. 

8.10 Charges against an employee result- 
ing in dismissal may be settled by confirm- 
ing the Company's action, or by restoring 
the employee to his former position with 
full compensation for all time lost or by 
any other arrangement which is just and 
equitable. 

8.11 The Union agrees that it will not 
uphold incompetence, shirking of work, 
pilfering or broaching of cargo, drinking 
of alcoholic beverages on the job or report- 
ing for work under the influence of alcohol. 
An employee may be discharged or other- 
wise dealt with as the Companies see fit 
for committing any of the above offences 
or for any other just cause but a claim by 
an employee that he has been discharged 
or disciplined without reasonable cause 
may be the subject of a grievance. 

8.12 The Companies' rules with regard to 
smoking on ships or in sheds shall be 
observed at all times. 

8.13 In view of the orderly arrangements 
provided by this agreement for the settling 
of disputes, the Union agrees that during 
the lifetime of this agreement there shall 
be no strikes, slowdown or stoppage of 
work either complete or partial, and the 
Companies agree that there will be no 
lockout. 

Article IX — Termination 

9.01 This agreement shall come into force 
as of the date hereof and shall remain in 
force to and including the 31st day of 
March, 1963 and shall continue in force 
from year to year thereafter, unless within 
the period of sixty days prior to December 
1st, 1962 or prior to December 1st in any 
year thereafter, either party shall furnish 
the other with notice of termination of or 
proposed revision of this agreement. In the 
event such notice is given, this agreement 



shall continue in full force and effect during 
the period in which negotiations are in 
progress. 

In Witness Whereof each of the parties 
hereto has caused this agreement to be 
signed by its duly authorized representa- 
tives as of the date and year first above 
written. 

SCHEDULE "A" 

Wage Scale Effective on signing of 
agreement 

1. The basic hourly rate of $2.10 shall 
be paid for all hours worked during the 
following times 

(a) Monday to Friday inclusive 8.00 a.m. 
to 12.00 noon and 1.00 p.m. to 
5 p.m. 

(b) Saturday 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon. 

2. Time and one-half the basic hourly 
rate (i.e. $3.15) shall be paid for all hours 
worked during the following times 

(a) Saturday 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 

(b) Monday to Saturday inclusive 6.00 
p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 

(c) Monday to Saturday inclusive 12.00 
midnight to 5.00 a.m. 

3. Double the basic hourly rate (i.e. 
$4.20) shall be paid for all hours worked on 
Sunday (i.e. 12.01 a.m. Sunday to 12.01 
a.m. Monday). 

Wage Scale Effective April 1st, 1962 

1. The basic hourly rate of $2.16 shall 
be paid for all hours worked during the 
following times 

(a) Monday to Friday inclusive 8.00 a.m. 
to 12.00 noon and 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 
p.m. 

(b) Saturday 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon. 

2. Time and one-half the basic hourly 
rate (i.e. $3.24) shall be paid for all hours 
worked during the following times 

(a) Saturday 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 

(b) Monday to Saturday inclusive 6.00 
p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 

(c) Monday to Saturday inclusive 12.00 
midnight to 5.00 a.m. 

3. Double the basic hourly rate (i.e. 
$4.32) shall be paid for all hours worked 
on Sunday (i.e. 12.01 a.m. Sunday to 12.01 
a.m. Monday). 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

(Sgd.) R. G. Geddes, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) W. J. Whittaker, 

Member. 
(Sgd.) Drummond Wren, 

Member. 

Toronto, Ontario, June 6, 1961. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

Eastern Canada Stevedoring Company Limited, Cullen 

Stevedoring Company Limited, Caledon Terminals Limited, and 

Pittston Stevedoring Corporation of Canada 

and 

International Longshoremen's Association 



Following the return of the conciliation 
board's report to the Chairman from the 
Department of Labour, the board met 
frequently with Representatives of all of 
the companies, representatives of the local 
unions, officers of the International Union, 
officials of the Shipping Federation, and 
various observers. 

Negotiations were conducted concerning 
the Toronto disputes and the Hamilton 
dispute and the conciliation board met in 
executive session several times about all 
three disputes. 

On May 3, 1961 a Memorandum of 
Terms of Settlement was signed establish- 
ing the terms upon which collective agree- 
ments were to be signed. 

Representatives of the companies and 
Local 1869 then met together and agreed 
upon the language and terms of the checkers 
agreement. 

Draft collective agreements covering the 
members of both Local 1842 and 1869 and 
incorporating all terms agreed upon are 
attached to this Report. The conciliation 
board recommends that the parties sign 
agreements incorporating these terms. 

MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT 

Article I — Purpose 

1.01 The general purpose of this agree- 
ment is to establish mutually satisfactory 
relations between the Companies and their 
employees and to provide machinery for 
the prompt disposition of grievances and 
to establish satisfactory working condi- 
tions, hours of work and wages for all 
employees who are subject to the provisions 
of this agreement. 

1.02 This agreement shall apply only to 
employees while engaged in the handling of 
cargo discharged from or loaded on vessels 
at the Port of Toronto during the naviga- 
tion season. 

Article II — Recognition 

2.01 The Companies recognize the Union 
as the exclusive bargaining agent of all 
their employees employed at the Port of 
Toronto, Ontario, classified as gang fore- 
men, sub foremen, hatchmen, winchmen, 



cooper, stevedore, towmotor operator, crane 
operator, stevedores handling freight in 
sheds and gearmen excluding superintend- 
ents, walking bosses, manifest clerks, guards 
and watchmen acting as guards. 

2.02 It is agreed that for all work that 
the Companies are instructed to perform 
including the sweeping of holds, cleaning 
of ballast tanks, lining of ships, opening 
and closing of hatches shall be done by 
members of the Union, except only in 
the case of hatch covers of a special type. 

2.03 The Companies agree that they will 
not discriminate against any employee by 
reason of his Union activities. 

Article III — Relationship 

3.01 At the opening of each operating 
season, or at any other time should it 
become necessary, the Companies as a 
group, shall discuss with the Union the 
number of gangs (herein referred to as 
Regular Gangs) expected to be necessary 
to handle the normal operations during 
the season, and at that time shall name a 
person, from among the Union membership, 
who shall be the foreman of each gang. 

3.02 The Companies agree that every 
foreman named by them shall be a member 
of the Union. 

3.03 Foremen shall be paid twenty cents 
per hour in excess of the established wage 
scale rates for longshoremen. 

3.04 Each foreman of a Regular Gang 
shall select the normal complement of his 
gang, from among the Union membership, 



During June, the Minister of Labour 
received the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to deal 
with a dispute between Eastern Canada 
Stevedoring Co. Ltd., Cullen Stevedoring 
Co. Ltd., Caledon Terminals Ltd., and Pitts- 
ton Stevedoring Corp. of Canada and Locals 
1869 and 1842 of the International Long- 
shoremen's Association. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of R. G. Geddes, Toronto, Ont. He was 
appointed by the Minister on the joint 
recommendation of the other two members 
W. J. Whittaker, Toronto, and Drummond 
Wren, Agincourt, nominees of the companies 
and union, respectively. 

The Report is reproduced here. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



809 



and at all times will be responsible for his 
gang and have the men available for work 
when called. 

3.05 Each Company shall inform the 
Union according to the provisions of this 
agreement as to the number of gangs 
required at any call period by it from time 
to time. So that Union members will get 
preference, the Union shall despatch the 
regular gangs according to the requirements 
of the Companies, and such gangs shall be 
rotated by the Companies in accordance 
with their total weekly earnings. 

3.06 If all available regular gangs are 
working then the Union may despatch 
another gang or gangs (herein called Irre- 
gular Gangs) but the Company affected 
shall have the right to name the foreman 
of such gangs. 

3.07 If the Union fails to provide the 
number of gangs ordered for work then 
the Companies shall have the right to hire 
such gangs directly (herein called Non- 
Union Gangs). However, there shall be no 
abuse of this provision by either party 
and where either party claims there is an 
abuse a meeting shall be held immediately 
to correct any abuse that may exist. 

3.08 When at any time gangs are short 
of the number of men required, the fore- 
men of such gangs shall select additional 
men from among Union members of gangs 
not working. If no Union members are 
available then the gang will be brought 
to full strength with non-Union men. How- 
ever, men will follow their gangs at all 
times. 

3.09 In the event that a foreman is 
discharged, or quits, or is not available for 
work, then the Company shall name a new 
foreman in his place who on becoming a 
foreman of a regular gang shall have the 
right of selection set forth in paragraph 
3.04. 

3.10 When ordering gangs the Companies 
shall have the right to name the gangs 
desired where the type of operation is a 
heavy lift which requires special experience 
and the gangs so named shall be supplied if 
they are available and willing to work. 

3.11 It is understood and agreed that 
where non-union employees are engaged 
by any Company, such non-union employees 
will be put to work on those operations 
where it is expected that the least number 
of man hours of work are involved. Regular 
gangs shall not be laid off by a company 
as long as that company is employing either 
irregular or non-union gangs and Union 
men employed on irregular or non-union 
gangs shall, if laid off revert to their 
regular gangs (if working) after their 
regular gang has completed two hours work. 



Article IV — Gang sizes 

4.01 A minimum longshore gang shall 
consist of fifteen men, including the fore- 
man and the lift truck operator, on general 
merchandise cargo with not less than eight 
men in the hold, provided that when cargo 
is sorted or piled in the shed, or on an 
open dock, then men from the hold which 
is being discharged, may be used in the 
shed or open dock to sort or pile cargo 
being unloaded by their own gang. 

4.02 When such sorting or piling on the 
dock or in the shed is performed as pro- 
vided above, it is understood no greater 
work load or burden shall be placed on 
those of the gang working in the the hold. 

4.03 When loading and unloading cargo 
other than general cargo the Companies 
shall determine the number of men in a 
gang and the distribution of the men com- 
prising the gang. 

Notwithstanding the Companies right to 
determine the number of men in a gang 
(other than gangs being used for general 
cargo) and the distribution of them, the 
longshoremen shall at no time be required 
to do an excessive amount of work or to 
work at an unreasonable pace. 

4.04 The Companies agree that they will 
not load more than 2,600 pounds on a 
6 ft. x 4 ft. pallet. 

Article V — Hours of service and wage rates 

5.01 For the purpose of this agreement, 
the work periods shall be as follows: 

From 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon. 
From 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 
From 6.00 p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 
From 12.00 midnight to 5.00 a.m. 

5.02 It is agreed that work will normally 
terminate at 10.00 p.m. but that at the 
Companies' request, work shall continue 
to as late as 12.00 midnight when the 
Companies consider it to be necessary in 
order to complete the loading or unloading 
of a vessel. 

5.03 All work is to cease at midnight 
except during the last two weeks of the 
navigation season when, because of weather 
conditions, it may be necessary to work 
vessels day and night to clear them from 
the lakes. 

5.04 Meal hours: Meal hours shall be as 
follows: 

From 5.00 a.m. to 8.00 a.m. 

From 12.00 p.m. to 1.00 p.m. 

From 5.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. 

From 11.00 p.m. to 12.00 midnight. 

Employees required to work through any 
meal hour shall be paid at double the basic 
rate and thereafter for all time so worked 
until relieved for meals. Employees must 



810 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



work through the meal hour when and as 
ordered by the Companies. 

5.05 During the term of this agreement, 
the Companies and the Union agree that 
all payments of wages will be made in 
accordance with the wage rates set forth in 
Schedule "A" hereto, which is hereby made 
a part of this agreement. 

5*06 The rate of pay for handling nitrate, 
bulk sulphur, bulk-ore, potash, lamp-black 
or carbon-black, cement in bags, wet or dry 
hides, lime in bags or on the cleaning of 
holds in which the above commodities were 
stored shall be increased by fifteen cents 
per hour or part thereof worked. This 
premium shall not be pyramided in over- 
time rates but is a flat fifteen cents for 
each hour or part thereof worked. It is 
understood that the foregoing shall only 
apply when the volume of any one com- 
modity above listed exceeds twenty-five 
long tons in any one hold or hatch. 

5.07 Double the basic rate to be paid 
for work on ships in port with cargoes on 
fire. This only applies to hatches affected 
by fire, smoke, steam or gas. If any 
cargo in any hatch is submerged in water, 
double time will also be paid for handling 
such cargo. 

5.08 The rate of pay for all hours worked 
on the following holidays or their day of 
observance shall be double the basic rates: 
New Year's Day, Good Friday, Victoria 
Day, Dominion Day, Civic Holiday, Labour 
Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas 
Day. If any of the above holidays falls on 
a Sunday it shall be observed by the Com- 
panies on the day upon which it is generally 
observed in the community. No work shall 
be performed on Labour Day except the 
handling of mail and passengers' baggage. 
If Victoria Day is observed in the com- 
munity on a day other than the 24th of 
May the day of community observance shall 
apply. 

5.09 Four percent of total earnings shall 
be paid to employees as vacation pay. Pay- 
ment to be made at the close of the navigat- 
ing season but not later than December 
20th in any year. Earnings for the purpose 
of this clause shall not include pension 
and welfare payments. 

5.10 When men or gangs have worked 
past the hour they shall be paid for the 
quarter hour, and if past the quarter hour 
they shall be paid for the half hour, and if 
past the half hour they shall be paid for 
the three-quarter hour, and if past the 
three-quarter hour they shall be paid for 
the full hour. 

5.11 The Companies agree to continue 
to contribute the sum of seven cents per 
man hour worked to a fund established for 
the purpose of providing welfare and/or 



pension benefits during the 1961 season. 
Effective April 1st, 1962 this contribution 
shall be increased to eleven cents per man 
hour worked. 

An agreement for the purpose of admin- 
istering the Welfare Fund shall be consum- 
mated by the parties on or before 

1961. If no such agreement is completed 

by , 1961, all matters not agreed 

shall be submitted to a Board of Arbitra- 
tion. The deadline date of , 1961 

may be extended only by agreement by 
both parties. 

Article VI — Call hours 

6.01 Call hours shall be 8.00 a.m., 1.00 
p.m., 6.00 p.m. and 12.00 midnight. Orders 
for the above call hours shall be placed 
not later than 4.00 p.m. the day before for 
the 8.00 a.m. call; 11.00 a.m. for the 1.00 
p.m. call and 4.00 p.m. for the 6.00 p.m. 
call. All orders when placed shall not be 
subject to cancellation 

6.02 All orders for Sunday work, day 
or overtime must be placed with the Union 
office not later than 4.00 p.m. the day 
before (i.e. Saturday). If Monday is a 
holiday, then all orders for day or overtime 
work for such day must be placed with the 
Union office not later than 4.00 p.m. the 
day before (i.e. Sunday). On any holiday, 
all orders for day or overtime work must 
be placed with the Union office not later 
than 4.00 p.m. the day before. 

6.03 The Union office will be opened for 
one hour from 3.00 p.m. to 4.00 p.m. on 
Sundays and holidays for the purpose of 
receiving orders. 

6.04 A minimum of two hours at the 
prevailing rate shall be paid to any employee 
started to work provided that if the work 
is stopped during such two hour period due 
to weather conditions, then the Company 
may require the employee to stand by for 
the remainder of the two hour period. 

6.05 If an employee reports for work 
pursuant to a call or an order back to 
work but the Company does not start him 
to work due to weather conditions, then 
he shall be paid for two hours at the pre- 
vailing rate and at the Company's request, 
shall stand by for the said two hours. 

6.06 If an employee reports for work 
pursuant to a call or an order back to work 
and the Company fails to supply him with 
work, he shall be paid a minimum of two 
hours at the prevailing rate and at the 
Company's request shall stand by for the 
said two hours. 

6.07 Any employee who refuses to stand 
by or who refuses to start to work while 
standing by shall not be paid the standing 
pay provided for in clauses 6.04, 6.05 and 
6.06. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 196? 



811 



6.08 The Companies shall not unreason- 
ably require work to be done in inclement 
weather. 

6.09 If a gang despatched by the Union 
is not complete when reporting for work, 
then the Company need not start them to 
work and pay shall start only when such 
gang has been brought to full complement 
or when the gang proceeds to work, which- 
ever first occurs. However, Union men 
forming part of non-union gangs shall be 
paid if they report for work pursuant to a 
call. 

Article VII — General 

7.01 The Companies agree that any new 
stevedoring operation undertaken by them 
or any subsidiary of them in the Port of 
Toronto involving the handling of cargo 
or freight shall be governed by the pro- 
visions of this agreement, however the 
special rates to be paid for off-season 
operations shall be negotiated with the 
Union. 

7.02 Hatch beams must be taken off or 
bolted or properly secured when men are 
working in the hold. 

7.03 When a hatch tender cannot be seen, 
an extra man shall be employed at the 
discretion of the Company to give signals. 

7.04 All orders to the men must be 
issued through their foreman, who in turn 
shall be subject to orders from the Com- 
pany's superintendent or his representative. 

7.05 When working in deep tanks an 
additional man may be employed to give 
signals in order to steady the sling load 
if deemed necessary by the Company. 

7.06 Where it appears necessary to the 
Company two men shall assist crane oper- 
ators in the handling of cargo. 

7.07 Pay day shall be as follows: between 
11.30 a.m. and 1.00 p.m. each Friday, if 
a holiday falls on a Friday, pay day shall 
be the preceding day at the above stated 
times. The parties agree to discuss a satis- 
factory method of distributing pay. 

7.08 It is recognized that the work of 
opening and closing hatches is to be per- 
formed by employees under the provisions 
of this agreement. In the event that hatches 
other than mechanical type hatches are 
opened by persons other than employees 
covered by this agreement, then the gang 
affected shall commence work and shall 
be paid a sum equivalent to fifteen minutes 
at the prevailing rate. 

7.09 It is agreed that the men shall have 
one night free each month to attend their 
regular monthly union meeting. At least 
three days advance notice in writing must 
be given by the Union to the Companies 
of the date of such meeting. Arrange- 
ments for special meetings to be agreed 
upon between the parties. 



Article VIII — Grievances 

8.01 The Companies acknowledge the 
right of the Union to appoint or otherwise 
select a business agent and the Companies 
agree to recognize him for the following 
purposes only: 

(a) In the despatching of employees 
pursuant to calls made by the Com- 
panies. 

(b) For the processing of grievances 
which have reached Stage No. 3 
of the grievance procedure. 

8.02 It is understood that the business 
agent may be involved in the general 
administration of the agreement insofar 
as the Union is concerned but the Com- 
panies are under no obligation to recog- 
nize him or deal with him save as afore- 
said. It is agreed that in the performance 
of the function set out above or otherwise 
the Business Agent shall not interfere with 
the normal progress of the work of the 
employees. 

8.03 The Companies acknowledge the 
right of the Union to appoint or otherwise 
select from among the members of the 
bargaining unit a Grievance Committee to 
consist of not more than seven persons. 
Upon being advised in writing of the names 
of members of the Grievance Committee 
and the Chairman thereof, the Companies 
agree to recognize and deal with the Com- 
mittee on all grievances properly arising out 
of this agreement. 

8.04 No grievance shall be considered 
where the circumstances giving rise to it 
occurred or originated more than three full 
working days before the filing of the 
grievance. 

8.05 Grievances properly arising under 
this agreement shall be adjusted and settled 
as follows: 

Stage No. 1 — The aggrieved employee, 
accompanied by his Grievance Committee 
member shall present the grievance orally 
to the foreman concerned in the presence 
of the walking boss. The Company may 
continue the practice or working method 
giving rise to the grievance while the 
grievance is being processed. The grievor 
and his committeeman may leave their 
work to process a grievance provided they 
first obtain the permission of their respec- 
tive foreman, and permission may be with- 
held until other arrangements have been 
made if their absence would seriously ham- 
per operations of a gang or gangs. If a 
satisfactory settlement is not reached then 
within three working days, the grievance 
may be presented as follows. 

Stage No. 2 — The aggrieved employee, 
accompanied by the Chairman of the Griev- 
ance Committee and by not more than one 



812 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7961 



member thereof may present his grievance 
which shall be in writing on the prescribed 
form and signed by the aggrieved employee, 
to the manager of operations of the Com- 
pany involved who shall consider same 
and render a decision in writing on or 
attached to the form. Should no settlement 
satisfactory to the employee be reached 
within two working days, the next stage may 
be taken at any time within two working 
days thereafter. 

Stage No. 3— The aggrieved employee 
accompanied by the Chairman of the Griev- 
ance Committee and not more than one 
member thereof together with the Union 
business agent, if his presence is requested 
by either party, shall meet with representa- 
tives of the Company involved, in an 
endeavour to settle the grievance, (repre- 
sentatives of other Companies may be 
presented at this stage) The Company's 
reply at this stage shall be in writing. 

Stage No. 4 — If a satisfactory settlement 
is not reached within three working days 
then at any time within ten days of the 
meeting at Stage 3 and if the grievance 
concerns the interpretation, administration, 
application or alleged violation of the 
agreement, the grievance may, at the re- 
quest of either of the parties be referred 
to a Board of Arbitration composed of one 
person appointed by the Company, one 
person appointed by the Union and a third 
person to act as Chairman chosen by the 
other two members of the Board. If the 
two appointees are unable to agree on a 
Chairman, the Minister of the Dominion 
of Canada will be requested to appoint a 
person to act as Chairman. 

8.06 The majority decision of a Board of 
Arbitration chosen or appointed in the 
above manner or failing a majority decision 
then the decision of the Chairman shall be 
binding on both parties. 

8.07 The Board of Arbitration shall not 
have any power to alter or change any of 
the provisions of this agreement or to 
substitute any new provisions for any exist- 
ing provisions nor to give any decision 
inconsistent with the terms and provisions 
of this agreement. 

8.08 Each of the parties will bear the 
expenses of the arbitrator appointed by it, 
and the parties will jointly bear the ex- 
penses of the Chairman. 

8.09 Nothing in this agreement shall be 
interpreted as allowing any member of the 
Grievance Committee or any Union official 
to give orders to the men in connection 
with their work. No rules, regulations or 
resolutions shall be passed by either the 
Companies or the Union which are incon- 
sistent with the provisions of this agree- 
ment. 



8.10 Charges against an employee result- 
ing in dismissal may be settled by confirm- 
ing the Company's action, or by restoring 
the employee to his former position with 
full compensation for all time lost or by 
other arrangement which is just and equit- 
able. 

8.11 The Union agrees that it will not 
uphold incompetence, shirking of work, 
pilfering or broaching of cargo, drinking 
of alcoholic beverages on the job or 
reporting for work under the influence of 
alcohol. An employee may be discharged 
or otherwise dealt with as the Companies 
see fit for committing any of the above 
offences or for any other just cause but a 
claim by an employee that he has been 
discharged or disciplined without reason- 
able cause may be the subject of a griev- 
ance. 

8.12 The Companies' rules with regard to 
smoking on ships or in sheds shall be 
observed at all times. 

8.13 In view of the orderly arrangements 
provided by this agreement for the settling 
of disputes, the Union agrees that during 
the lifetime of this agreement there shall 
be no strike, slowdown or stoppage of work 
either complete or partial, and the Com- 
panies agree that there will be no lockout. 

Article IX — Termination 

9.01 This agreement shall come into 
force as of the date hereof and shall 

remain in force to and including the 

day of and shall continue in force 

from year to year thereafter, unless within 
the period of sixty days prior to December 
1st, 1962 or prior to December 1st in any 
year thereafter, either party shall furnish 
the other with notice of termination of or 
proposed revision of this agreement. In 
the event such notice is given, this agree- 
ment shall continue in full force and effect 
during the period in which negotiations are 
in progress. 

In Witness Whereof each of the parties 
hereto has caused this agreement to be 
signed by its duly authorized representa- 
tives as of the date and year first above 
written. 

SCHEDULE "A" 

Wage Scale Effective on signing of 
agreement 

1. The basic hourly rate of $2.10 shall 
be paid for all hours worked during the 
following times 

(a) Monday to Friday inclusive 8.00 a.m. 
to 12.00 noon and 1.00 p.m. to 
5 p.m. 

(b) Saturday 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 

98232-2—6 



813 



2. Time and one-half the basic hourly 
rate (i.e. $3.15) shall be paid for all hours 
worked during the following times 

(a) Saturday 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 

(b) Monday to Saturday inclusive 6.00 
p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 

(c) Monday to Saturday inclusive 12.00 
midnight to 5.00 a.m. 

3. Double the basic hourly rate (i.e. 
$4.20) shall be paid for all hours worked on 
Sunday (i.e. 12.01 a.m. Sunday to 12.01 
a.m. Monday). 

Wage Scale Effective April 1st, 1962 

1. The basic hourly rate of $2.16 shall 
be paid for all hours worked during the 
following times 

(a) Monday to Friday inclusive 8.00 a.m. 
to 12.00 noon and 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 
p.m. 

(b) Saturday 8.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon. 



2. Time and one-half the basic hourly 
rate (i.e. $3.24) shall be paid for all hours 
worked during the following times 

(a) Saturday 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. 

(b) Monday to Saturday inclusive 6.00 
p.m. to 11.00 p.m. 

(c) Monday to Saturday inclusive 12.00 
midnight to 5.00 a.m. 

3. Double the basic hourly rate (i.e. 
$4.32) shall be paid for all hours worked 
on Sunday (i.e. 12.01 a.m. Sunday to 12.01 
a.m. Monday). 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 
(Sgd.) R. G. Geddes, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) W. J. Whittaker, 

Member. 



(Sgd.) 



Drummond Wren, 
Member. 



Toronto, Ont., June, 1961. 



Report of Board in Dispute between 

The Western Union Telegraph Company, Cable Division, 

and 

American Communications Association 



Honourable Sir: 

Your Board of Conciliation set up to 
deal with the dispute between the above 
mentioned parties under date of February 
17th, 1961, met the parties in Montreal 
on May 8th and 9th, and at these hearings 
the full submissions of both parties were 
heard with respect to the issues in dispute. 

At these hearings the American Com- 
munications Association was represented by: 
V. Rabinowitz — Counsel 
M. Standard — Counsel 

W. Bender — International Secre- 

tary-Treasurer 



During June, The Minister of Labour 
received the Report of the Board of Con- 
ciliation and Investigation established to 
deal with a dispute between The Western 
Union Telegraph Company, Cable Division, 
and American Communications Association. 

The Board was under the chairmanship 
of His Honour Judge J. C. Anderson, 
Belleville, Ont. He was appointed by the 
Minister on the joint recommendation of 
the other two members John J. Urie, 
Ottawa, and Jean Pare, Montreal, nominees 
of the company and union, respectively. 

The Majority Report, which under the 
provisions of the Industrial Relations and 
Disputes Investigation Act, constitutes the 
Report of the Board, was submitted by the 
Chairman and Mr. Urie. The Minority 
Report was submitted by Mr. Pare. 

The Majority and Minority Reports are 
reproduced here. 



— Secretary-Treasurer, 

Local 11 
— President, Local 11 
— Secretary-Treasurer, 

Montreal Local 11 
— President. 



F. Lenahan 

L. Ellis 

J. Macintyre 

C. Huntley 

Western Union Telegraph Company was 
represented by: 

— General Attorney 

— Asst. General Attor- 
ney, 60 Hudson Street, 
New York City 
Counsel, 56 Sparks St., 
Ottawa 

— Asst. Vice President 

— Employee Relations 
Manager 

— Administration Mana- 
ger, Cable Department 

— General Operations 
Supervisor, Cable 
Department 

— General Manager, 
Montreal. 



John H. Waters 
Robert A. Levett 



Alastair Macdonald- 

Russell H. Cobb 
J. A. Corty 

F. Messner 



M. Rompo 



E. Bentley 



The American Communications Associa- 
tion represents the employees of the West- 
ern Telegraph Company, Cable Division, 
in Quebec, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. 
There are about 88 employees altogether, 
with the largest single group of about thirty- 
eight located at Montreal. 



814 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



The parties have had a collective bargain- 
ing relationship for a number of years. The 
collective bargaining agreement ran from 
January 1st, 1959 to December 31st, 1960. 
The parties agree that any settlement on 
wage increases should include retroactive 
application to January 1st, 1961. 

The issues between the parties are as 
follows: 

1. Wages. The Union rejected the Company's 
final offer for an increase of 8 cents per hour 
for the first year and 5 cents per hour for the 
second year, plus a differential in the first year 
for automatic operators which would be applic- 
able to the maximum and which would be the 
equivalent of 1 cent per hour for the entire 
bargaining unit. 

The Union originally proposed that the Com- 
pany accord the employees in Montreal, New- 
foundland and Nova Scotia, the same wage 
scale as the Company pays to the cable em- 
ployees in the United States. During the course 
of negotiations, the Union reduced its wage 
demand to equality of treatment for the Cana- 
dian employees with the wage increases granted 
to the United States employees in the spring 
of 1960, and for this purpose sought wage 
increases of $4 per week (101 cents an hour) 
across-the-board plus an additional $2 per 
week (5.33 cents an hour) at the minimum of 
all ranges, plus an additional $1.50 per week 
(4 cents an hour) at the maximum for tech- 
nicians, for the first year; and for the second 
year $4 per week (10.67 cents an hour) across- 
the-board, plus $1 per week (2.67 cents an 
hour) at the maximum plus an additional $1.50 
per week (4 cents an hour) at the maximum 
for Technicians. 

2. Other Issues. The parties tentatively agreed 
on other issues except for the following: 

Premium pay of time and one half from 
midnight Sunday to 8 a.m. Monday. 

It will be seen from the above statement 
that the only issue in dispute is that with 
respect to wage rates, and one other issue, 
that is, premium pay of time and a half 
from mid-night Sunday to 8 a.m. Monday. 
The Union's main submission was that 
the employees in Canada of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, Cable Division, 
should be paid wages equal to those paid 
the United States employees in the same 
division of the Company, but for the pur- 
pose of the present Contract the Union's 
request was for the same settlement as that 
given to the similar United States employees 
in the Contract which runs from April 1960 
to April 1962. 

The Union's case is that the employees 
of the Company in Canada perform similar 
functions, have the same skills and produc- 
tivity and are essential to the continuous 
operation of the Company's facilities, as are 
the employees in the United States. The 
Union submits that the Canadian employees 
are employed by the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, a United States corpora- 
tion which operates stations in Canada, and 
that the Cable Division in Canada is not 
an independent unit but is an integral part 



of the Company's Cable Division. The 
Union further contends that the terms of 
settlement of the collective agreement for 
Canadian employees have always been as 
good as or better than the cable employees 
in New York and that the dispute has arisen 
mainly from the insistence of the Company 
to apply to its Canadian employees increases 
that are substantially less than it has agreed 
to pay to its New York employees. 

There was some discussion before the 
Board about the possibility of a fifteen 
month contract. 

The Company in making its submissions 
submitted that the wage rates paid its em- 
ployees in Canada are generally higher than 
those paid by its Canadian competitors and 
that the present wage rates include increases 
granted since January 1st, 1958 which ex- 
ceed the intervening rise in the Canadian 
cost of living and that its present wages 
constitute fair compensation. The Company 
further submitted that the Canadian com- 
munications industry is making broad legis- 
lative and technological changes. The Cana- 
dian government is actively fostering a 
modern ocean-cable system, including the 
construction of a Canadian cable ship and 
that the Company's operations will be sub- 
stantially restricted by the new Canadian 
licensing law. The Company submits that 
the Canadian government has ruled that 
after November 1st, 1962 no cable messages 
arriving at the cable points in Newfound- 
land and Nova Scotia can be first routed 
to New York and then returned to the 
Canadian points but that messages must 
upon arrival on Canadian soil be transmitted 
directly over Canadian lines and not via 
New York, and that because of this the 
Company must spend a lot of money and 
devote time and effort to research to install 
and test equipment at the cable landings so 
that the messages arriving from all over 
the world and intending to be destined to 
points in Canada can be segregated from the 
other messages and then sent over a Cana- 
dian line. 

The eighty-seven employees of the Com- 
pany which are under the terms of reference 
of this Board of Conciliation are located 
as follows: 

Montreal — Total employed in ten classi- 
fications — 38; St. Pierre, Miquelon — Total 
employed in two classifications — 8; North 
Sydney, N.S. — Total employed in two classi- 
fications — 10; Heart's Content, Nfld.— Total 
employed in five classifications — 15; Bay 
Roberts, Nfld. — Total employed in six 
classifications — 1 7. 

Montreal office has no employees in the 
classifications utilized at the four cable 
landing points except that of handyman. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 

98232-2— 6i 



815 



The Company submitted some statistics 
comparing rates of employees in the Western 
Union Canadian Cable Division as com- 
pared with similar classifications for Cana- 
dian National and Canadian Pacific, and 
the Western Union cable rates for these 
classifications are generally higher. The 
Company asserts that one of the reasons 
it can no longer give its Canadian em- 
ployees the same rate of increase as the 
New York employees is that while earlier 
no Canadian licensing or governmental 
regulations were in effect affecting the 
Company's methods of operation, routing 
of traffic or utilization of equipment and 
facilities, that this meant that the Canadian 
traffic was being handled over two basic 
routes, one of which utilized New York. 
This enabled the Company to provide effi- 
cient and economical service to deal with 
traffic peaks and valleys as well as after- 
hour traffic. In other words, the Company 
asserts that the system was then completely 
flexible and interchangeable and it was able 
to operate it to meet the requirements of 
the service. The Company further states that 
by reason of an amendment to the Cana- 
dian Telegraph Act proclaimed in 1960, 
the licensing of operations after July 1st, 
1960 was placed in the hands of the Minister 
of Transport, and as a result of the govern- 
ment policy the Canadian operating licence 
was restricted in two respects. The Cana- 
dian operations may provide only public 
message service, and secondly, Canadian 
traffic utilizing the Canadian cable landings 
may not be routed via New York except 
under certain emergencies. The Canadian 
government did, however, because of the 
fact that it recognized that research and 
development were required to design, install 
and utilize equipment to provide the all- 
Canadian routing of international traffic 
give the Company a period of grace expir- 
ing on November 1st, 1962 for the purpose 
of allowing it to change its operations to 
suit the new Canadian requirements. 

It would appear to the Board that while 
thus far the Company's Canadian opera- 
tions have not been restricted to any great 
extent so as to adversely affect revenue, yet 
the trend is likely to be one of greater 
restriction and the restricted licensing 
already decided upon will doubtless make 
it more difficult for the Company to increase 
or even retain its present Canadian revenues, 
and what is perhaps more important, it 
will not be able to expand its services in 
providing new types of service for cus- 
tomers to the extent that it would like. 

While the Union has advanced many 
arguments in favour of parity of wages 
the Board is of the opinion that by reason 
of the expected restricted licensing of the 



Company, and by reason of the fact that 
while the employees are working for the 
same Company they are working in Canada, 
subject to Canadian laws and in competi- 
tion with other Canadian workmen, that 
on the whole the Union have not made 
out a case for parity. It would appear that 
as of December, 1960 the monthly wage 
rates of employees of the Canadian tele- 
communication system are in some cate- 
gories paid substantially higher than em- 
ployees of Western Union Cables. For 
instance, Western Union Cables have three 
technicians who at December 31st, 1960 
worked 163.02 hours in a month and re- 
ceived salary of $488.00, while similarly 
classified employees working the same num- 
ber of hours a month but employed by 
Canadian Overseas Telecommunication re- 
ceived $495.00 a month, and the Western 
Union Cable has thirty-four employees in 
the classification of electrician who receive 
$473.00 a month while employees similarly 
classified working in the Canadian Over- 
seas Telecommunication System receive 
$495.00 a month, and similarly, Western 
Union Cable have a classification called 
automatic operator in which it has seven- 
teen employees who receive $413.00 a 
month while employees working in Cana- 
dian Overseas Telecommunication System 
and similarly classified as automatic oper- 
ators receive $450.00 a month. It will be 
noted that these classifications make up 
fifty-four of the eighty-seven Western Union 
Cable employees in Canada. It is true that 
in other classifications such as cable oper- 
ator, technician, telephone operator and 
service clerk and office clerk, the Western 
Union Cable monthly rates are somewhat 
higher than those of Canadian Overseas 
Telecommunication System, but it is appar- 
ent from the examination of the Company's 
Exhibit "E" that as of December 31st, 
1960 the majority of the Western Union 
employees in Canada were receiving less 
than employees of Canadian Overseas Tele- 
communication System in the same category. 

The Company, although admitting that 
for the purpose of negotiation at the end 
of 1960 and early in 1961 it offered to 
increase wages by 8 cents per hour for the 
first year and 5 cents per hour for the 
second year, plus a differential in the first 
year for automatic operators which would 
be applicable to the maximum and which 
would be equivalent to one cent per hour 
for the entire bargaining unit, withdrew 
this offer and did not renew it before the 
Board. 

Your board of conciliation, however, 
taking all matters into consideration, and 
particularly having regard to the pay 



816 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



received by certain employees of the Cana- 
dian Overseas Telecommunication System, 
recommends that the issue of wages be 
settled on the following basis: 

1. Effective January 1, 1961, the following 
wage adjustments will be made. 

(a) There will be an increase across- 
the-board of 8 cents an hour to 
all employees. 

(b) The equivalent of 1 cent an hour 
across-the-board will be paid and 
added to the pay of operators at 
the maximum. 

2. Effective January 1, 1962 there will be 
a further increase across-the-board of 

7 cents, and effective January 1, 1962 
the equivalent of 2.00 cents per hour 
across-the-board will be distributed to 
all other employees at the maximum. 

3. The Board does not see fit to recom- 
mend that premium pay of time and a 
half be paid from mid-night Sunday to 

8 a.m. Monday. 

4. The fringe benefits previously agreed 
upon between the parties, but which, 
when the matter went to the concilia- 
tion board were withdrawn, shall be 
incorporated in the new Contract effec- 
tive January 1st, 1961, namely: 

(a) Saturday premium rate — estimated 
annual cost $5,600 (equivalent to 
2.65c. per hour). 

(b) $1,000 increase in group life insur- 
ance benefits — annual cost $900 
(42c. per hour). 

(c) Hospital-medical-surgical insurance 
plan paid for by the Company — 
estimated annual cost $1,600 (.76c. 
per hour). 

(d) Major medical insurance plan — 
paid for by the Company — estim- 
ated annual cost $800 (.38c. per 
hour). 

For a fifteen month Contract, if the 
parties desire that, the Board recommends 
as follows: 

Effective January 1, 1961, the following 
wage adjustments will be made: 

(a) There will be an across-the-board 
increase of 9 cents per hour to all 
employees. 

(b) The equivalent of 1 cent an hour 
will be paid and added to the pay 
of operators at the maximum. 

(c) The equivalent of 1.92 cents per 
hour across-the-board will be dis- 
tributed to all other employees at 
the maximum. 

(d) The fringe benefits as set out above 
will be incorporated in the Contract 
January 1, 1961. 



All of which is respectfully submitted. 
(Sgd.) J. C. Anderson, 

Chairman. 
(Sgd.) John J. Urie, 
Member. 
Dated at Belleville, Ontario, this 10th 
day of June, 1961. 

MINORITY REPORT 

Honourable Sir: 

I find that I must dissent from the 
majority report suggested by Hon. Judge 
J. C. Anderson, and the Company nominee 
Mr. John J. Urie, in the matter of the 
dispute between the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company and the American Com- 
munications Association, Local 11. 

I am of the opinion, that both the Union 
representatives and the Company repre- 
sentatives, who appeared before the con- 
ciliation board, both acknowledged the fact 
that for a period of many years, the results 
of the negotiations between the Company 
and its United States employees, were, sub- 
sequently implemented by the Company 
for all employees of the Company in 
Canada. 

In fact, evidences presented to the Con- 
ciliation Board made it clear that in some 
instances the company granted higher in- 
creases to the Canadian workers, to help fill 
the gap that existed and still exist, between 
the wages paid to the American workers as 
compare to the Canadian workers. 

The Company also admitted that follow- 
ing on the negotiations of a new contract 
for Its American employees a new set of 
negotiations was started to implement the 
settlement for the Canadian workers. 

The fact that both the Chairman of 
the Conciliation Board and the Company 
nominee, both recommended that a 15 
months contract be desirable, and in so 
doing did recognize the validity of a 15 
months contract. 

The fact is that by agreeing to a 15 
month contract, it means that in the future, 
negotiations for both the American and 
the Canadian workers would be on a joint 
basis, and thereby save a lot of time, 
energy and important sums of money to 
both parties. 

Therefore I believe that the Union did 
make a strong case in favour of parity for 
the Canadian workers, and the company 
did not deny the fact that in past years, 
the equivalent settlement and in some case 
a higher settlement was granted to the 
Canadian workers. 

I therefore recommend, that the new 
agreement between the parties be for a 
period of 15 months from January 1, 1961. 

(Continued on page 848) 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



817 



LABOUR LAW 



Legal Decisions Affecting Labour 

Manitoba court rules that unions are legal entities and therefore liable 
for damages. B.C. court finds picketing in the absence of a strike illegal 



In Manitoba, the Court of Queen's Bench 
ruled that the unions are legal entities liable 
for damages under the Manitoba Labour 
Relations Act and under the common law. 

In British Columbia, the Supreme Court 
ruled that the Trade-unions Act did not 
affect the right of information picketing, 
but picketing with the intention to persuade 
in the absence of a strike is prohibited. 

Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench . . 

...rules that the Labour Relations Act make; a 
union a legal entity that is liable for damages 

On May 1, 1961, Mr. Justice Monnin of 
the Manitoba Queen's Bench ruled that 
the Manitoba Labour Relations Act, by 
granting to the unions certain rights, powers 
and responsibilities, attributed to them legal 
personality and made them liable in dam- 
ages both for breach of a provision of the 
Labour Relations Act and under the com- 
mon law. Also, the Court ruled that an 
attempt on the part of the union members 
to improve their position is perfectly lawful 
providing that the methods used are lawful, 
but untrue statements calculated to inflict 
injury on an employer in his trade relation- 
ships are actionable, particularly when 
causing injury to a third party not involved 
in the labour dispute. Further, the judge 
held that "secondary boycott", i.e. the 
indirect application of economic pressure 
to an employer through the medium of his 
customers, is closely akin to a conspiracy 
to injure the employer in his trade, and 
part of such a conspiracy. 

The Codville Company Limited, in the 
City of St. James, is the wholesale dis- 
tributor of Independent Grocers Alliance 
Distributing Co. (I.G.A.) products for all 
I.G.A. stores in Manitoba. Also, the com- 
pany sells to retail stores other than those 
in I.G.A. chain and 45 per cent of the 
merchandise handled and shipped by its 
employees — members of a union — is sold to 
stores not belonging to the I.G.A. chain. 



Dusessoy's Supermarkets St. James Ltd., 
the plaintiff in the case under review, is 
one of the I.G.A. stores in St. James. 

Codville has no direct control or interest 
in the Dusessoy company; the relationship 
between the two companies is that of 
franchise holder and sub-lessee. Dusessoy's 
company purchases 30 per cent of its mer- 
chandise directly from Codville's warehouse. 
About 35 per cent is ordered either directly 
from the suppliers or through Codville 
order board and delivered to the Dusessoy 
company by the suppliers themselves and 
billed either directly to Dusessoy or through 
the Codville supply depot; approximately 
35 per cent of Dusessoy's merchandise is 
ordered from other suppliers. The Codville 
company provides for all stores in the 
I.G.A. chain store engineering services, store 
supervision, a complete advertising program 
and management counsel; but all of this 
is in a purely supervisory capacity and 
does not change the nature of Dusessoy's 
company as a separate entity. 

Local No. 832 of the Retail Clerks Union 
has never been the bargaining agent of the 
Dusessoy employees and there was no trade 
dispute between the union and the Dusessoy 
company. 

On December 20, 1960, 15 of the 23 
employees of the Codville company, all 
members of Local 832, declared a strike 
and started to picket Codville's premises. 

About the same time, the union's business 
agent approached Dusessoy, asking him to 
contact Codville and to impress upon him 
the necessity of settling the strike and to 
apply pressure upon the Codville company. 
Apparently Dusessoy refused to intervene 
and explained that there was no direct 
connection between Dusessoy's company 
and Codville. Thereupon the union's agent 
informed Dusessoy that pickets would be 
placed in front of his business and they 
would put him out of business and ruin him. 

On December 23, pickets appeared simul- 
taneously in front of Dusessoy's store and 



This section, prepared by the Legislation Branch, reviews labour laws as they are 
enacted by Parliament and the provincial legislatures, regulations under these laws, and 
selected court decisions affecting labour. 



818 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST J 96 7 



in the vicinity of other I.G.A. retail outlets 
in the metropolitan area of Winnipeg. 

The picketing was orderly and peaceful 
but was blocking access to the Dusessoy 
store. The pickets were carrying placards 
with messages which were misleading; some 
information contained in the leaflets dis- 
tributed by the union were untrue. 

Interlocutory injunction against picketing 
was granted on February 9, 1961. This was 
followed by an action brought by the 
Dusessoy company against Local 832, its 
business agent, the international representa- 
tive of the union in the district, and eight 
of its members who actually picketed Du- 
sessoy's premises, for damages and a per- 
manent injunction against picketing. 

The company claimed, inter alia, that 
the union and other defendants conspired 
together to injure the company in its 
business, beset and watched its premises, 
interfered with its customers; that the 
stickers, placards and leaflets carried or 
distributed by the union were false and 
misleading; that the activities of the pickets 
constituted a nuisance; that they conspired 
unlawfully to induce it to commit a breach 
of its contract with the Codville company. 

The union pleaded that it was not an 
entity in law against which the action could 
be brought, and all the defendants alleged 
that the Codville company is known and 
advertises itself as the supply depot for 
I.G.A. stores, which stores, by joint adver- 
tising, by their uniform appearance and 
service and by stocking similar brands 
of merchandise, represent to the public an 
integrated enterprise — "an integrated whole". 

Mr. Justice Monnin, after having re- 
viewed the evidence, found that Codville 
had no control over any of the stores nad in 
this respect the leaflets contained untruthful 
statements which could only deceive the 
public with the purpose to apply economic 
pressure to Codville through Dusessoy's 
retail outlet. Codville company takes ad- 
vantage of its distributorship of I.G.A. 
supplies in some of its advertising, but that 
does not make it and the various retail 
outlets an integrated whole. Although the 
picketing was orderly and peaceful, the 
continued blocking of entrances with the 
consequent stopping of vehicles in the drive- 
way's leading to the store and on the 
highway amounted to a nuisance. 

In Mr. Justice Monnin's opinion, an 
attempt on the part of the union members 
to improve their lot is perfectly lawful 
and justifiable providing the methods used 
are also lawful, but untrue statements, cal- 
culated to inflict injury on an employer 
in his trade relationships, are actionable. 



This is even more so when it also causes 
serious injury to a third party not at all 
involved in a labour dispute. 

Dealing with the issue whether there was 
a conspiracy on the part of the defendants 
to injure Dusessoy in his trade, Mr. Justice 
Monnin had no doubt that their alleged 
motives of promoting their lawful interests 
were simply a cloak behind which to hide 
their avowed intention of bringing the Cod- 
ville company to its knees through injury 
to Dusessoy's trade. The purpose of picket- 
ing was not merely to obtain and com- 
municate information, but the real purpose 
was to hurt Codville through loss of 
business, which they hoped to cause to the 
Dusessoy company. This in effect was the 
indirect application of economic pressure 
applied to the employer through the medium 
of his customers which, in common lan- 
guage, is a "secondary boycott". 

The purpose of picketing, Mr. Justice 
Monnin continued, was to injure Dusessoy's 
company and, through it, to punish Codville 
for not settling the strike in a manner 
satisfactory to the union. The fact that in 
the dispute there was no direct relationship 
between Dusessoy's company or its em- 
ployees and the union; the threats made by 
the union's business agent to Dusessoy; the 
deceiving stickers and placards; the untruth- 
ful statements contained in the leaflets; the 
picketing amounting to a nuisance; all 
these factors taken together pointed to a 
case of wrongful purpose, namely, a con- 
spiracy to injure the Dusessoy company in 
its trade. 

Dealing particularly with the question of 
secondary boycott, Mr. Justice Monnin 
quoted the definition of "secondary boy- 
cott" from Websters New International 
Dictionary: 

The boycott of (A) by an organized group 
(B) to compel a third party (C) to do, or 
abstain from doing, a thing for which (A) has 
no direct responsibility. 

Further, "secondary boycott' may be 
described as the organized abstention of 
business relationship with an employer 
through a third party in order to compel 
the employer to modify or change his 
attitude by partial or total paralysis of his 
business. In the case under review, it was 
an attempt to apply economic and social 
pressures to Codville through the Dusessoy 
company. 

By law, Dusessoy's company enjoys free- 
dom of trade, an undeniable right just as 
strong as freedom of speech. That right of 
trade can only be curtailed in very peculiar 
circumstances for the good of the com- 
munity as a whole and not only in the 
interests of a specific and clearly limited 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



819 



group. The Dusessoy company has a 
proprietary right to trade and to do business 
with persons or corporations of its choice — 
more so when it has no dispute with any- 
one — and this right belongs to it unless 
the legislature, by clear and unequivocal 
language, has interfered with it. That was 
not the case in the situation under review. 
The application of secondary boycott 
was discussed in three Canadian decisions: 
Producers' Sand and Gravel Co. Ltd. v. 
Vancouver Island Drivers' Division, an 
unreported decision of Mr. Justice Mac- 
Farlane, dated April 18, 1950, to be found 
in "The Labour Injunction in British Colum- 
bia" by Professor A. W. R. Carruthers, at 
Appendix E, p. 242; Verdun Printing and 
Publishing Inc., v. Union Internationale des 
Clicheurs et Electrotypeurs de Montreal 
(1957) (L.G. August, 1957, p. 985); and 
Sauve Freres Ltee. v. Amalgamated Cloth- 
ing Workers of America (1959) (L.G. 
September, 1959, p. 944). These decisions, 
in Mr. Justice Monnin's opinion, although 
far from specifically stating that the injunc- 
tions were granted because of the conspiracy 
to injure plaintiff or petitioner in their 
respective business, are ciosely akin to that 
principle. Further, he added that in the 
present state of the law, and in the absence 
of specific legislation on the subject, he was 
amply justified in disposing of the second- 
ary boycott aspect of the case at bar by 
finding that it was part of the conspiracy 
to injure the Dusessoy company in its 
trade. 

Finally, Mr. Justice Monnin dealt with 
the question whether the union is a suable 
entity in the province of Manitoba. He 
recalled that the status of the union in 
Manitoba was dealt with in some recent 
cases. 

In re Manitoba Labour Relations Act; in 
re International Union of Operating Engi- 
neers, Local Union No. 827, and Manitoba 
Labour Board (1952) (L.G. July, 1952, p. 
941), Mr. Justice Campbell found that a 
union was a quasi persona juridica. 

In Peerless Laundry and Cleaners Ltd. 
v. Laundry and Dry Cleaning Workers 
Union (1952), (L.G. Nov. 1952, p. 1488) 
Mr. Justice Freedman held that under the 
Manitoba Labour Relations Act a trade 
union was a statutory entity posessing legal 
existence apart from its members and a 
suable entity for the implementation of 
that Act and for causes of action founded 
directly upon breaches of its provisions. 

In Re Walterson and Laundry and Dry 
Cleaning Workers Union and New Method 
Launderers Ltd. (1955) (L.G. May, 1955, 
p. 565), the Court of Appeal came to the 
conclusion that a trade union is not a 



legal entity and may not sue or be sued in 
civil proceedings and may not prosecute or 
be prosecuted in criminal proceedings. 

In Tunney v. Orchard (1957) (L.G. 
October, 1957, p. 1214), although there 
was plenty of discussion about the entity 
of a trade union, the matter was not in 
issue since a representation order had been 
granted by the Court of Appeal. 

In Nabess and Lynn Lake Base Metal 
Workers Federal Union No. 292 v. Sherritt 
Gordon Mines Ltd. (1959), 67 Man. R. 22. 
Mr. Justice Monnin himself, although in- 
clined to favour the expressions of opinion 
of Justices Campbell and Freedman, felt 
bound by the clear and precise words of 
Chief Justice Adamson in the Walterson 
case and reluctantly came to the conclusion 
that the union had no legal status. 

In Re Warner and Manitoba Labour 
Board (1960) (L.G. October, 1960, p. 
1953), Chief Justice of Queen's Bench 
Court held that a trade union is not a 
society and has not been given a status by 
the Labour Relations Act. 

The question is again open for decision 
in view of the positive language of Mr. 
Justice Locke of the Supreme Court of 
Canada in Therien v. International Brother- 
hood of Teamsters (1960), (L.G. March, 
1960, p. 276). 

After discussing Taff Vale Ry. v. Amal- 
gamated Soc. of Railway Servants (1901), 
the Trade Union Acts of 1871 and 1876^ 
the Trade Disputes Act of 1906, the Trade 
Union Act of British Columbia, 1902, and 
the Labour Relations Act, 1954 of British 
Columbia, and relying on those last two 
British Columbia statutes, Mr. Justice Locke 
came to the conclusion that the union in 
question was a legal entity which could be 
made liable in name for damages either for 
breach of a provision of the Labour Rela- 
tions Act or under the common law. All 
the other members of the Supreme Court 
of Canada agreed with him on this point. 

Referring to the situation in Manitoba, 
Mr. Justice Monnin noted that there was 
a Labour Relations Act which had been in 
force since 1948, but there was no Trade 
Union Act similar to the British Columbia 
Statute R.S.B.C. 1948, ch. 542 (now 
R.S.B.C. 1960, ch. 384). 

The Manitoba Labour Relations Act, Mr. 
Justice Monnin added, is similar in effect 
to the British Columbia Act. Under the 
Act a trade union means any organization 
of employees formed for purposes, including 
the regulation of relations between em- 
ployees and employers; rights of employers 
and employees are reserved; employers or 



820 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



employers' organizations are not to inter- 
fere with trade unions and employers can- 
not discriminate against trade union mem- 
bers nor shall they seek to intimidate 
members of trade unions; trade unions can 
apply for certification as bargaining agents 
as a group and upon certification, as such, 
have exclusive authority to bargain collec- 
tively on behalf of the employees of the 
unit; collective agreements are binding on 
the employer, the employee and the union; 
provisions are inserted for notice to nego- 
tiate and the parties must proceed within 
specific time; provisions are made for strikes 
and lockouts, conciliation boards and re- 
ports; penalties are provided for breach of 
various sections. Throughout the Act they 
are referred to as trade unions and treated 
as legal entities with certain rights and 
privileges. 

Mr. Justice Monnin noted that the unions 
have not been formally incorporated under 
the Act or by any Act which relates to 
incorporation of associations or groups of 
people. A trade union is not a partnership 
nor a person as it is understood in the 
legal sense, but does that mean that the 
legislature is restricted to three legal en- 
tities only — a person, a partnership and a 
corporation? Cannot the legislature, which 
is supreme, create a new kind of legal entity 
different and maybe even foreign to all 
former types of legal entity? If a trade 
union can on behalf of members enter into 
a contract and be found guilty of offences 
of commission or omission (Section 45), 
is it not an entity with rights and respon- 
sibilities? By Section 46 of the Manitoba 
Labour Realtions Act, for the purpose of a 
prosecution, it is declared that a trade 
union is a person. Is it restricted to that? 

Further, Mr. Justice Monnin noted that 
the sole effect of the Trade-unions Act of 
British Columbia, which has no counter- 
part in Manitoba, was to grant to trade 
unions some immunities, and one of these 
immunities presupposes that prior to that, 
trade unions were liable in tort. Mr. Justice 
Monnin's consideration of the Manitoba 
Labour Relations Act and its comparison 
with the British Columbia Labour Rela- 
tions Act, coupled with his consideration 
of the ratio decidendi of Mr. Justice Locke 
in the Therien case, led him to the conclu- 
sion that in order to find legal entity in 
trade unions it is not necessary that both 
statutes should co-exist. In his opinion, 
the Manitoba legislature, by granting these 
rights, powers and responsibilities to these 
unincorporated associations, intended to, 
and did, attribute legal personality to trade 
unions both for breach of a provision of 
the Labour Relations Act or under the 
common law. 



In conclusion, Mr. Justice Monnin held 
that Dusessoy was entitled to succeed in 
his action against the union which was 
sued in its name; fixed damages against all 
defendants at $3,000 and granted a per- 
manent injunction against picketing. Du- 
sessoy's Supermarkets St. James Ltd. v. 
Retail Clerks Union Local No. 832, et al. 
(1961), 34 W.W.R., Part 13, p. 577. 

British Columbia Supreme Court... 

.... rules that if picketing is to persuade it 
can be enjoined in the absence of a strike 

On May 2, 1961, Mr. Justice Lord of 
the British Columbia Supreme Court held 
that the British Columbia Trade-unions Act 
did not abridge the right to picket entirely, 
but picketing with the intention to "per- 
suade" could be enjoined even in he 
absence of a strike. 

A building contractor engaged in con- 
structing a service station in Vancouver 
was approached by a person who claimed 
to represent the carpenters' union and who 
advised him that all carpenter workers 
employed on the construction would either 
have to join the carpenters' union or only 
the members of that union would have 
to be employed on the job. The constructor 
told the man that the men working for 
him were not desirous of joining the union. 

Some days later, the person in question 
started picketing the construction site carry- 
ing the placard: "Non-union men are work- 
ing on this job". Some suppliers refused to 
cross this picket line, resulting in delay 
in the construction of the service station 
and damage to the constructor. 

On a motion to continue injunction, Mr. 
Justice Lord was of the opinion that the 
decision in the matter under review rested 
on the interpretation of Section 3 of the 
Trade-unions Act, 1959, which reads as 
follows: 

S. 3 (1) Where there is a strike that is not 
illegal under the Labour Relations Act or a 
lockout, a trade-union, members of which are 
on strike or locked out, and anyone authorized 
by the trade-union may, at the employer's place 
of business, operations, or employment, and 
without acts that are otherwise unlawful, per- 
suade or endeavour to persuade anyone not to 

(a) enter the employer's place of business, 
operations, or employment; or 

(b) deal in or handle the products of the 
employer; or 

(c) do business with the employer. 

(2) Except as provided in subsection (1), 
no trade-union or other person shall persuade 
or endeavour to persuade anyone not to 

(a) enter an employer's place of business, 
operations, or employment; or 

(b) deal in or handle the products of any 
person; or 

(c) do business with any person. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



821 



The defendant contended that this sec- 
tion did not abridge the common law right 
of information picketing. 

Mr. Justice Lord noticed that Section 
3 (1) sets out the conditions under which 
trade unions or its members may persuade 
or endeavour to persuade anyone not to 
enter the employer's operations or do 
business with the employer. One of the 
conditions that makes such persuading law- 
ful is "where there is a strike" or a lockout. 
In the case under review, there was no 
strike or lockout. Nor was there any "trade- 
union, members of which are on strike or 
locked out", nor anyone "authorized by the 
trade-union" to persuade. 

Further, Mr. Justice Lord agreed with 
the defendant that the legislature, in enact- 
ing the Trade-unions Act, did not intend 
to abridge the right to picket entirely. The 
deliberate use of the words "persuade or 
endeavour to persuade" and the deliberate 
omission of the words "communicating 
facts" would indicate that the legislature 
had no such intention and did not touch 
information picketing. 



In Mr. Justice Lord's opinion, the lan- 
guage of Section 3 is clear and concise 
and does prohibit picketing of all kinds 
by a trade union or other person unless 
coming within the exceptions set out in 
Section 3(1), and if the picketing is of 
the nature to persuade or endeavour to 
persuade anyone from doing the matters 
enumerated. 

Mr. Justice Lord held that the defendant, 
walking up and down beside the construc- 
tion site carrying a placard, did it with 
the purpose of persuading trades and call- 
ings from entering the construction premises. 
The information contained on the placard 
must have been placed there to induce 
others not to do business with the person 
building the service station. That type of 
picketing, carried on by those who are not 
authorized to do so under Section 3 (1), 
the legislature had prohibited. Those who 
did not cross the picket line were induced 
and persuaded to do so by the information 
contained on the placard. 

The Court granted injunction to continue 
until trial. Koss v. Konn et al. (1961), 28 
D.L.R. (2d), Part 4, p. 319. 



Recent Regulations under Provincial Legislation 

Closer supervision of compressed air operations mandatory in British 
Columbia, stricter control provided for trade schools in Saskatchewan, 
and new rules in Ontario on the transportation of dangerous commodities 



The new compressed air regulations issued 
by the British Columbia Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board make it mandatory for 
employers to ensure closer supervision of 
compressed air operations than formerly 
and require compressed air workers to have 
a Compressed Air Health Register. 

In Saskatchewan, the regulations govern- 
ing trade schools were revised, increasing 
registration fees and providing for stricter 
control by the Department of Education. 

In Ontario, new regulations under the 
Highway Traffic Act lay down rules regard- 
ing the transportation of certain dangerous 
commodities. 

British Columbia Workmen's Compensation Act 

New Compressed Air Regulations, 1961, 
modelled largely on the United Kingdom's 
work in Compressed Air Special Regula- 
tions, 1958, have been issued in British 



Columbia under the Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Act. Gazetted May 4 as B.C. Reg. 
64/61, they became effective April 1, 1961, 
superseding B.C. Reg. 414/59. 

The regulations apply to any industry 
within the scope of Part I of the Work- 
men's Compensation Act in which workmen 
are employed in compressed air other than 
diving work. 

Their provisions, more specific than pre- 
viously, and containing major changes, re- 
late to project supervision, air supply, 
man-locks, lock attendants, working cham- 
bers, working conditions, medical supervi- 
sion, medical locks, and compression and 
decompression of workmen. The Workmen's 
Compensation Board is empowered to grant 
exemption from any requirement when it 
is satisfied that on a particular project its 
observance is not necessary. 

There is now more emphasis than for- 
merly on adequate supervision and control 



822 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



of compressed air operations in order to 
ensure the safety of workmen. The em- 
ployer is under specific obligation to ensure 
that a competent person is in charge of 
compressed air operations, that he is in 
attendance at the job site, and that all the 
workmen understand that he is in charge. 

Similarly, the plant for the production 
and supply of air to any working chamber 
or air lock must be in the immediate charge 
of a competent person when any workman 
is in compressed air. The requirements 
regarding this plant and related equipment 
are set out in the regulations. 

A new provision also requires that a 
competent lock attendant be in charge 
whenever any workman is in a man-lock 
or in a working chamber to which the man- 
lock affords access. He is responsible for 
the compression and decompression of 
workmen, including the maintenance of a 
register providing specified information con- 
cerning each workman. He may, subject to 
his over-all control of compressed air into 
the lock, if authorized by his employer, 
delegate certain functions to a competent 
person. 

Requirements are also set out with respect 
to the man-lock itself, including adequacy 
of size, pressure gauges, clocks, means of 
intercommunication, control of the supply 
of compressed air, air pipe lines, and 
other matters. 

Most of the provisions in connection 
with working chambers are unchanged. New 
requirements, however, specify that when 
any workman is in a working chamber the 
door between it and any man-lock for his 
egress toward a lower pressure, and not 
in use, must be kept open when practicable. 
New provisions also require the installation 
of a wet-bulb thermometer in every work- 
ing chamber, and forbid a workman to be 
in a working chamber where the wet-bulb 
temperature exceeds 80 degrees Fahrenheit, 
except in special circumstances. As before, 
a competent person must be in charge of 
valves and gauges which regulate and 
indicate pressure in the working chamber; 
he must not work more than eight hours in 
any twenty-four, and in caisson work must 
not operate more than two separate air- 
lines. Other matters, also dealt with for- 
merly, relate to the installation of pressure 
gauges, thermometers, lighting, means of 
communication between the working cham- 
ber and the surface, and the prohibition of 
intoxicating liquor. 

The new regulations require that a work- 
man without previous experience on work 
in compressed air must be supervised by an 
experienced person. Compression of the 
inexperienced workman must not be carried 



out unless he is accompanied in the man- 
lock by a person competent to advise him 
of appropriate conduct during compression. 
Workers who have been decompressed after 
working under pressure of over 18 pounds 
and less than 40 pounds must remain on 
the premises for at least one hour after- 
wards, while those who have worked under 
pressure of 40 pounds or more must remain 
for at least one and one-half hours. 

The employer is now required to supply 
persons employed in compressed air for the 
first time with information approved by 
the Board on precautions to be taken in 
connection with this work. It is also the 
duty of every compressed air worker to 
submit himself for medical examination. 
Other provisions in connection with working 
conditions require, as formerly, proper 
lighting and ventilation of dressing-rooms 
and drying rooms, with a minimum tem- 
perature of 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Adequate 
bathing facilities and hot coffee must also 
be provided. 

The provisions in respect of medical 
supervision of compressed air workers have 
been extended. As before, the employer is 
required to make arrangements for medical 
supervision by an appointed physician, and 
to arrange for the medical examination of 
workers. The appointed physician must be 
immediately available in case of emergency, 
accident, or when necessary to recompress 
a workman. 

Each compressed air worker must now 
have a Compressed Air Health Register 
in which the employer is obliged to enter 
the name, address, and telephone number 
of the appointed physician. This register is 
to be kept by the employer on the prem- 
ises, except when required by the workman 
or the appointed physician, and is to be 
given to the workman on termination of his 
employment. 

No workman may be employed in com- 
pressed air unless he has been examined 
by an appointed physician, or another phy- 
sician in urgent cases when the appointed 
physician is not available, and certified in 
his Compressed Air Health Register to be 
fit for this type of work. The certificate 
must be dated not more than three days 
earlier, unless the workman has been em- 
ployed in compressed air within the previous 
three months, certified fit for such employ- 
ment, and has not since the date of the 
certificate suffered from any injury, disease 
or illness causing an incapacity to work 
of more than three days' duration. When 
the pressure exceeds 18 pounds the work- 
man must have been examined within the 
previous four weeks and certified fit for 
employment. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1967 



823 



If a workman has had no experience in 
compressed air work, his medical examin- 
ation must include a test under pressure 
in the medical lock before he commences 
work. He must also be re-examined at the 
end of the first shift. 

The regulations also contain provisions 
designed to ensure that compressed air 
workers are not so employed when they 
are ill. In this respect, any compressed air 
workman who is suffering from a cold in 
the head, a sore throat, ear-ache or other 
ailment likely to make him unfit for this 
work, or who has been absent for more 
than 10 consecutive days, must immed- 
iately report this fact to his employer or 
the appointed physician. He may not be 
employed in compressed air until he is 
examined and certified fit. 

The appointed physician may, for a 
stated period, certify a worker fit for work 
under pressure not exceeding a specified 
maximum, and subject to re-examination 
at the end of the period. He may also vary 
or revoke any current certificate concerning 
the fitness of a person for employment in 
compressed air. 

In cases where work in compressed air 
is urgently required to be done and the 
appointed physician is not available to 
examine a worker, any physician may make 
the examination, but the employer must 
notify the Board of the reasons and arrange 
for his re-examination as soon as the 
appointed physician is available. 

The employer is required to supply each 
woikman employed in compressed air at 
a pressure exceeding 18 pounds with an 
identification label, stating that he has been 
employed in compressed air and giving 
current information as to the location of 
the medical lock near his place of employ- 
ment. The employer is also under obligation 
to inform all general hospitals in the locality 
that compressed air work is being done at 
a certain site, and to give the names, 
addresses and telephone numbers of the 
appointed physicians. On completion of the 
work, the employer must notify the hospitals 
to this effect. 

The regulations set out requirements with 
respect to medical locks, specifying that 
they must be provided and maintained 
where the pressure in a working-chamber 
normally exceeds 18 pounds per square 
inch. They must be used solely for the 
treatment of compressed air workmen, have 
not less than five feet clear head room 
at the highest point, have two compartments, 
be adequately ventilated, heated and lighted, 
and be kept clean. 



In regard to equipment for medical locks, 
there must be provided a couch at least six 
feet in length, blankets, food lock, efficient 
means of verbal and non-verbal communi- 
cation between the inside and outside of 
the lock and between the two compartments, 
and suitable windows. 

The medical lock must be ready for 
immediate use and, when any workman is 
employed in compressed air, be continually 
in charge of a person competent to deal 
with any workman suffering from ill effects 
of compressed air. No workman may enter 
a medical lock under pressure for examina- 
tion, diagnosis, or treatment, except at the 
direction of an appointed physician. 

The provisions in connection with the 
compression and decompression of work- 
men have undergone important changes. 
One of these changes concerns permissible 
working time under compressed air. In this 
regard, the duration of shifts and maximum 
total working time allowed in a 24-hour 
period are no longer specified. With respect 
to decompression, requirements are set out 
concerning the normal procedure, phase de- 
compression (where a workman may be 
employed at a higher, then a lower pressure 
during the same working period), and 
decanting (where a workman is rapidly 
decompressed in a man-lock to atmospheric 
pressure, promptly recompressed rapidly in 
a separate decompression chamber and then 
decompressed gradually to atmospheric 
pressure). 

The regulations contain three special 
tables relating to the decompression of 
workers, one of which pertains to normal 
decompression, and two others used in con- 
junction with the first table for phase 
decompression. A major change with respect 
to decompression standards is made in the 
current regulations in that both pressure 
and the working period are taken into 
consideration in computing decompression 
times. Formerly, pressure alone was used 
as the basis for determining decompression 
times. 

Manitoba Hydro Act 

Revised regulations respecting the stand- 
ards of wiring and other electrical facilities, 
recently issued under the Manitoba Hydro 
Act, were gazetted on June 10 as Man. 
Reg. 30/61, repealing Man. Reg. 9/59 
(L.G. 1959, p. 294). They apply to the area 
in which power is supplied by the Manitoba 
Hydro-Electric Board, formerly by the Mani- 
toba Power Commission. 

The Canadian Electrical Code, Part I, 
Seventh Edition, as amended by these regu- 
lations, is again adopted as standards gov- 



824 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7961 



erning the construction, installation, main- 
tenance, repair, extension, alteration and 
use of electric wiring and related facilities. 
The main change in the regulations is 
the addition of a new "Schedule B'\ sub- 
stituting more comprehensive provisions 
relating to wiring permits and fees than 
those provided in the Code. 

Ontario Highway Traffic Act 

Ontario Regulation 123/61, governing 
the transportation of certain dangerous com- 
modities, has been issued under the High- 
way Traffic Act. It was gazetted June 3. 

The new regulation requires every com- 
mercial motor vehicle and trailer transport- 
ing on a highway flammable liquid, flam- 
mable solid, corrosive liquid, oxidizing 
material, compressed gas or poison in excess 
of 2,500 pounds including the weight of 
the shipping container, to bear on the rear 
and sides a sign, "dangerous" or, where 
applicable, "compressed gas" or "poison". 

Likewise, every tank truck and tank 
trailer transporting on a highway any of 
these commodities must bear on the rear 
and sides a sign showing the common 
name of the commodity or one of the 
following words applicable to it, namely, 
"flammable", "acid", "corrosive liquid", 
"compressed gas" or "poison". 

Similarly, every commercial motor vehicle 
and trailer transporting on a highway radio- 
active material must bear a sign, "radio- 
active material", on the rear and sides. 

The lettering on the foregoing signs must 
be not less than three inches in height and 
on a background of sharply contrasting 
colour. The sign must be removed or 
covered when the vehicle is not transport- 
ing the commodity for which the sign is 
appropriate. 

This regulation does not apply to the 
transportation of materials to which the 
Gasoline Handling Act or the Explosives 
Act (Canada), or regulations made under 
these Acts, apply. 

Saskatchewan Trade Schools Regulation Act 

In Saskatchewan, the general regulations 
respecting trade schools and the special 
regulations governing beauty culture and 
hairdressing trade schools and barbering 
schools were replaced by new regulations 
approved by O.C. 928/61 and gazetted June 
9. The new regulations made some changes 
in the provisions respecting security, sales- 
men and repayment of fees and impose 
higher registration fees than formerly. 



General Regulations 

As before, every person wishing to oper- 
ate a trade school in the province must 
register with the Deputy Minister of Educa- 
tion, submitting with the prescribed fee, 
the particulars specified. The statements as 
to courses, fees and texts, books and other 
supplies and equipment must now give 
details. Also, the certificate from the local 
medical officer of health and fire chief must 
certify that the trade school has complied 
with all building, sanitary, fire and other 
regulations and that all equipment, machin- 
ery and tools used meet all requirements. 

Upon registration, the operator may not 
make any changes in fees, courses, sales 
circulars, advertisements, certificates or in 
requirements relating to text books or other 
supplies and equipment without the approval 
of the Deputy Minister. 

The registration fee has been raised to $50 
for one course and $25 for each additional 
course, subject to a maximum fee of $275. 

Under the new regulations, the Deputy 
Minister may require a keeper or operator 
of a trade school or any person offering 
correspondence or home study courses to 
post up to $10,000 security in the form 
of a bond or policy of a surety or bond- 
ing company licensed under the Saskat- 
chewan Insurance Act, 1960. Previously, it 
was mandatory for a keeper or operator to 
post $1,000 security in the form of cash, 
bond or other security approved by the 
Deputy Minister. 

The revised regulations state that no 
person may sell trade school courses unless 
he is employed by a registered trade school 
operator and has been licensed under the 
Act. Every operator must pay a fee of $10 
in respect of each application for a sales- 
man's licence and for each renewal. The 
Deputy Minister of Education may refuse to 
grant a salesman's licence or to renew one 
if he thinks that the applicant is not a 
suitable person or he may impose such 
terms, conditions or restrictions as he deems 
necessary. When a salesman's services are 
terminated, the operator must notify the 
Deputy Minister immediately. 

No fee in excess of $25 may be collected 
from a student more than three months in 
advance of the commencement of the course 
of instruction. 

The rules regarding the amount of fees 
that may be retained by a school if a 
student does not complete his course have 
also been changed. In such cases trade 
school operators may keep only the fees 
paid for lessons completed and marked, 
or for the weeks and months of instruction 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



825 



actually taken, depending on how fees are 
fixed, plus an additional $25. 

Operators or agents of trade schools are 
again prohibited from guaranteeing a posi- 
tion to any person. No person may publish 
any advertisement relating to any trade 
school without first having obtained the 
approval of the Deputy Minister. Misleading 
advertising is also prohibited. 

In any trade school, the qualifications 
of teachers, the standards and methods of 
instruction, admission requirements, length 
of courses, maximum enrolment, condition 
of buildings, suitability of premises and 
equipment, and safety devices used are sub- 
ject to the approval of the Deputy Minister 
or other authorized person. The Deputy 
Minister must be notified whenever there 
is any change in the teaching staff or any 
change of premises. 

As previously, every trade school oper- 
ator is required to submit an annual statis- 
tical statement to the Deputy Minister. 

The Deputy Minister is again authorized 
to cancel a registration of a trade school if 
he finds that its equipment and means of 
instruction are inadequate, that the educa- 
tion and welfare of the students are insuffi- 



ciently provided for, that the charges are 
unreasonable or that any regulations are 
not being observed. 

Regulations for Beauty Culture, Hairdressing 
and Bartering Schools 

The regulations for beauty culture and 
hairdressing and barbering trade schools are 
substantially the same as formerly. 

In these schools the course of instruction 
must consist of at least 1,000 hours of 
instruction, demonstration and practice dur- 
ing a period of six months. The regulations 
further provide that the courses must include 
250 hours of instruction in theory or demon- 
stration of technique by instructors in the 
case of beauty culture and hairdressing 
schools and 150 hours in the case of 
barbering schools. 

All such schools must employ at least 
one instructor for each 15 students. Each 
instructor must be a qualified operator with 
at least two years practical experience in 
the trade. 

As before, schools are required to keep 
accurate attendance records and no person 
may receive a certificate of proficiency 
without having completed the course of 
instruction. 



Series of Broadcasts on Older Worker Problem Begins Next Month 



A series of six weekly radio broadcasts 
dealing with various aspects of the social 
and economic problem of the older worker 
will be carried this autumn by the Labour 
Department's weekly radio program "Canada 
at Work". The series will run from the 
week beginning September 24 to the end of 
the week beginning October 29 and will be 
carried by some 80 radio stations from 
coast to coast. 

The opening broadcast will be a talk by 
Hon. Michael Starr, Minister of Labour, 
who will introduce the series by describing 
the problem and its social and economic 
implications. He will explain how discrimin- 
atory attitudes can arise and how harmful 
they can be, both to the individual and the 
community at large. 

The other five broadcasts will be by 
competent authorities in their respective 
fields. The date, speaker and subject of the 
five are: 

Week beginning October 1, Miss Marion 
V. Royce, Director, Women's Bureau, De- 



partment of Labour, Ottawa, "The Older 
Woman and the Working World." 

Week beginning October 8, A. Andras, 
Director of Legislation, Canadian Labour 
Congress, "Retirement Practices and Their 
Implications." 

Week beginning October 15, James L. 
Clare, Actuarial Consultant, former Profes- 
sor of Actuarial Mathematics, University of 
Manitoba, "Do You Support Your Pension 
Plan — or Does Your Pension Plan Work 
For You?" 

Week beginning October 22, D. K. Grant, 
M.D., Director of Medical Services, Ontario 
Hydro-Electric Power Commission, "Occu- 
pational Medicine and the Older Worker." 

Week beginning October 29, speaker and 
subject to be announced. 

A list of the stations carrying these talks 
may be obtained by writing to the Infor- 
mation Branch, Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. 

Coming issues of the Labour Gazette 
will carry summaries of the talks. 



826 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1967 



UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE 



In a comparison of current employment 
statistics with those for a previous period, 
consideration should be given to relevant 
factors other than numbers such as the 
opening and closing of seasonal industries, 
increase in area population, influence of 
weather conditions, and the general employ- 
ment situation. 

Claimants should not be interpreted either 
as "total number of beneficiaries" or "total 
job applicants." 



Monthly Report on Operation of 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 

Statistics* for May show a decrease in the number of claimants for regular 
benefits, compared with May 1960. A greater decrease is recorded for initial 
than for renewal claims. The seasonal benefit period expired in mid-month. 

Claimants t for regular benefits totalled 
341,000 on May 31, in comparison with 
364,300 on May 31, 1960. 

On April 28, the claimant count was 
713,100, consisting of some 466,400 regular 
and some 246,800 seasonal benefit claims. 
Regular claimants thus declined by 125,400 
during the month and were 23,300 fewer 
than at the same date last year; almost 95 
per cent of them were males. 

Postal claimants accounted for 32 per cent 
of the total on May 31, virtually unchanged 
from last year. On April 28, there were 
35 per cent postal claimants among the 
regular claimants. 

The volume of initial and renewal claims, 
at 162,100 during May, was almost 25 per 
cent below the April total of 209,600. Dur- 
ing May 1960 the total was 165,600. 

Persons terminating their benefit rights 
and seeking to re-establish a subsequent 
benefit period filed between 45,000 and 
50,000 initial claims, estimated to be close 
to 50 per cent of the total. More than 90 
per cent of the seasonal benefit claims 
processed during May belonged in this 
category and did not represent new separa- 
tions from employment. 

The average weekly estimate of beneficiar- 
ies was 563,500 in May, in comparison with 
708,200 in April and 560,800 in May 1960. 

Benefit payments amounted to $58.7 mil- 
lion in May as against $64.5 million in April 
and $52.2 million in May 1960. 

The interval during which seasonal benefit 
was operative terminated on May 20 (May 
21 in 1960). The claimant count for the end 



of May therefore represents claimants for 
regular benefit only, whereas April figures 
include seasonal benefit. 

The average benefit payment per week 
compensated was $23.68 in May, $23.98 in 
April, and $22.17 in May 1960. 

Insurance Registrations 

Reports received from local offices of the 
Unemployment Insurance Commission for 
May showed that insurance books or con- 
tribution cards were issued to 3,706,820 
employees who had made contributions to 
the Unemployment Insurance Fund at one 
time or another since April 1, 1961. 

At May 31, registered employers num- 
bered 332,342, a decrease of 52 since April 
30, 1961. 



•See Tables E-l to E-4 at back of this issue. 

tA claimant's unemployment register is placed in 
the "live" file at the local office as soon as the 
claim is forwarded for computation. As a result, 
the count of claimants at any given time inevitably 
includes some whose claims are in process. During 
the seasonal benefit period, claims in process are 
classed as regular until the computation of their 
contribution credits indicates otherwise. 



Enforcement Statistics 

During May 1961 enforcement officers 
across Canada conducted 8,253 investiga- 
tions; 4,079 were spot checks of postal and 
counter claims to verify the fulfilment of 
statutory conditions and 174 were mis- 
cellaneous investigations. The remaining 
4,000 were investigations in connection with 
claimants suspected of making false state- 
ments to obtain benefits. 

Prosecutions* were begun in 225 cases, 
37 against employers and 188 against claim- 
ants. Punitive disqualifications as a result 
of claimants' false statements or misrepre- 
sentations numbered 2,459.* 

•These do not necessarily relate to the investi- 
gations conducted during this period. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



827 



Unemployment Insurance Fund 

Revenue received in May totalled 
$26,021,228.93, compared with $22,590,- 
150.58 in April and $25,187,592.93 in May 
1960. 



Benefits paid in May totalled $58,704,- 
100.43, compared with $64,540,209.48 in 
April and $52,213,351.82 in May 1960. 

The balance in the Fund on May 31 was 
$110,051,922.26; on April 30 it was $142,- 
734,793.76 and on May 31, 1960 it was 
$299,293,511.04. 



Decisions of the Umpire under 

the Unemployment Insurance Act 



Decision CUB-1835, April 28, 1961 

Summary of the Main Facts: The claim- 
ant, married, 35 years of age, filed an initial 
application for benefit on August 8, 1960, 
at the National Employment Office in 
Oshawa, Ontario. He stated in the applica- 
tion that he had worked as a labourer for 
the B Company, Oshawa, from No- 
vember 1959 to May 20, 1960, and that his 
reason for separation was: "Went on com- 
pensation from 23 May 1960 to 4 July 1960. 
Unemployed since 4 July 1960 — back 
injury." In regard to the latter, the record 
contains, inter alia, two letters, one dated 
August 2, 1960, addressed to the claimant 
by the Workmen's Compensation Board and 
the other dated August 8, 1960, written to 
the manager of the Oshawa office of the 

Commission by Dr. Y , M.D., of the 

South Plant Medical Centre of the B 

Company, Oshawa. They read: 

August 2, 1960 

You have been awarded $418.24 compensa- 
tion to July 4, 1960 and final. 

We have credited $275.00 of this amount to 
your employer to cover advances. A cheque for 
the balance will be mailed to you. 

August 8, 1960 

This gentleman states that Dr. X 

examined him on July 4, 1960 and found him 
capable of doing light work which was unavail- 
able as of that date. He further states that 

Dr. Z of Whitby, Ontario, released him 

for full duties as of Tuesday, August 2, 1960. 

On August 19, 1960, the claimant filed an 
application to have his claim for unemploy- 
ment insurance benefit antedated to cover 
the period from July 3, 1960, to August 7, 
1960, for the following reasons: 

I was injured 22 May 1960; I was paid sick 

benefits by the B Company until I was 

awarded compensation and was paid compensa- 
tion until 4 July 60 (see copy of letter dated 
2 August 60). I was capable of doing light 

work as of the 4 July 1960 (see the B 

Company's Medical Officer's letter d/8 Aug. 
60). I feel that I am entitled to U.I. Benefits 
from 3 July 60 and didn't come into this office 
as I thought I was still drawing compensation 
and not entitled to U.I. Benefits. 

The insurance officer allowed the claim 
effective August 7, 1960, but did not approve 
the antedate thereof, because, in his opinion, 
the claimant had not shown good cause for 



delay in making his claim (sections 46(3) of 
the Act and 150 of the Regulations). 

On September 2, 1960, the claimant 
appealed to a board of referees on the fol- 
lowing grounds: 

... I received an injury in the South Plant 

of the B Company on May 21st and was 

on compensation. I was pronounced fit for a 
light job on July 4th by an Insurance doctor, 
and also my own doctor. I reported twice to 

the B Company in order to get a light job 

and was informed that there were none avail- 
able. This was on July 4th and 5th. I was told 
by an official at the Employment Office of the 

B Company to go home and that I would 

be notified when a job became available that 
they felt that I could handle. I never received 
any call. 

On August 2nd, 1960, I received a letter 
from the Compensation Board that I was receiv- 
ing my final payment from them, which paid 
me up until July 4th, and I received the final 
cheque on August 3, 1960. 

The basis of my request to have the claim 
antedated is that I was unaware of the fact 
that my compensation was being cut off as of 
July 4th until I received the notification from 
the Compensation Board on August 2nd . . . 

The board of referees heard the case in 
Oshawa on October 5, 1960, and by a 
unanimous decision, allowed the appeal, on 
the grounds that the claimant had acted in 
good faith and was of the understanding 
that the Workmen's Compensation would 
continue; for that reason he had proved 
good cause for not filing a claim earlier. 
The decision reads in part as follows: 

. . . The claimant and his representative, the 
President of Local 222, UAW, attended the 
hearing and after the representative explained 
in detail how this became a compensation case, 
the claimant and the representative argued that 
the antedating of this claim should be allowed 
and the claimant did not receive notice from 
the Workmen's Compensation Board to the 
effect that his compensation had been discon- 
tinued as of 2nd July, and that this was a final 
payment. The claimant reiterated that when he 
was examined on 4th July (see letter dated 

8th August 1960, from the B Company), 

he was found capable of doing light work but 
such work was not available at the plant. How- 
ever, he did not file, or make application for 
employment at the local office of the UIC as 
he was of the firm opinion that compensation 
would be continued and was quite astonished 
when he received a letter from the Compensa- 
tion Board telling him that his compensation 
was discontinued as of 2nd July 1960. The 



828 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



letter to the claimant from the Workmen's Com- 
pensation Board is dated 2nd August 1960, and 
was received by claimant on 4th or 5th August 
1960 . . . 

The insurance officer appealed to the 
Umpire and stated: 

. . . This claimant restricted unduly his 
chances of obtaining work by his failure to 
register for work at his local office. He has 
failed to prove that he was available for work 
during the period for which he requested ante- 
dating and therefore he has not fulfilled one 
of the conditions imposed by Regulation 150. 

In CUB-626 the Umpire refused to disturb 
the decision of the court of referees who 
allowed the antedate where the claimant was 
not notified of the discontinuance of payments 
of compensation until two weeks after the 
effective date of discontinuance and there was 
no further delay in making the claim for bene- 
fit. In CUB 1570 the application to antedate 
was refused for a period which involved 
78 working days; the Umpire found that the 
claimant was not prevented from attending at 
the local office by circumstances beyond his 
control nor was it reasonable in the circum- 
stances that the claimant should not so attend 
as the only reason given for the failure to 
attend was because of the claimant's impression 
that he could not collect workmen's compensa- 
tion and insurance benefit at the same time. 

In the instant case the claimant knew that 
the medical officer had found him (the claim- 
ant) to be fit for work on 4 July 1960, and if 
he were uncertain of his status under the pro- 
visions of the Unemployment Insurance Act he 
should have inquired at the local office . . . 

In a statement of observations and 
representations for consideration by the 
Umpire, the President of Local 222, UAW, 
remarked: 

. . . There is no question about the fact that, 
had the claimant been notified by the Com- 
pensation Board that his compensation claim 
was final as of July 4th, the claimant would 
have filed a claim for U.I. benefits as of 
July 5th. 

The other fact is that, had the claimant filed 
a claim for benefits when he was declared fit 
for light work, and received them, and later 
also received further payments from the Com- 
pensation Board, he could have been penalized 
or prosecuted by the U.I.C. for making false 
statements when filing his claim . . . 

On behalf of the claimant and the inter- 
ested Union, the Director of Legislation, 
Canadian Labour Congress, requested and 
attended an oral hearing before the Umpire, 
which was held in Ottawa on April 7, 1961. 
The Unemployment Insurance Commission 
was represented at the hearing by Messrs. 
D. Hain and G. Kieffer. 

Considerations and Conclusions — In de- 
cision CUB 1301, which deals with the case 
of a temporarily disabled claimant who had 
applied for light work with his former 
employer only, the Umpire stated: 

It is a basic principle under the Act that, to 
be considered available for work, a claimant 
must be ready to accept at once any offer of 
suitable employment, and in no case can the 
concept of suitable employment be narrowed 
down to light work for one employer only. 



It is evident that, by restricting his availabil- 
ity to light work with the XYZ Railways, which 
was not made available to him, the claimant, 
to all intents and purposes, was foregoing all 
chances of obtaining employment. 

In the present case, the record shows that 
the only attempts made by the claimant to 
secure work during the entire period covered 
by his request to have his claim antedated 
were at the very beginning of this period, 
viz., on July 4 and 5, 1960, when he visited 
his former employer's employment office to 
obtain light work. 

Consequently, according to the established 
jurisprudence, the claimant was not avail- 
able for work during the period in question, 
thereby failing to prove that "he fulfilled 
in all respects the conditions of entitle- 
ment to benefit" as required by Regulation 
150(l)(a). 

The claimant's application to have his 
claim antedated cannot, therefore, be 
approved and I so decide. 

I consequently maintain the insurance 
officer's appeal. 

Decision CUB-1836, April 28, 1961 

Summary of the Main Facts: The claim- 
ant had worked as a labourer for the A 

Company from December 7, 1959, to 
July 21, 1960, when he was laid off because 
of a shortage of work. 

On August 2, 1960, he made an initial 
claim for benefit. His first reporting day at 
the local office was August 15, but he re- 
ported on August 12 and explained that he 
was going away on vacation. 

He reported again in person at the 
Oshawa local office on Monday, August 22, 
and stated that he had returned home on 
Saturday August 20, 1960. 

In a letter dated August 23, 1960, he 
explained that on August 2, 1960 (on which 
latter date he made his initial claim) he 
had notified the person who interviewed him 
at the local office of his intention to go 
away for a vacation and that he had been 
advised to come to the local office before 
leaving. He reported to the local office on 
August 12, 1960, and was advised by the 
interviewer to send his weekly reports by 
mail and to report again to the local office 
in person on return from his vacation. He 
returned from his vacation on Saturday, 
August 20 and reported to the local office 
on Monday, August 22. He requested the 
payment of benefit in respect of the week of 
his vacation, stating he had never had 
trouble with this before. He pointed out that 
last year he went to Picton for a week and 
this year he went to Minden. 

The insurance officer notified the claimant, 
by letter, on September 12, 1960, that he 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



829 



was disqualified from receipt of benefit for 
the period August 14 to August 20, 1960, on 
the ground that he had failed to prove he 
was available for work in that he was away 
from the area serviced by the Oshawa local 
office for the purpose of enjoying a vacation. 

The claimant appealed to a board of 
referees contending that he had followed the 
directions given him by the local office inter- 
viewer in regard to the matter of reporting 
to the local office and yet upon attending the 
local office on August 22 after just com- 
pleting his vacation, he was told that he had 
not been available for work during the 
period in question and, therefore, would not 
be paid benefit for that week. He said also 
that had he been informed by the local 
office interviewer that by leaving his home 
area, payment of benefit would be with- 
held, he would have refrained from taking 
a vacation. 

The claimant and his representative, the 
President of Local 222, UAW, attended the 
hearing of the case by a board of referees 
in Oshawa, Ontario, on October 5, 1960. 
The decision of the board reads: 

. . . The Board thought it advisable to hear 
Mr. X (the local office official who inter- 
viewed the claimant on August 12, 1960) on 
this subject and he did remember giving this 
information to the claimant. On being ques- 
tioned whether he, Mr. X , had said that 

the claim would be kept alive, he answered in 
the affirmative. However, so there could be no 
misinterpretation by what is meant by keeping 
a claim alive in circumstances of this kind, it 
would be better if this claimant had been told 
that he would not be considered available while 
out of the office area . . . 

The Board are of the opinion that this claim- 
ant thought that he was following instructions 
and that he would be entitled to benefit for the 
period in question and again reiterated that he 
would not have left the local office area had 
he been aware that he would not receive bene- 
fit as receipt of U.I. benefit affects his supple- 
mentary insurance benefit. The Board feel that 
the claimant acted in all honesty and that he 
was carrying out instructions which would 
entitle him to receipt of benefit. It was also 
noted by the Board that this claimant was on 
holiday, for the week mentioned, in the town 
of Minden, Ontario, which is approximately 
2± hours drive and had the claimant been noti- 
fied of employment he could readily have 
fulfilled the requirements, namely, to be willing 
and return within 24 hours . . . 

It is the unanimous decision of the Board of 
Referees that the claimant has proven that he 
was available for work from 14th August to 
20th August 1960, and his appeal is upheld and 
the decision of the Insurance Officer is reversed. 

The insurance officer appealed to the 
Umpire and stated: 

. . . The board of referees allowed the claim- 
ant's appeal on the following grounds: 

(1) the claimant thought that he would 
receive benefit by following the instruc- 
tions given to him by the local office; 



(2) he would not have gone away if he had 
been aware that payment of benefit 
would be withheld; 

(3) he had acted in all honesty; 

(4) he could readily have fulfilled the 
requirements, namely, to be willing and 
return within twenty-four hours if he 
had been notified of employment. 

The first three grounds invoked by the board 
to allow the appeal are not pertinent as they 
do not affect one way or another the question 
of availability. The instructions of the local 
office interviewer could permit the claimant to 
keep his claim alive by reporting as directed 
but these instructions could not have any effect 
on the proof of his availability. 

The fourth ground invoked by the board, 
although relating to availability, is not supported 
by any evidence. The claimant has not shown 
that he was seeking employment or that he was 
in any way interested in obtaining work while 
he was on vacation and he has not even alleged 
that he was willing and ready to take work 
while vacationing. To be available for work 
a claimant must be seeking work and be ready, 
able and willing to accept immediately any 
opportunity of suitable employment. Fulfilment 
of this condition is not in the mind of a person 
who has gone away to enjoy a vacation. CUBs 
218 and 1244 are pertinent and were brought 
to the attention of the board. 

I request that the decision of the board be 
set aside and that the decision of the insurance 
officer be re-instated. 

In a letter dated January 20, 1961, 
addressed to the Manager of the Oshawa 
local office of the Commission the President 
of Local 222, UAW, made certain observa- 
tions which he wished the Umpire to con- 
sider when dealing with the claimant's case. 

In a memorandum dated January 20, 
1961, also, the local office interviewer 
referred to above, stated: 

I was asked by the Chairman of the Board if 
I had advised the claimant to mail in his forms. 
My reply was that I did not remember this par- 
ticular claimant, but that the same information 
was given to every claimant who stated he was 
leaving on holiday. The Chairman remarked 
that I could then have told the claimant to 
mail in his forms, and I replied, "Yes, but that 
is not all he would be told," but was given no 
opportunity to elaborate further. 

The information I gave to claimants who 
stated that they would be unable to report as 
they would be out of town was as follows: 

Indicate on your forms in the space con- 
cerning your availability, "left on vacation", 
and indicate the day on which you leave the 
area. This way we will know that you have 
not returned to work and your claim will not 
go dormant (or will be kept alive). Report to 
this office immediately on your return because 
your availability will not commence until you 
again report in person. 

On behalf of the claimant and the inter- 
ested Union, the Director of Legislation of 
the Canadian Labour Congress, requested an 
oral hearing before the Umpire, which was 
held in Ottawa on April 7, 1961, and 
attended by him. Messrs. D. Hain and 
G. Kieffer represented the Unemployment 
Insurance Commission at the hearing. 

(Continued on page 8S6) 



830 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 J 



LABOUR CONDITIONS IN FEDERAL 
GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS 



Wage Schedules Prepared and Contracts Awarded during June 
Works of Construction, Remodelling, Repair or Demolition 

During June the Department of Labour prepared 282 wage schedules for inclusion in 
contracts proposed to be undertaken by departments of the federal Government and its 
Crown corporations in various areas of Canada, for works of construction, remodelling, 
repair or demolition. In the same period, a total of 233 contracts in these categories was 
awarded. Particulars of these contracts appear below. 

A copy of the wage schedule issued for each contract is available on request to trade 
unions concerned or to others who have a bona fide interest in the execution of the con- 
tract. 

(The labour conditions included in each of the contracts listed under the heading provide 
that: 

(a) the wage rate for each classification of labour shown in the wage schedule included 
in the contract is a minimum rate only and contractors and subcontractors are not exempted 
from the payment of higher wages in any instance where, during the continuation of the work, 
wage rates in excess of those shown in the wage schedule have been fixed by provincial 
legislation, by collective agreements in the district, or by current practice; 

(b) hours of work shall not exceed eight in the day and 44 in the week, except in 
emergency conditions approved by the Minister of Labour; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of eight per day and 44 per week; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Contracts for the Manufacture of Supplies and Equipment 

Contracts awarded in June for the manufacture of supplies and equipment were as 
follows: 

Department No. of Contracts Aggregate Amount 

Defence Construction (1951) Ltd. 5 $1,261,703.00 

Defence Production 142 1,034,848.00 

Post Office 8 59,417.12 

RCMP 9 110,295.24 

(The labour conditions included in contracts for the manufacture of supplies and equip- 
ment provide that: 

(a) all persons who perform labour on such contracts shall be paid such wages as are 
currently paid in the district to competent workmen; and if there is no current rate, then 
a fair and reasonable rate; but in no event shall the wages paid be less than those established 
by the laws of the province in which the work is being performed; 



The Fair Wages and Hours of Labour These wage schedules are thereupon in- 
legislation of the federal Government has eluded with other relevant labour condi- 
ihe purpose of insuring that all Government tions as terms of such contracts to be 
contracts for works of construction and for observed by the contractors, 
the manufacture of supplies and equipment Wage schedules are not included in con- 
contain provisions to secure the payment of tracts for the manufacture of supplies and 
wages generally accepted as fair and reason- equipment because it is not possible to 
able in each trade or classification employed determine in advance the classification to 
in the district where the work is being per- be employed in the execution of a contract, 
formed. A statement of the labour conditions which 

The practice of Government departments must be observed in every such contract 

and those Crown corporations to which the is however, included therein and is of the 

legislation applies, before entering into con- same nature and effect as those which apply 

tracts for any work of construction, re- in works of construction, 
modelling, repair or demolition, is to obtain Copies of the federal Government's Fair 

wage schedules from the Department of Wages and Hours of Labour legislation 

Labour showing the applicable wage rate may be had upon request to the Industrial 

for each classification of workmen deemed Relations Branch of the Department of 

to be required in the execution of the work. Labour, Ottawa. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 831 



(b) the working hours shall be those fixed by the custom of the trade in the district, 
or if there be no such custom, then fair and reasonable hours; 

(c) overtime rates of pay may be established by the Minister of Labour for all hours 
worked in excess of those fixed by custom of the trade in the district, or in excess of fair 
and reasonable hours; 

(d) no person shall be discriminated against in regard to employment because of his 
race, national origin, colour or religion, nor because he has made a complaint with respect 
to alleged discrimination.) 

Wage Claims Received and Payments Made during June 

During June the sum of $3,545.44 was collected from eight contracts for wage arrears 
due their employees arising out of the failure of the contractors, or their subcontractors, 
to apply the wage rates and other conditions of employment required by the schedule of 
labour conditions forming part of their contract. This amount is for distribution to the 75 
workers concerned. 

Contracts Containing Fair Wage Schedules Awarded during June 

(The labour conditions of the contracts marked (*) contain the General Fair Wages 
Clause providing for the observance of current or fair and reasonable rates of wages and 
hours of labour not in excess of eight per day and 44 per week, and also empower the 
Minister of Labour to deal with any question which may arise with regard thereto.) 

Department of Agriculture 

Fort Ellis Marsh N Si Lewis Legge, construction of dyke, Project NS 106, St. Mary's 
Bay Marsh N Si McCully & Soy Ltd, construction of dykes & drainage works, Project 
NS 52 Tufts Marsh N Si Lewis Legge, construction of dyke, Project NS 117; Beale & Inch 
Construction Ltd, construction of drainage works, Project NS 117. Upper Maccan Marsh 
N Si Beal & Inch Construction Ltd, construction of dyke & drainage works, Project NS 
119, near Marriott Sask: Thompson Construction, construction of Cleland Dam, Oungre 
Sask: Larsens' Construction Ltd, construction of Community Project, near Outlook Saski 
McNamara Construction Western Ltd, processing of concrete aggregate, South Saskatche- 
wan River Project. Fort Vermilion Altai Wesley Creighton & Associates, construction of 
duplex dwelling & double garage, Experimental Farm. Lethbridge Altai Oland Construc- 
tion (1959) Ltd, construction of dairy & calf barn, Research Station. 

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 

Chalk River Onti Ottawa Maintenance Ltd, * painting galvanized sheeting, windows, 
sash, trim & doors on exterior of Bldgs 411, 418, 419, 495, 496 & 497; Ottawa Building 
Maintenance Ltd, * painting interior of receiving & metal storage sections of Central 
Stores Bldg 457. 

Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation 

Greenwood N S: Dell Construction Co Ltd, construction of 200 houses & related 
services (DND 12/60 Air). Ajax Onti A Newman,* exterior painting of houses. Barrie 
Onti Walker Painting & Decorating Ltd,* exterior painting of houses. Hamilton Onti Derela 
General Contracting,* construction of retaining wall (FP 6/57); Delmar Contracting 
Ltd, * installation of catch basins & connections (FP 8/57). Kingston Onti Fontaine Nur- 
sery Farm, site improvement for 71 housing units (FP 4/58). Petawawa Onti C L M 
Industries Ltd,* installation of line filters to fire alarm circuits & domestic hot water 
controls (DND 13/58 phase 1 Army); C L M Industries Ltd,* installation of line filters 
to fire alarm circuits & domestic hot water controls (DND 13/58, phase 11 Army). 
Sault Ste Marie Onti J V Rotterdam, exterior painting of 84 housing uits (VR 6/48). 
Windsor Onti Wilson Tree Service Ltd,* tree preservation (FP 5/59, phase 1). Windsor 
& Essex Onti National Painting & Decorating Ltd, exterior painting of 374 housing units. 
Regina Saski Les Mair & Co, exterior painting of 115 housing units (VR 7/48), Calgary 
Altai Park & Derochie Decorating Co Ltd, exterior painting of 125 housing units, projects 
4 & 4A/48. 

Department of Citizenship and Immigration 

Dauphin Indian Agency Mam Sawchyn, Kostiuk & Andreychuk, road construction, Pine 
Creek Reserve. Norway House Indian Agency Mam Hudson Bay Plumbing Co Ltd, re- 
placement of domestic hot water boiler & associated work, Cross Lake IRS. Portage la 

832 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 J 






Prairie Indian Agency Man: Plains City Electric Co, electrical re-wiring of Portage la 
Prairie IRS Touchwood Indian Agency Sask: Comfort Plumbing & Heating Ltd, renovations 
to mechanical services, Muscowequan IRS. Blockfoot Indian Agency Alta: C Bolderhey 
Construction Co Ltd, tile flooring & decorating, Crowfoot IRS. Edmonton Indian Agency 
Alta: St Laurent Construction Ltd, construction of staff residence, Janvier Reserve. Lesser 
Slave Lake Indian Agency Alta: High Prairie Plumbing & Heating Ltd, mechanical re- 
visions & alterations, Joussard IRS. Saddle Lake Indian Agency Alta: George Williams Con- 
struction Ltd, road construction, Saddle Lake Reserve; Genereux Bldg Sulies, renovation 
of Goodfish Lake Community Hall, Goodfish Lake Indian Reserve. Terrace Indian Agency 
B. C: Ellis Hughes Electric Ltd, electrical wiring & construction of diesel electric ower lant, 
Canyon City Indian day school; Martin Bros Ltd, installation of domestic water supply 
system, Kitimat Indian Reserve No. 2. Yukon Indian Agency Y T: Acme Painters & Deco- 
rators, repairs & improvements to Carcross IRS. 

Defence Construction (1951) Limited 

Greenwood N S: Wheaton Construction Co Ltd, filling in concrete buttons for argus 
turn around areas, RCAF Station. Camp Borden Ont: Ontario Electrical Construction Co 
Ltd, installation of electrical distribution system. Borage la Brairie Man: Claydon Co Ltd, 
erection & finishing of prefabricated steel bldg, RCAF Station. Shilo Man: Maple Leaf 
Construction Ltd, paving of loading & parking areas in Camp. New Westminster B C: Lick- 
ley, Johnson, Palmer Construction Ltd, construction of barracks bldg, HMCS Alder grove. 

Building and Maintenance 

Barrie field Ont: Kingston Decorating Ltd, exterior painting of 16 bldgs. Camp Borden 
Ont: Joseph Downey & Son, exterior painting of 239 PMQ's. Centralia Ont: Walmsley 
Bros Ltd, asphalt paving overlay, PMQ roads, RCAF Station. Kingston Ont: Quintal & 
England Ltd, restoring roof of Bldg No. 33, RMC. St. Catharines Ont: Moir Construction 
Co Ltd, replacing flashings & repairing roof & Masonry, Armoury. Bortage la Brairie Man: 
Accurate Electrical Contractor, construction of aerodrome lighting facilities; Waterman- 
Waterbury Co Ltd, heating & ventilating modifications, MSE Bldg, RCAF Station. Edmon- 
ton Alta: Crown Paving & Concrete Ltd, repairs to asphalt paving & curbs, Griesbach 
Barracks. 

Department of Defence Production 

Aldershot N S: Fred T Cleveland, exterior painting of bldgs at Camp. Cornwallis N S: 
M L Foster, exterior painting of various bldgs, HMCS Cornwallis. Halifax N S: Grinnell 
Co of Canada Ltd, alterations & installation of ventilating & fire protection systems in In- 
flammable Stores Bldg D-57, HMCS Dockyard; Standard Construction Co Ltd, renewal 
of mastic floor covering with new concrete & installation of electrical duct system in Bldg 
No S-9, HMCS Stadacona. Moncton N B: Rayner Construction Ltd, excavating around 
perimeter of foundation & removing weeping tile & crushed stones, etc. No. 5 Supply 
Depot. Bagotville Que: Gustave Morin, exterior painting of PMQ's, RCAF Station; Plante 
& Frere Enr, replacing built-up roof of Bldg No. 87, RCAF Station; Vaillancourt & Boivin 
Enr, waterproofing of concrete block bldgs, RCAF Station. Mont Apica Que: R Morissette 
& Fils Enr, construction of foundation & pouring of concrete floor, RCAF Station. Barent 
Que: Betteridge & Smith Construction Co,* construction of concrete pad, RCAF Station. 
St. Hubert Que: Richard-Wilcox Canadian Co Ltd, replacing rolling steel doors, hangar 
No 7, RCAF Station. Ste Therese Que: Houle & Frere Inc, repairs to lightning arresters, 
Permanent Magazines, No 4 Works Coy, RCE, Bouchard Detachment. Centralia Ont: 
Cornell Construction Co Ltd, sand sealing of station roads. Guelph Ont: Cardinal Paint- 
ing & Decorating Co Ltd, painting & repairing Armoury. Fort Churchill Man: Trevi- 
Tile Co, resurfacing floor in officers' mess kitchen. Neepawa Man: Bridge & Tank Western 
Ltd, replacing tubes & tube sheets in hot air furnace, drill hall. Dundurn Sask: Canada 
Catering Co Ltd, catering. Canoe Lake Alta: Foundation Co of Canada Ltd,* installa- 
tion of observation windows in quadrant bldgs. Lancaster Bark Alta: J Mason & Son 
Ltd, painting interior of bldgs, RCAF Station, Namao. Benhold Alta: Border Paving Ltd, 
construction of asphalt roadway & concrete curbing, RCAF Station. North Jerico B C: 
Helge Harvest Painting Co Ltd, interior painting of houses, 2nd Ave & Discovery St. 
Prince Rupert B C: Eby & Sons Ltd. replacing floor beams & erecting concrete footings, 
HMCS Chatham. Vernon B C: Postill & Son, asphalt paving, Sub-Detachment. 

Department of Justice 

Dorchester N B: La Construction Acadienne Ltee, interior completion of industrial 
shops bldg C-18, Dorchester Penitentiary; La Construction Acadienne Ltee, construction 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 833 



of farm camp type "A" bldg No F-58, Dorchester Penitentiary. Stony Mountain Man: Petei 
Leitch Construction Ltd, construction of farm camp type "A" bldg No F-34, Manitoba 
Penitentiary. 

Department of Mines and Technical Surveys 

Victoria B C: Yarrows Ltd,* repairs of CHS Wm J Stewart. 

National Harbours Board 

Halifax N S: Standardd Construction Co Ltd, reconstruction of trucking ramp; Purdy 
Bros Ltd, replacement of landside steel doors, shed 22. Saint John N B: E F Andersen, 
construction of rest room facilities, Pier 2-3 extension. Montreal Que: J D Stirling & 
Walsh Canadian Construction Co Ltd, construction of wharf extension, Sections 65 to 68; 
Louis Donolo Inc, construction of Toll Plaza & Administration Bldg, Section 4, Cham- 
plain Bridge. Vancouver B C: Burns & Dutton Concrete & Construction Co Ltd, installa- 
tion of flax cleaners, No 3 Elevator. 

Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources 

Halifax N S: Scotia Sprinklers Ltd, supply & installation of sprinkler system in Old 
Town Clock, Halifax Citadel; Enterprise Stoves Ltd, * installation of heating system for 
Old Town Clock, Halifax Citadel. Louisbourg N S: Barrington & Vokey, * replacement of 
copper roof sections for Museum Bldg & custodian's residence at Fortress. Riding Mountain 
National Park Man: Minnedosa Plumbing & Heating Ltd, * installation of heating systems 
in toilet & shower bldgs. Prince Albert National Park Sask: Arthur George Lanz, road 
work on Crean Lake Road & Waskesiu Highway. Jasper National Park Aha: Brent Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of Medicine Lake-Maligne Lake Road. 

Department of Public Works 

Burnt Island Nflld: Diamond Construction (1955) Ltd, wharf reconstruction. Channel 
Nfld: Saunders, Howell & Co Ltd, construction of federal bldg. Codroy Nfld. T C Gorman 
(Nova Scotia) Ltd, construction of breakwater & harbour improvements. St. Bernard's Nfld: 
Babb Construction Ltd, breakwater reconstruction. Charlottetown P E I: Curran & Briggs 
Ltd, sea wall extension. Prince Edward Island National Park P E I: Jerome O'Brien, seed- 
ing, Gulf Shore Road from Brackley Point Road to West end of Rustico Island. Souris P E I: 
L E Wellner Jr, wharf acquisition & reconstruction. Comeauville N S: Joseph S Surette, 
breakwater improvements. Iingwall N S: Chisholm Construction Co Ltd, harbour improve- 
ments. Halifax N S: Fundy Construction Co Ltd, quay wall repairs, HMC Dockyard; 
Cambrian Construction Ltd, construction of bldg for Queen's Printer. Osborne N S: 
Shelburne Contracting Ltd, wharf repairs. West Baccaro N S: Mosher & Rawding Ltd, 
harbour improvements. Island River N B: J W & J Anderson Ltd, wharf extension. St. 
Martin's N B: R L Galbraith, wharf repairs. Shippegan N B: Tracy Construction Inc, 
harbour improvements. Anse au Griffon Que: Perimo Construction Inc, harbour improve- 
ments. Beauharnois Que: Giard Construction Co Ltd, construction of federal bldg. 
Farnham Que: P Baillargeon Ltee, construction of retaining wall. Fort Chimo Que: The 
Tower Co (1961) Ltd, construction of nursing station. Natashquan Que: Landry Construc- 
tion, concrete pavement at wharf. Pointe au Loup Que: Perimo Construction Inc, break- 
water improvements. Port St Francois Que: Rolland Lemire, construction of protection 
works. Rimouski Que: Jean Marie Boucher, construction of shed. Riviere au Renard Que: 
Perimo Construction Inc, repairs to protection works; Clement Dumaresq, fishing harbour 
repairs. Roberval Que: Wilfrid Gagnon, alterations to UIC space, federal bldg. St Andre de 
Kamouraska Que: Jean-Baptiste Rioux, wharf repairs. Carleton Place Ont: M Sullivan & 
Son Ltd, construction of WSAC Bldg. Goderich Ont: Dean Construction Co Ltd, pier 
reconstruction. Hamilton Ont: Wilchar Construction Ltd, additions & alterations to Terminal 
"A". Ottawa Ont: Stanley G Brookes, re-lighting of main library, reading room & adjoining 
offices, Supreme Court Bldg; Shore & Horwitz Construction Co Ltd, construction of UIC 
Bldg; Wm D'Aoust Construction Ltd, construction of translators' booths, Senate Chamber; 
Perini Ltd, construction of Administration Bldg, Tunney's Pasture, Dept of National Health 
& Welfare; P E Brule Co Ltd, construction of DPW district office bldg, Plouffe Park; 
Proulx Electric, electrical alterations, RCMP Barracks bldg, 31 Spadina Ave. Rondeau 
(Erieau) Ont: Ruliff Grass Construction Co Ltd, breakwater repairs. Dauphin Man: Louis 
Ducharme & Associates Ltd, construction of dormitory bldg & laundry addition to school, 
Dauphin Indian Agency. Gimli Man: Nelson River Construction Ltd, construction of 
breakwater. Regina Sask: Rapistan Canada Ltd, installation of forward parcels primary 
sorting equipment, Post Office. Banff National Park Alta: Bill Hopps & Co Ltd, painting & 

834 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1 96 1 



minor repairs to structures on Trans-Canada Highway. Edson Alta: Watson (Tofield) Ltd, 
construction of RCMP detachment quarters. Lacombe Alta: Fraser & Rice Construction 
Ltd, construction of federal bldg. St Albert Alta: Robert Holzer Construction, construction 
of post office bldg. Co-op Bay (Egmont) B C: Greenlees Piledriving Co Ltd, float extension. 
Matilda Creek B C: T Gibson, approach & float repairs. Sea Otter Cove & San Josef Bay 
B C: Pacific Piledriving Co Ltd, construction of additional mooring buoys. Yoho National 
Park B C: General Construction Co Ltd, bituminous concrete pavement, Mile to 16, 
Trans-Canada Highway. Enterprise N W T: Park Bros Ltd & Bain Bros Construction Ltd, 
reconstruction of MacKenzie Highway, Mile 25 southerly to Mile 51. Fort Providence 
N W T: Territorial Expeditors Ltd, construction of wharf. Yellowknife N W T: Frenchy's 
Transport Ltd, construction of Yellowknife River Bridge approaches; Lanky Exploration 
& Development Ltd, alignment improvements, Mile 1-2, Airport Road. Flat Creek — Eagle 
Plain Y T: Pembina River Construction Ltd, grading & culverts, Mile 62-74, Development 
Road. 

Contracts Containing the General Fair Wages Clause 

St John's Nfld: Canadian Ingersoll Rand Co Ltd, construction of pneumatic drilling 
rig for Drillboat 401. Cape St Mary's N S: Trask & Shaw Ltd, dredging. Carleton Village 
N S: Shelburne Contracting Ltd, dredging. Digby N S: Eric Van Tassel, construction of 
pedestrian ramp, federal bldg. Liverpool N S: Harbour Development Ltd, dredging. Trout 
Cove N S: Shelburne Contracting Ltd, dredging. Shippegan N B: Verreault Navigation Inc, 
dredging. Bonaventure Que: Gilles Forest, installation of lock boxes, federal bldg. Havre 
Aubert Que: McNamara Marine Ltd, dredging. He aux Noix Que: Armand Barriere, wharf 
raising. Mont Louis Que: Horace Lemieux, wharf repairs. Montreal Que: Honeywell Con- 
trols Ltd, preventative maintenance contract on automatic controls, National Film Board 
Bldg. Rock Island Que: Wm Lavallee Construction Ltd, alterations to Post Office bldg. 
Vercheres Que: Les Entreprises Sorel Engrs, repairs to lighting system. Beamsville Ont: 
Stork Construction, installation of lock boxes, Post Office. Cobourg Ont: Cobourg Con- 
struction Ltd, waling repairs. Collingwood Ont: Ontario Marine & Dredging Ltd, dredging. 
Grant's Landing Ont: L R Brown & Co, wharf repairs. Kingsville Ont: Russell Construc- 
tion Ltd, dredging. Ottawa Ont: John A Hoskins, repairs to 30 Lydia St; Normand Con- 
struction, alterations to No 6 Temporary Bldg; A Lanctot Construction Co Ltd, repairs to 
RCMP Bldg; Beaudoin Construction Ltd, installation of metal partitions, Jackson Bldg; 
McAuliffe-Grimes Ltd, alterations to 40 Lydia St; M Pharand Construction alterations in 
Board Room, Hunter Bldg; Rene Cleroux, plumbing repairs, Neatby Bldg, CEF; H H 
Popham & Co Ltd, installation of metal partitions, 615 Booth St; Picco & Kolman, repairs 
to East Block; Fixit Household Services Ltd, modifications to boilers, boiler room, Cartier 
Square; Glebe Electric Ltd, improvement to lighting system, Connaught Bldg; Decoration 
Raymond, redecoration of basement, Mackenzie Bldg; Stanley G Brookes, installation of 
buzzer system, laboratory, CEF; Superior Propane Ltd, alterations to various bldgs, Tun- 
ney's Pasture; Doran Constrluction Co, alterations to Dairy Research Bldg, CEF; A G Reed, 
improvement to lighting system, Postal Terminal Bldg: Otis Elevator Co Ltd, elevator 
modifications, 514 Sussex St; Potter Bros & Co, installation of window air conditionng unit, 
No 5 Temporary Bldg; Stanley Sulphur Construction Co Ltd, alterations to RCMP Head- 
quarters; J R Statham Construction Ltd, alterations to Confederation Bldg; Roland 
Lariviere, structural alterations to Trade & Commerce Bldg; Shore & Horwitz Construction 
Co, renovations to No 3 Temporary Bldg. Parry Sound Ont: Lloyd Parrick, alterations to 
federal bldg; Darlington Construction, wharf repairs. Port McNicoll Ont: Ontario Marine 
& Dredging Ltd, dredging. St Williams Ont: Marine Service & Contracting Ltd, dredging. 
Tobermory Ont: E D Kalfleich & C Whicher, repairs to glance booms. Toronto Ont: R W H 
Binnie Ltd, alterations to Arthur Meighen Bldg; Otis Elevator Co Ltd, installation of 
security locks, Mackenzie Bldg; McNamara Marine Ltd, dredging. Wolfe Island Cut Ont: 
McNamara Marine Ltd, dredging. Winnipeg Man: Building Mechanises Ltd, alterations to 
federal bldg. Chemainus B C: Pacific Piledriving Co, float renewal. Fraser River B C: 
British Columbia Bridge & Dredging Co Ltd, dredging. Vancouver B C Burrard Dry Dock 
Ltd, overhaul of Dredge PWD 322 & auxiliary craft. 

St. Lawrence Seaway Authority 

Cote Ste Catherine Que: B & D Transport Ltee, construction of access road from High- 
way 9C to Cote Ste Catherine wharf & back-filling portion of wharf. Montreal Que: Frost 
Steel & Wire Co (Quebec) Ltd, supply & erection of chain link fencing at Jacques Cartier 
Bridge & Cote Ste Catherine Lock. Cardinal Ont: Roads Resurfacing Co Ltd, paving of 
causeway. St Catharines Ont: Stewart-Hinan Corporation Ltd, construction of linemen's 
bldgs at Locks 1, 2, 4, 5 & 6, Welland Canal. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7961 835 



Department of Transport 

Gull Island Nfld: J J Hussey Ltd, construction of single dwelling & double bungalow 
& demolition of existing dwelling. Peckford's Island Nfld: Davis Construction Ltd, con- 
struction of double bungalow, combined fog alarm bldg & light tower & demolition of 
existing bldgs. Cape Spencer N B: Ralph Chouinard, construction of two single dwellings 
& demolition of assistant lightkeeper's dwelling. Bird Rocks, M. I, Que: J M Cote, con- 
struction of combined fog alarm & radio beacon bldg. Montreal Que: The Highway Paving 
Co Ltd, extension & strengthening of runway 06L-24R & surface treatment of runway 10-28, 
International Airport. Quebec Que: Arno Electric Reg'd, construction of LI lighting for 
approaches 12 & 30 & taxiway extension, Airport. Sherbrooke Que: Newton Construction 
Co Ltd, construction of transmitter bldg & related work. Collingwood Ont: Collingwood 
Shipyards, * construction of twin screw passenger & cargo vessel, near Lakefield Ont: 
Stanley R Leeper, construction of two lockmaster's dwellings at Locks No 22 & 24. 
Malton Ont: Dufferin Construction Co Ltd, paving of service roads, Airport; K J Beamish 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of concrete taxiways & gravel roadways to new hanger 
area, Airport (Millard & Sanderson Acfield). North Bay Ont: Curran & Briggs Ltd, con- 
struction of terminal area roads & car park, Airport. Owen Sound Ont: Russel Bros,* 
construction of twin screw diesel engine supply & buoy vessel, near Port Rowan Ont: Backus 
Construction Co Ltd, construction of frame dwelling at Long Point lightstation. Sault 
Ste Marie Ont: Towland Construction Ltd, construction of car parking area & service roads, 
Airport Matthews Concrete Ltd, installation of water supply & sewage disposal sys- 
tem for terminal area. Lynn Lake Man: Tallman Construction Co Ltd & Simkin's Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of garage, relocation of staff dwellings & related work. 
The Pas Man: Lamb & Murray, installation of LI lighting, approach No 30, Airport. North 
Battle ford Sask: Larry's Electric Ltd, installation of LI lighting, approach No 12, Airport. 
Edmonton Alta: Remi Berube, discing, floating, etc of areas adjacent to runway 01-19 & 
11-29 & related work, International Airport; McRae & Associates Construction Ltd, 
construction of NDB bldg & related work at Coulee. Fort McMurray Alta: Poole Con- 
struction Co Ltd, construction of garage, relocation of staff dwellings & related work. 
Abbotsford B C: Deitcher's Construction, construction of ILS localizer, glide path, middle 
marker bldgs & related work, Airport. Addenbroke Island B C: McGinnis Construction 
Ltd, construction of single dwelling. Boat Bluff B C: J H Todd & Sons Ltd, construction 
of single dwelling, Lightstation. Bull Harbour B C: Quinney & Fuller Construction Ltd, 
construction of radio control bldg & related work. Fort St John B C: Electric Power 
Equipment Ltd, construction of airport lighting facilities including LI lights on approach 
11. Hope B C: Frank's Sheet Metal & Plumbing Ltd, renewal of water system, Airport. 
Fort Smith N W T: Fort Smith Construction, construction of extension to hydrogen 
generator & balloon inflation bldg & related work. Norman Wells N W T: Byrnes & Hall 
Construction Ltd, construction of garage & related work. Resolute Bay N W T: The Tower 
Co (1961) Ltd, prefabrication & erection of mess & recreation bldg, laboratory bldg & 
related work. Yellowknife N W T: Poole Construction Co Ltd, construction of garage & 
related work. Mayo Y T Ewing Transport development of NDB site & related work. 



Decisions of Umpire 



consider that he has failed to prove that he 
was available for work during the said 

(Continued from page 8S0) period. I consequently decide to allow the 

Considerations and Conclusions: In De- insurance officer's appeal, 
cision CUB 126, the Umpire stated: "It is I must add that the claimant's absence 
not the intent of the Act to allow benefit to from the local office area during the period 
be paid to insured persons when they are in question was not a consideration in reach- 
on voluntary vacation." ing my decision, which decision would have 

By his own admission, the claimant in the been the same had he stayed in Oshawa and 

present case was on vacation during the taken a vacation at that particular time, 

period August 14 to August 20, 1960. More- Therefore, the conversation which allegedly 

over, he has adduced no evidence to show took place between him and the local office 

that he made or even intended to make any employee when he visited that office on 

search for employment during that period. August 12, 1960, had no bearing whatsoever 

In view of the foregoing circumstances, I on the point at issue. 

836 THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



PRICES AND THE COST OF LIVING 



Consumer Price Index, July 1961 

The consumer price index (1949=100) 
remained unchanged at 129.0 between June 
and July 1961*. Seasonally higher prices 
within the food component and a slight 
increase in the health and personal care 
component were offset by declines in the 
clothing, transportation, and recreation and 
reading components. The housing, and 
tobacco and alcohol indexes remained un- 
changed over the period. 

The food index increased 1.1 per cent to 
124.9 from 123.5 due primarily to seasonally 
higher prices for most fresh vegetables and 
eggs. Increased prices for some meat items 
and coffee were also recorded. The increases 
were partially offset by lower prices for a 
variety of fresh fruit items, particularly 
oranges, grapes and strawberries. 

The housing component remained un- 
changed at 132.9 over the period. A slight 
increase in the shelter index was balanced 
by a similar decline in the household opera- 
tion index. Both the rent and home-owner- 
ship sub-groups advanced slightly due to 
increased repair prices and in the latter sub- 
group prices were higher for new houses. 

Within household operation, the home 
furnishings index declined as a result of 
lower prices for most appliances and furni- 
ture items, carpets and cotton sheets. Prices 
of dishes and glassware increased, however. 
The household supplies and services index 
advanced slightly, with higher prices for 
toilet paper, floor wax and household help. 

The clothing index moved down 0.3 per 
cent from 112.5 to 112.2, as slightly lower 
prices were recorded for men's wear 
and more significant declines occurred in 
women's wear and piece goods. The decrease 
was primarily due to sale prices for men's 
suits, women's street dresses and spring 
coats, and dress material. 

A decline of 1.8 per cent occurred in the 
transportation index which moved to 138.7 
from 141.2, as a result of reductions in 
automobile prices. The removal of the excise 
tax on passenger cars combined with normal 
seasonal price declines appreciably lowered 
the index for automobile purchase. The 
price of gasoline advanced slightly over the 
period. 

*See Table F-l at back of book. 

THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 J 

98232-2—7 



The health and personal care index moved 
up fractionally from 155.0 to 155.1, an 
increase of 0.1 per cent. The health care 
component was unchanged over the period, 
while the index of personal care supplies 
increased 0.2 per cent. 

The recreation and reading index declined 
0.5 per cent to 145.0 from 145.8. The 
decrease was due to the recreation com- 
ponent in which prices of television sets and 
radios declined seasonally. The tobacco and 
alcohol index remained unchanged at 115.8. 

City Consumer Price Indexes, June 1961 

Consumer price indexes for 10 regional 
cities (1949=100) remained unchanged in 
four centres between May and June 1961; 
four indexes increased and two declinedf. 

Increases were 0.3 per cent in St. John's 
and Montreal and 0.1 per cent in Winnipeg 
and Saskatoon-Regina; Saint John, Ottawa, 
Toronto and Edmonton-Calgary showed no 
change. Declines were recorded of 0.2 per 
cent in Halifax and of 0.5 per cent in 
Vancouver. 

Increases in the food indexes were com- 
mon to five cities, ranging from 0.2 per 
cent in Edmonton-Calgary to 0.7 per cent 
in St. John's, Ottawa, and Saskatoon-Regina. 
Indexes in the other five cities declined, with 
decreases ranging from 0.1 per cent in 
Toronto to 1.6 per cent in Vancouver. 

The shelter group index advanced in five 
cities, remained unchanged in three and de- 
clined in two. Clothing indexes were up in 
three cities, unchanged in four, and down in 
three. In the household operation group, 
six cities registered an incerase, two recorded 
declines, and two remained unchanged. 
Other commodities and services indexes were 
higher in two cities, lower in two, and 
unchanged in the remaining six. 

Regional consumer price index point 
changes between May and June were as fol- 
lows: Montreal +0.4 to 128.3; St. John's 
+0.3 to 117.0*; Winnipeg +0.1 to 126.7; 
Saskatoon-Regina +0.1 to 124.7; Vancouver 
-0.7 to 128.4; Halifax -0.2 to 127.8. Saint 
John, Ottawa, Toronto and Edmonton- 
Calgary remained unchanged at 129.7, 129.0, 
130.2 and 124.2 respectively. 

fOn base June 1951=100. 

•See Table F-2 at back of book. 



837 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



Index 1949=100 



Index 1949=100 




Wholesale Price Index, May 1961 

Canada's general wholesale price index 
(1935-39=100) rose to 231.3 in May, 0.2 
per cent higher than in April but 0.1 per 
cent below May 1960. 

Two major group indexes were higher and 
five were lower in May than in April; the 
iron products group index remained un- 
changed at 259.1. 

The non-ferrous metals group index 
advanced 2.1 per cent in May, to 178.3 from 
174.7 in April, mainly because of increases 
in prices for copper, copper products, and 
tin. 

The non-metallic minerals group index 
declined 0.4 per cent to 183.8 in May from 
184.5 in April, due to lower prices for clay 
and allied products and for petroleum 
products. 

Principal causes for the 0.7 per cent 
increase in the textile products group index 
were higher prices for raw cotton, worsted 
and wool cloth, and worsted yarns; the index 
went up to 234.4 from 232.8. 

Decreases of 0.2 per cent or less occurred 
in the following four major group indexes 
vegetable products to 200.2 from 200.6 
chemical products to 187.8 from 188.0 
animal products to 250.8 from 251.0; and 
wood products to 302.2 from 302.3. 



U.S. Consumer Price Index, June 1961 

The United States consumer price index 
(1947-49=100) rose 0.2 per cent to 127.6 
in June, a record for any month. The 
previous peak for the index was 127.5, 
reached last December. However, the June 
rise did not disturb the basic stability of the 
index and did not cut into the purchasing 
power of the average factory worker. 

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 
attributes the increase to price increases for 
fresh fruit and vegetables, in short supply 
at the time, and to higher prices for used 
cars, West Coast gasoline, and housing 
items. 

Last month's index was 0.9 per cent 
higher than in June 1960, mainly because 
of a 2 per cent rise in costs of services; 
home repairs, hospitalization and surgical 
insurance, doctors' fees and public trans- 
portation fares also contributed to its rise 
over the year. 

U.K. Index of Retail Prices, May 1961 

The United Kingdom index of retail prices 
(Jan. 17, 1956=100) rose from 113.3 to 
113.6 between mid-April and mid-May. At 
this level it was 3.3 points above the level 
of May 1960. 



838 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



Publications Recently Received 

in Department of Labour Library 



The publications listed below are not for 
sale by the Department of Labour. Persons 
wishing to purchase them should communi- 
cate with the publishers. Publications listed 
may be borrowed by making application to 
the Librarian, Department of Labour, 
Ottawa. Students must apply through the 
library of their institution. Applications for 
loans should give the number (numeral) 
of the publication desired and the month 
in which it was listed in the Labour 
Gazette. List No. 154 

Canada at Work Broadcasts 

The following four talks were sponsored 
and published by the Federal Department 
of Labour in Ottawa in 1961. 

1. Haslam, Phyllis. The Elizabeth Fry 
Society. Pp. 4. 

The speaker is Executive Director, Toronto 
Branch of the Elizabeth Fry Society. She tells 
about a day's activities in the Toronto Branch 
of the Society. This organization helps girls 
and women who have come into conflict with 
the law. 

Kirkpatrick, A. M. The John Howard 
Societies. Pp. 5. 

The speaker is Executive Director of the 
John Howard Society of Ontario. He tells 
about the work of the John Howard Societies 
in helping released prisoners. 

3. Macdonald, J. Lorne. Social Work 
and Canadian Welfare. Pp. 4. 

The speaker, Assistant Professor of Social 
Work of the University of Ottawa, talked 
about social work as a career. 

4. Taylor, A. Charles. Farm Safety. 
Pp. 4. 

A talk about accidents on the farm and how 
they are caused. 

Economic Conditions 

5. Canada. Bureau of Statistics. Private 
and Public Investment in Canada, 1946- 
1957. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1959. Pp. 
39. 

"This publication draws together ... the final 
estimates . . . that were previously published 
annually in the reports 'Private and Public 
Investment in Canada, Outlook'," issued by the 
Dept. of Trade and Commerce. 

6. Great Britain. Treasury. Preliminary 
Estimates of National Income and Expendi- 
ture, 1955 to 1960. London, HMSO, 1961. 
Pp. 15. 

7. Hansen, Alvtn Harvey. Monetary 
Theory and Fiscal Policy. New York, 
McGraw-Hill, 1949. Pp. 236. 

8. United Nations. Economic Com- 
mission for Europe. Economic Survey of 
Europe in 1960; Including Studies of Some 



Problems of Agricultural Development in 
Europe and the Soviet Union, Europe and 
the Trade Needs of the Less Developed 
Countries and Economic Development in 
Albania and Bulgaria. Geneva, 1961. 1 vol. 
(various pagings). 

9. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic Com- 
mittee. Current Economic Situation and 
Short-Run Outlook. Hearings before the 
Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the 
United States, Eighty-Sixth Congress, 
Second Session, pursuant to Sec. 5(a) of 
Public Law 304 (79th Congress). December 
7 and 8, 1960. Washington, GPO, 1961. 
Pp. 266. 

The witnesses before the Committee were 
asked to discuss the present economic situa- 
tion in terms of employment trends, rates of 
use of capacity, demand, etc., and to suggest 
ways of improving the economy. 

10. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic 
Committee. January 1961 Economic 
Report of the President and the Economic 
Situation and Outlook. Hearings before the 
Joint Economic Committee, Congress of 
the United States, Eighty-Seventh Congress, 
First Session, pursuant to Sec. 5(a) of Public 
Law 304 (79th Congress). Washington, 
GPO, 1961. Pp. 725. 

Hearings held between February 9 and 
April 10, 1961. 

11. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic 
Committee. 1961 Joint Economic Report; 
Report of the Joint Economic Committee, 
Congress of the United States, on the 
January 1961 Economic Report of the Presi- 
dent, with Minority and Other Views. 
Washington, GPO, 1961. Pp. 138. 

Employment Management 

12. British Productivity Council. 
Work Study in Hotels and Catering. London 
[n.d., I960?] Pp. 28. 

Contains eleven case studies pointing out 
how work study has resulted in elimination of 
waste, reduction of costs and more efficient 
use of staff in hotels and restaurants. 

13. National Association of Manu- 
facturers of the United States of 
America. Industrial Relations Division. 
Report on Employment of Mature Workers. 
New York, 1960. Pp. 36. 

A brief report on the problem of the older 
workers and a presentation of arguments for 
hiring them. 

14. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Pension Plans under Collective Bargaining: 
Normal Retirement, Early and Disability 
Retirement, Fall 1959. Washington, GPO 
1961. Pp. 53. 

An analysis of 300 selected pension plans 
under collective bargaining. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



839 



Industrial Disputes 

15. Ross, Arthur Max. Changing Pat- 
terns of Industrial Conflict, by Arthur M. 
Ross and Paul T. Hartman. New York, 
Wiley, 1960. Pp. 220. 

An analysis of national trends and inter- 
national differences in strike activity in fifteen 
countries of North America, Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and Australia. Two of the findings of 
the authors are: "a pronounced decline in 
strike activity throughout the world" and, 
"those strikes that do occur have been growing 
much shorter." 

16. Strand, Kenneth Thomson. Juris- 
dictional Disputes in Construction: the 
Causes, the Joint Board and the NLRB. 
Pullman, Washington State University, 
School of Economics and Business, Bureau 
of Economic and Business Research, 1961. 
Pp. 197. 

The author attempts to answer these ques- 
tions: 1. What causes jurisdictional disputes 
and strikes in the construction industry? 2. How 
can these jurisdictional disputes and strikes be 
settled? 3. What attempts have been made to 
establish a method of settling the disputes? 
4. Is the National Joint Board for Settlement of 
Jurisdictional Disputes in the Building and 
Construction Industry effective? 5. Is the Taft- 
Hartley Act effective in helping to settle dis- 
putes? 6. Can improvements be made in either 
the National Joint Board for Settlement of 
Jurisdictional Disputes or the Taft-Hartley Act? 

17. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
National Emergency Disputes under the 
Labor Management Relations (Taft-Hartley) 
Act, 1947-October 1960. Washington, GPO, 
1961. Pp. 24. 

Gives a chronological account of 17 disputes. 
Includes information about the Board of En- 
quiry set up to handle each dispute. 

Industrial Relations 

18. American Management Association. 
Industrial Relations Forum. New York, 
1961. Pp. 100. 

Includes discussions on the implications of 
recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions on the 
subject of labour-management relations, par- 
ticularly labour arbitration and management 
rights, the changing functions of personnel and 
industrial relations management, compensation 
and employee benefits policies and practices, 
and how to tell employees about Electronic 
Data Processing. 

19. Foenander, Orwell de Ruyter. 
Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration in 
Australia. Sydney, Law Book Co. of 
Australasia Pty. ltd., 1959. Pp. 220, 119. 

The author "explains the nature of the 
regulatory machinery at present operative 
under the industrial law of the Common- 
wealth and the individual states, and indicates 
alternatives to which resort could be made if 
it were decided to abandon the methods and 
procedures now followed in Australia." 

20. Kolaja, Jmi Thomas. A Polish 
Factory; A Case Study of Workers' Partici- 
pation in Decision Making. Lexington, 
University of Kentucky Press, 1960. Pp. 157. 



A case study of two groups of workers in 
the weaving department of a textile factory in 
Lodz, Poland. Tells what happens when a 
workers' council is set up in the plant. 

21. Marsh, John. Partners in Work Rela- 
tions; Human Problems in the Industry of 
the Commonwealth. London, Industrial Wel- 
fare Society, 1960. Pp. 42. 

Contents: The Impact of Industrialization 
on Developing Countries. Personnel Practices 
in the United Kingdom: 1. Trends in Human 
Relations and Welfare; 2. Executive Develop- 
ment-Patterns and Practices. The Role of 
Management Associations in Developing Coun- 
tries. Some Reflections on the Duke of Edin- 
burgh's Study Conference, 1956. The Road to 
Management and Worker Co-operation in 
Indian Industry. 

Industry— Location 

The following seven surveys were pre- 
pared and published by the Industrial 
Development Branch, Department of 
Industry and Development of Alberta in 
Edmonton in 1960 and 1961. 

22. Village of Bashaw. July 1960. Pp. 14. 

23. Village of Carstairs. Rev. July 1960. 
Pp. 14. 

24. City of Grande Prairie. Rev. Jan. 
1961. Pp. 18. 

25. Village of Holden. [1960 ] Pp. 12. 

26. Town of Magrath. Rev. Sept. 1960. 
Pp. 12. 

27. Town of Raymond. Rev. Sept. 1960. 
Pp. 19. 

28. City of Wetaskiwin. Rev. Sept. 1960. 
Pp. 19. 

Labour Organization 

29. Dempsey, Joseph Richard. The 
Operation of the Right-to-Work Laws; a 
Comparison between What the State Legisla- 
tures say about the Meaning of the Laws 
and How State Court Judges have applied 
These Laws. Milwaukee, Marquette Uni- 
versity Press, 1961. Pp. 136. 

Right-to-work laws allow the worker the 
right to join or not join a union. These laws 
mean that union shop clauses are outlawed 
in labour contracts. This book discusses how 
judges have interpreted the law and points out 
that sometimes state court judges have ex- 
tended the application of a state Right-to-Work 
Law beyond a labour contract situation. 

30. International Confederation of 
Free Trade Unions. Report of the 6th 
World Congress held in Brussels, 3-11 
December 1959; Including the Report on 
Activities and the Financial Reports for 
1957-58. Brussels, 1960. Pp. 654. 

31. Meyers, Frederic. European Coal 
Mining Unions: Structure and Function. Los 
Angeles, Institute of Industrial Relations, 
University of California, 1961. Pp. 161. 

Deals with unions active in the coal mining 
industries of France, Belgium, West Germany, 
and Great Britain. 



840 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



32. Poblete Troncoso, Moises. The Rise 
of the Latin American Labor Movement, by 
Moises Poblete Troncoso and Ben G. 
Burnett. New York, Bookman Associates, 
1960. Pp. 179. 

33. Shedd, Frederick R. Political Content 
of Labor Union Periodicals; an Analysis of 
43 Key Union Periodicals representing 
Major United States and Canadian Industry, 
by Frederick R. Shedd & George S. Odiorne. 
Ann Arbor, Bureau of Industrial Relations, 
University of Michigan [cll960] Pp. 102. 

An analysis in terms of column inches of 
the political content of 43 leading union 
periodicals. The topics considered include elec- 
tions; labor, welfare and general public in- 
terest legislation such as civil rights, which 
would affect union members among others; 
suggestions on political action that union 
members might take; legislation and govern- 
ment action affecting economic affairs; foreign 
affairs; Federal regulatory agencies; other mat- 
ters effecting union such as featherbedding, air 
pollution, etc. 

Management 

34. Beaumont, Richard Austin. Execu- 
tive Retirement and Effective Management, 
by Richard A. Beaumont and James W. 
Tower. New York, Industrial Relations 
Counselors, inc., 1961. Pp. 248. 

"This study is not designed to support fixed 
or flexible retirement approaches, but rather 
to examine the reasons for one or the other, 
and the actual conditions that seem to support 
a company's approach one way or the other." 

35. Quebec (City). Universite Laval. 
Departement des Relations Industriel- 
les. Droits de gerance et changements tech- 
nologiques [par] Jean-Paul Deschenes 
[et al.] Quebec, Les Presses universitaires 
Laval, 1960. Pp. 149. 

Report of the 15th Congres des relations 
industrielles held in Quebec City, April 25-26, 
1960. 

Partial Contents: Nature et importance des 
changements technologiques, par Jean-Paul 
Deschenes. Propriete, responsabilite et droits 
de gerance, par Gerard Dion. Changements 
technologiques et negociations collectives, par 
Jean-Paul Cardin. Arbitrabilite des griefs et 
changements technologiques, par Jean-Jacques 
Gagnon. Negociations et arbitrabilite des 
changements technologiques, par Marius Ber- 
geron. Negociation et arbitrage dans le do- 
maine des changements technologiques, par 
Marcel Pepin, W. Gordon Donnelly, Yvan 
Legault [et] Jean Sirois. 

36. Society for Advancement of Man- 
agement. Wahington Chapter. Manage- 
ment in the Scientific Age. Proceedings, 
1958 Annual Conference . . . December 
11 1958. Kalamazoo, Mich., W. E. Upjohn 
Institute for Employment Research, 1961. 
Pp. 80. 

Some of the questions considered by the 
speakers at this conference were: (1) Under 
what conditions do scientists, engineers, tech- 
nicians, and researchers achieve their best 



results? (2) How can the science of manage- 
ment contribute to the efficiency of a research 
organization? 

37. U. S. Small Business Administra- 
tion. Starting and Managing a Service 
Station. Washington, GPO, 1961. Pp. 80. 

Partial Contents: Your Station: Finding it, 
Financing it. How to acquire a Station. Getting 
the Business started. Keeping Score on Your 
Business. Managing Your Business. Building 
for the Future. 

Occupations 

38. Canada. Department of Labour. 
Economics and Research Branch. Printing 
Trades. 2d ed. Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 
1960, Pp. 48. 

39. Danielson, Lee Erle. Characteristics 
of Enginers and Scientists, Significant for 
their Utilization and Motivation. Ann Arbor, 
Bureau of Industrial Relations, University 
of Michigan, 1960. Pp. 136. 

Reports on how engineers and scientists 
feel about their particular job conditions and 
company policies and practices and why they 
feel the way they do. 

40. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 
Factory Jobs: Employment Outlook for 
Workers in Jobs requiring Little or No 
Experience or Specialized Training. Wash- 
ington, GPO, 1961. Pp. 26. 

Prepared for the vocational guidance of 
young people in school and for others interested 
in selecting a field of employment. Contains 
job descriptions for eight specific factory jobs. 

Royal Commissions 

41. Canada. Royal Commission on 
Government Organization. First Report 
on Progress. April 1961. Ottawa, Queen's 
Printer, 1961. Pp. 20. 

The Royal Commission on Government 
Organization was set up "to inquire into and 
report upon the organization and methods of 
operation of the departments and agencies of 
the government of Canada and to recommend 
the changes therein which they consider would 
best promote efficiency, economy and improved 
service in the dispatch of public business." The 
Commission is not holding public hearings 
but is receiving submissions pertaining to its 
terms of reference from interested organizations 
and individuals. This report contains descrip- 
tions of 18 projects now being carried out 
under the auspices of the Commission, and 
names of the personnel involved in each pro- 
ject. 

42. Canada. Royal Commission on the 
Automotive Industry. Report. Ottawa, 
Queen's Printer, 1961. Pp. 110. 

The Commissioner, Professor V. W. Bladen, 
was appointed "to inquire into and report upon 
the situation of and prospects for the indus- 
tries in Canada producing motor vehicles and 
parts therefor." He made proposals relating 
to excise tax, sales tax, customs duty, and 
Canadian content requirements for motor 
vehicles. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 196 1 



841 



Unemployment 

43. Editorial Research Reports. Aid to 
Depressed Areas, by William B. Dickinson, 
Jr. Washington, 1960. Pp. 941-958. 

Contents: New Effort to help Distressed 
Areas. Problems in relocating Idle Workers. 
Self-Help Activities in Depressed Areas. Fed- 
eral Assistance in Rehabilitation. 

44. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic 
Committee. Economic Programs for Labor 
Surplus Areas in Selected Countries of 
Western Europe. Materials prepared for the 
Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the 
United States. Washington, GPO, 1960 [i.e. 
1961] Pp. 15. 

During the summer of 1960, Members of 
the staff of the U.S. Congressional Joint Eco- 
nomic Committee visited Great Britain, Bel- 
gium, Denmark, and Sweden to see how those 
countries handled the problem of labour surplus 
areas. 

Wages and Hours 

45. Garbarino, Joseph William. Wage 
Escalation and Wage Inflation. Berkeley, 
University of California, Institute of 
Industrial Relations, 1961. Pp. 6. 

46. National Association of Manu- 
facturers of the United States of 
America. Industrial Relations Division. 
The Issue of the Shorter Work Week. New 
York, 1961. Pp. 18. 

47. Princeton University. Industrial 
Relations Section. Wage Behavior in the 
Postwar Period: an Empirical Analysis, by 
William G. Bowen. Princeton, 1960. Pp. 137. 

Some of the findings of this study are: 
"Unemployment and wages are much more 
loosely related than has usually been assumed; 
wages have gone up faster at given levels of 
unemployment in the postwar period than in 
earlier years; unions appear to have had more 
pronounced effects on wages in prosperous 
times than in recessions; [and] industrial con- 
centration appears to be a major factor hold- 
ing gpages up in time of recession." 

Women— Employment 

48. Barnes, Joan. A Woman's Place; 
Wider Horizons. London, Conservative 
Political Centre, 1960. Pp. 24. 

Deals with the changing position of women 
in Great Britain, their education, their life at 
home, their employment, voluntary service for 
women, women in public life, and opportunities 
and responsibilities. 

49. London School of Economics and 
Political Science. Social Science Depart- 



ment. Women, Wife and Worker. London, 
HMSO, 1960. Pp. 31. 

Summary of a study of married women 
workers at the biscuit manufacturing plant of 
Peek Frean Ltd., in Bermondsey, a London 
borough. The study examined the women's 
reason for working; how they managed the 
dual job of housekeeping and working; and 
their employment record. 

50. U.S. Women's Bureau. Suggestions to 
Women and Girls on Training for Future 
Employment. Washington, GPO, 1960. 
Pp. 11. 

51. Zapoleon, Marguerite (wykoff). 
Occupational Planning for Women. [1st ed.] 
New York, Harper, 1961. Pp. 276. 

Miscellaneous 

52. Great Britain. Committee on 

Children and Young Persons. Report. 

London, HMSO, 1960. Pp. 179. 

This Committee was appointed to look into 
and report upon proceedings, and the powers 
of the courts in respect to juvenile delinquents; 
the constitution jurisdiction and procedure of 
juvenile courts; remand homes, approved school 
and approved probation home systems; and the 
prevention of cruelty to juveniles, etc. 

53. International Society for the 
Welfare of Cripples. Rehabilitation and 
World Peace. Proceedings of the 8th World 
Congress of the International Society for the 
Welfare of Cripples held in New York, 
N.Y., August 28th to September 2nd, 1960. 
New York Internatonal Society for Rehabili- 
tation of the Disabled [1961?] Pp. 433. 

54. London, Ont. University of 
Western Ontario. Faculty of Law. Cur- 
rent Law and Social Problems. [No. 1] 
Editor: R. St. J. Macdonald. [Toronto] 
University of Toronto Press [c.1960] Pp. 
204. 

Contains an article on labour arbitration. 

55. National Manpower Council. 

Education and Manpower. Edited by Henry 

David. New York, Columbia University 

Press, 1960. Pp. 326. 

Contains a selection of educational materials 
from four volumes of the National Manpower 
Council. The articles deal with secondary, 
education, vocational education, vocational 
guidance, and higher education. 

56. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
Chemistry for the Safety Man. Washington, 
GPO, 1960. Pp. 25. 

57. U.S. Bureau of Labor Standards. 
Impact of Automation, a Collection of 20 
Articles about Technological Change, from 
the Monthly Labor Review. Washington, 
GPO, 1960. Pp. 114. 



842 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 1961 



Dept. Publishes 1961 Edition of "Labour Organizations in Canada" 

At the beginning of 1961, membership of labour organizations in Canada was 
approximately 1,447,000, a slight decline from the January 1960 total, according 
to the 50th annual issue of Labour Organizations in Canada, just published. 
Information for the 1961 edition was obtained in the early months of the year 
from national or international union headquarters, central labour congresses, and 
independent local organizations active in Canada. 

Unions affiliated with the Canadian Labour Congress accounted for 74 per 
cent of the organized workers. Approximately 7 per cent of union members belonged 
to affiliates of another central body, the Confederation of National Trade Unions, 
which until 1960 was known as the Canadian and Catholic Confederation of 
Labour. 

The grand total of 1,447,000 members reported by labour organizations in the 
1961 survey was equal to approximately 32 per cent of the estimated total number 
of non-agricultural paid workers in Canada. 

Labour Organizations in Canada, 1961 is available from the Queen's Printer, 
Ottawa (Catalogue No. L2-261), at 35 cents a copy. 



Executive Retirement 

{Cont'd from page 779) 

terms of the ability of corporate managers 
to bring and hold together the executive 
group most capable of dealing with new 
products, machines and methods. This will 
mean a pattern of executive retirement at a 
specified age for the majority. It will also 
require, however, new staffing patterns which 
will call for individual treatment of some 
executives, leading perhaps to the early 
termination of some and to the retention 
of others. 

This study is perhaps the most compre- 
hensive and up to date examination of this 
important subject available. Included in the 
many aspects of executive retirement 
covered in considerable detail are the fol- 
lowing: nature of the retirement problem, 
longevity and health, forces conditioning 
executive retirement approaches; mandatory 
retirement policies; flexible retirement 
approaches, implications of policy, maintain- 
ing motivation and morale, transfer of 
responsibility to successors, influence of 
retirement age, retention arrangements, 
voluntary early retirement, early retirement 
at company initiative, pre-retirement pro- 
cedures and counselling, retirement policy 
versus practice, retirement experience in 
non-industrial organizations, and other 
interesting aspects. 

"Executive Retirement and Effective Man- 
agement by Richard Beaumont and James W. 
Tower — Industrial Relations Monograph, No. 20 
Industrial Relations Counsellors Service, Inc., Can- 
adian Office, 120 Eglinton Avenue, East, $7.50). 



Report of Board 

{Cont'd from page 817) 

That the agreement shall call for: 
1. Effective January 1, 1961, the follow- 
ing wage adjustments shall be made: 

(a) an across the board increase of 
10.67 cents per hour to all em- 
ployees. 

(b) An additional increase, the equi- 
valent of 1 cent per hour be 
paid and added to the wages of 
all automatic operators at the 
maximum. 

(c) that an additional increase, the 

equivalent of 1.92 cent per hour 
be paid and added to all em- 
ployees at the maximum. 

(d) that an amount of 5 cents per 
hour be added to the above 
amounts, in order to begin to fill 
the gap between the rates in effect 
in the United States with those in 
effect in Canada, and in that way 
gradually reach the stage of parity 
in wages and conditions for the 
Canadian workers with the Amer- 
ican employees. 

(e) that the fringe benefits agreed 
upon between the parties become 
part of the new contract. Meaning 
Saturday premium pay, increase in 
group life insurance benefits, Hos- 
pital medical and surgical and 
the major medical insurance plan. 
Respectfully submitted, 

(Sgd.) Jean Pare, 
Member. 

Dated Montreal June 6, 1961. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7967 



843 



LABOUR STATISTICS 



Page 

Tables A-l to A-2— Labour Force 844 

Table B-l— Labour Income 845 

Tables C-l to C-6— Employment, Hours and Earnings 846 

Tables D-l to D-5— Employment Service Statistics 850 

Tables E-l to E-4— Unemployment Insurance 856 

Tables F-l and F-2— Prices 858 

Tables G-l to G-4— Strikes and Lockouts 859 



A — Labour Force 

TABLE A-l— REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION, WEEK ENDED JUNE 17, 1961 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



Canada 



Atlantic 
Region 



Quebec 



Ontario 



Prairie 
Region 



British 

Columbia 



The Labour Force 

Men 

Women 

14—19 years 

20—24 years 

25 — 44 years 

45 — 64 years 

65 years and over 

Employed 

Men 

Women 

Agricultural 

N on- Agricultural 

Paid Workers 

Men 

Women 

Unemployed 

Men 

Women 

Persons Not in the Labour Force 

Men 

Women 



6,592 
4,833 

1 , 759 

633 

855 

2,982 

1,896 

226 

6,222 
4,523 
1,699 

705 
5,517 

5,034 
3,515 
1,519 

370 
310 



5,408 
1,143 
4,265 



611 
464 
147 

77 
88 
247 
173 
26 

562 
420 
142 



503 



320 
126 



597 
139 
458 



1,824 

1,363 

461 

210 
277 
827 
465 
45 

1,685 

1,245 

440 

142 
1,543 

1,391 
989 
402 

139 
118 
21 

1,591 

323 

1,268 



2,415 
1,725 



195 

280 

1,124 

728 



2,307 

1,639 

668 

163 
2,144 

1,987 

1,373 

614 

108 
86 
22 

1,797 

354 

1,443 



1,154 

842 
312 



144 

511 

343 

47 

1,124 
816 



312 
812 



750 
500 
250 



26 



200 



588 
439 
149 

42 

66 

273 

187 
20 

544 

403 
141 

29 
515 

460 
333 
127 

44 
36 



527 
127 
400 



than 10,000. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 196 1 



TABLE A-3— UNEMPLOYED 

(Estimates in thousands) 
Source: DBS Labour Force Survey 



Total unemployed 

On temporary layoff up to 30 days 
Without work and seeking work . . . 

Seeking full-time work 

Seeking part-time work 

Seeking under 1 month 

Seeking 1 — 3 months 

Seeking 4 — 6 months 

Seeking more than 6 months. . 



June 
1961 


May 
1961 


June 
1960 


370 


457 


315 


16 
354 


18 
439 


15 
300 


332 
22 


416 
23 


287 
13 


86 
101 
72 
95 


70 
120 
141 
108 


85 
91 
62 
62 



B — Labour Income 



TABLE B-l— ESTIMATES OF LABOUR INCOME 

Note: All figures in this table except those for 1956 have been revised. Monthly and quarterly figures may not add 
to annual totals because of rounding. 

($ Millions) 

Source: Dominion Bureau of Statistics 





Monthly Total 


Quarterly Totals") 


Year and 
Month 


Mining 


Manu- 
facturing 


Trans- 
portation, 
Storage 
and 
Communi- 
cation^) 


Forestry 


Construc- 
tion 


Public 
Utilities 


Trade 


Finance 
Services 
(including 
Govern- 
ment) 


Supple- 
men- 
tary 
Labour 
income 


Totals 

(3) 


1956— Total.... 
1957— Total.... 
1958— Total.... 
1959— Total. . . . 
1960— Total. . . . 

1960— 


498 
535 
527 
552 
551 

45.1 
46.7 
46.3 
46.7 
46.9 
45.7 
45.4 
44.3 

44.2 

44.4 
44.5 
43.2 
45.6 


4,586 
4,838 
4,828 
5,103 
5,200 

437.3 
443.3 
435.3 
437.9 
442.0 
437.5 
432.3 
422.6 

420.0 
424.4 
427.1 
431.5 
441.2 


1,560 
1,661 
1,677 
1,773 
1,779 

149.3 
152.4 
155.0 
154.4 
153.2 
151.2 
148.5 
144.7 

140.5 
142.0 
142.5 
145.4 
151.2 


371 
336 
270 
288 
326 

72.0 


1,210 
1,311 
1,329 
1,472 
1,472 

363.4 


239 

277 
298 
316 
327 

81.2 


2,069 
2,265 
2,359 
2,528 
2,641 

657.0 


3,546 
3,920 
4,295 
4,705 
5,095 

1,273.6 


617 
683 
739 
819 
916 

226.9 


14,890 
16,018 
16,524 
17,761 
18,514 

1,537.4 




1,590.2 


July 

August 

September... 














1,578.9 


88.5 


446.7 


84.7 


663.5 


1,282.7 


232.9 


1,592.3 
1,620.7 














1,599.8 


November. . . 


91.6 


369.9 


82.6 


685.4 


1,319.2 


235.5 


1,573.7 
1,529.4 


1961 — 

January 

February 














1,494.3 


62.1 


278.7 


81.8 


656.5 


1,327.4 


235.7 


1,502.3 
1,510.1 


April* 

Mayt 














1,536.2 














1,586.3 

















O Quarterly figures are entered opposite the middle month of the quarter but represent quarterly totals. 

(2) Includes post office wages and salaries. 

(3) Figures in this column are for total labour income, Canada, but are not totals of the figures in the remaining col- 
umns of this table, as figures for labour income in Agriculture, Fishing and Trapping are not shown. 

•Revised. 
fPreliminary. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

98232-2—8 



AUGUST 7967 



845 



C — Employment, Hours and Earnings 

Tables C-l to C-3 are based on reports from employers having 15 or more employees— at May 1961 employers 
in the principal non-agricultural industries reported a total employment of 2,765,836. Tables C-l (every second 
month) and C-5 are based on reports from a somewhat smaller number of Arms than Tables C-l to C-3. They 
relate only to wage earners for whom statistics of hours of work are also available whereas Tables C-l to C-3 
relate to salaried employees as well as to all wage earners in the reporting firms. 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Year and Month 



Averages 

1955 

1956 

1957 

1958 

1959 

1960 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October. . . 
November 
December. 

1961 

January. . . 
February . . 

March 

April* 

Mayf 



Industrial Composite 



Index Numbers (1949 = 100)^ 



Employ- 
ment 



112.9 
120.7 
122.6 
117.9 
119.7 



118.9 
122.8 
121.9 
123.1 
123.1 
121.5 
119.7 
114.8 



111.6 
111.0 
111.1 
112.6 
116.9 



Aggregate 
Payrolls 



161.2 
182.0 
194.7 
194.1 
205.7 



217.7 
217.8 
291.0 
220.7 
218.2 
214.5 
202.4 



201.4 
202.5 
202.3 
206.3 
214.0 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



142.1 
150.0 
158.1 
163.9 
171.0 



175.4 
176.1 
177.6 
176.8 
178.2 
178.3 
177.9 
175.0 



179.2 
181.1 
180.7 
181.8 
181.5 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



61.05 
64.44 
67.93 
70.43 
73.47 



75.36 
75.67 
76.28 
75.94 
76.55 
76.60 
76.43 
75.18 



77.00 
77.80 
77.64 
78.12 
77.99 



Manufacturing 



Index Numbers (1949 = 100) 



Employ- 
ment 



109.8 
115.8 
115.8 
109.8 
111.1 



110.6 
112.1 
110.2 
111.7 
111.6 
109.6 
108.1 
104.1 



104.3 
104.6 
104.9 
105.4 
108.3 



Aggregate 
Payrolls 



159.5 
176.8 
185.3 
182.7 
193.3 



198.1 
201.8 
198.4 
199.7 
201.6 
199.4 
197.2 
187.0 



191.6 
193.5 
194.4 
196.7 
201.5 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



144.4 
151.7 
159.1 
165.3 
172.5 



176.9 
177.8 
177.8 
176.5 
178.2 
179.6 
180.0 
177.2 



181.1 
182.5 
182.8 
184.1 
183.5 



Average 
Weekly 
Wages 

and 
Salaries 



63.48 
66.71 
69.94 
72.67 
75.84 



77.80 
78.16 
78.18 
77.62 
78.37 
78.95 
79.16 
77.92 



79.65 
80.24 
80.36 
80.95 
80.70 



OJ Includes (1) Forestry (chiefly logging), (2) Mining (including milling), quarrying and oil wells, (3) Manufacturing 
(4) Construction, (5) Transportation, storage and communication, (6) Public utility operation, (7) Trade, (8) Finance, 
insurance and real estate and (9) Service, (mainly hotels, restaurants, laundries, dry cleaning plants, business and recrea- 
tional service). 

Technical Note— A change has been made in the method of dating the statistics published in Tables C-l to C-6 
to conform with the usual practice of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics. In the past, statistics for the last pay period 
in a month were labelled "pay period preceding" the first day of the following month. From now on, statistics for the 
last pay period in a month will be labelled for that month. Another change is that average earnings formerly expressed 
in cents carried to one decimal place, are now published in dollars and cents. 

* Revised. 

f Preliminary. 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 7961 



TABLE C-2— AREA SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY WAGES 

AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls D.B.S. 



Area 



Employment 
Index Numbers 



Apr. 
1961 



Mar. 
1961 



Apr. 
1960 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



Apr. 
1961 



Mar. 
1961 



Apr. 
1960 



Provinces 



Newfoundland 

Prince Edward Island 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Quebec 

Ontario 

Manitoba 

Saskatchewan 

Alberta (including Northwest Territories). 
British Columbia (including Yukon) 



Canada. 



Urban Areas 



St. John's 

Sydney 

Halifax 

Moncton 

Saint John 

Chicoutimi— Jonquiere. . . 

Quebec 

cherbrooke 

Shawinigan 

Three Rivers 

Drummondville 

Montreal 

Ottawa— Hull 

Kingston 

Peterborough 

Oshawa 

Toronto 

Hamilton 

St. Catharines 

Niagara Falls 

Brantford 

Guelph 

Gait 

Kitchener 

Sudbury 

Timmins 

London 

Sarnia 

Windsor 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Ft. William— Pt. Arthur. 

Winnipeg 

Regina 

Saskatoon 

Edmonton 

Calgary 

Vancouver 

Victoria 



107.4 
111.2 
86.6 
88.7 
112.1 
114.9 
104.9 
116.7 
143.7 
108.5 

112! 



117.2 

74.2 
113.8 

99.0 

95.4 
108.4 
108.2 

97.2 
101.5 
108.3 

74.9 
121.4 
122.1 
115.8 

88.6 
172.0 
128.3 
105.6 
105.1 

92.1 

81.8 
115.7 
105.2 
116.8 
146.0 

90.5 
124.4 
122.4 

72.6 
135.2 
105.0 
107.2 
129.2 
134.4 
178.5 
165.9 
109.0 
104.6 



84.4 
95.9 
110.0 
113.7 
103.4 
112.9 
143.2 
107.5 

111.1 



116.0 

58.8 
115.6 

97.9 
115.7 
104.2 
105.4 

97.7 
101.4 
102.4 

74.7 
118.9 
119.0 
115.2 

87.3 
168.9 
126.9 
104.4 
105.7 

90.0 

80.9 
115.1 
105.9 
114.9 
146.6 

91.3 
122.9 
121.1 

72.6 
128.8 

95.1 
105.7 
125.8 
129.9 
174.8 
166.1 
108.0 
107.5 



106.5 
114.9 
87.4 
90.0 
113.6 
117.6 
106.7 
120.0 
145.7 
113.9 

114.8 



121.0 

72.0 
114.0 

93.9 
100.4 
116.0 
109.4 

97.4 
101.5 
110.9 

74.0 
122.3 
121.1 
108.7 

97.4 
185.3 
128.9 
112.6 
109.4 

95.8 

83.5 
122.4 
113.9 
120.0 
143.1 

91.8 
122.2 
125.9 

77.9 
147.3 



103. 

108. 

128. 

133. 

179. 

165. 

114.3 

112.7 



70.63 
59.33 
64.20 
64.47 
75.68 
80.83 
72.87 
73.60 
79.44 
86.13 

78.18 



57.11 
75.12 
64.66 
60. U9 



70.23 
58.98 
62.26 
64.64 
75.16 
80.45 
72.59 
73.29 
79.11 
84.83 

77.64 



56.82 



64.34 
60.56 



61.93 


62.54 


97.67 


95.19 


66.72 


65.36 


64.23 


63.09 


86.06 


84.82 


73.23 


69.91 


63.49 


63.76 


76.96 


76.49 


72.66 


71.58 


77.01 


76.75 


85.17 


84.73 


90.45 


89.21 


81.46 


81.23 


86.80 


85.96 


89.10 


87.72 


83.46 


83.03 


75.21 


74.40 


71.38 


71.24 


69.74 


69.88 


73.19 


72.68 


91.61 


91.28 


71.29 


71.02 


74.26 


73.87 


100.53 


102.87 


87.41 


87.32 


99.60 


97.93 


80.92 


77.37 


70.33 


69.77 


72.47 


72.32 


70.14 


69.80 


74.11 


73.31 


75.93 


75.20 


84.39 


83.56 


78.07 


76.91 



67.89 
56.93 
62.71 
63.20 
73.33 
78.68 
71.09 
71.41 
76.86 
83.36 

75.98 



55.90 
76.25 
61.02 
59.60 
60.90 
89.38 
63.81 
63.75 
83.83 
68.68 
61.41 
74.74 
69.66 
73.48 
84.06 
92.36 
78.82 
84.44 
85.72 
79.17 
72.11 
70.34 
67.15 
71.60 
89.76 
68.21 
71.23 
101.79 
86.74 
94.32 
76.18 
68.09 
68. *5 
07.27 
72.45 
72.45 
81.50 
74.86 



TABLE C-4- HOURS IN MANUFACTURING BY PROVINCES 

This table is published every second month 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE 

98232-2— 8£ 



• AUGUST 1967 



847 



TABLE C-3— INDUSTRY SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT AND AVERAGE WEEKLY 

WAGES AND SALARIES 

(1949 = 100) (The latest figures are subject to revision) 

Source: Employment and Payrolls, D.B.S. 



Industry 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled and malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries — 
Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery Industrial. . / 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicles parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery 

Telecommunication equipment 

Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Petroleum refining 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

Industrial composite 



Employment 
Index Numbers 



Apr. 
1961 



111.5 

130.0 
70.7 

185.3 
76.2 
37.5 

243.1 

130.9 



105 

107, 
103 
104 
128, 
71, 
98, 
108, 
97. 
77. 
9G, 
85, 



59. 

81. 

89. 

90. 

98. 

69. 

97. 

97. 
105. 

78. 
120. 
121. 
118. 
123. 
101. 



141.7 



92. 

87. 
113. 
115. 
103. 
108. 
103. 
257. 
103. 
101. 

53. 
113. 
122. 
135. 
100. 
142. 
127. 

96. 
208. 
130. 

78. 
149. 
133. 
135. 
130. 
118. 
153. 
132. 

106. 

104. 
109. 
132. 

140. 

124. 
116. 

112. 



Mar. 
1961 



113.0 

130.3 
70.2 

186.3 
82.7 
34.8 

289.0 

123.5 

104.9 

107.0 

103.2 

102.7 

127.6 

70.5 

98.6 

108.2 

94.7 

90.3 

94.0 

87.6 

95.3 

76.4 

69.6 

59.1 

81.8 

91.0 

91.5 

102.7 

70.7 

96.2 

97.0 

104.8 

75.7 

118.6 

119.4 

116.7 

123.5 

100.8 

69.2 

145.7 

97.3 

88.6 

89.1 

111.5 

112.4 

100.2 

106.7 

104.8 

259.8 

103.7 

101.7 

53.7 

120.4 

122.6 

134.0 

99.4 

142.7 

126.8 

95.9 

208.9 

124.9 

75.3 

145.9 

134.4 

137.4 

129.7 

117.2 

151.7 

129.9 



98.0 

97.4 
99.0 
130.3 

138.9 

121.8 
114.3 

111.1 



Apr. 
1960 



113.4 

136.6 
72.6 

196.3 
74.2 
32.5 

253.6 

123.4 

108.9 

114.6 

104.1 

107.3 

132.7 

78.3 

102.5 

110.5 

99.0 

77.7 

103.7 

81.1 

87.7 

76.8 

68.6 

60.5 

83.4 

88.7 

89.1 

96.1 

71.1 

100.7 

101.0 

109.2 

83.5 

120.8 

121.1 

120.0 

124.1 

108.9 

79.2 

151.4 

102.4 

97.5 

93.7 

119.4 

125.4 

106.6 

118.8 

112.9 

239.2 

115.6 

109.3 

64.6 

139.1 

128.6 

141.7 

102.8 

151.0 

134.6 

108.0 

210.9 

139.0 

92.7 

150.7 

135.7 

138.9 

133.2 

119.8 

149.9 

129.4 

111.0 

109.6 
113.5 
130.9 

140.1 

126.0 
115.3 

114.8 



Average Weekly Wages 
and Salaries, in Dollars 



Apr. 
1961 



$ 
95.11 

96.34 
77.56 

103.02 
96.40 
71.35 

113.02 
87.43 

80.96 

86.98 
75.72 
72.75 
81.02 
68.55 
78.74 
66.80 
96.09 
80.87 
82.27 
53.84 
50.88 
64.10 
60.81 
60.54 
70.11 
50.31 
49.09 
52.30 
49.76 
70.36 
73.63 
66.00 
62.06 
96.14 

104.40 
76.25 
87.17 
91.56 
93.02 
93.06 
82.03 
77.62 
86.61 
88.46 

105.30 
90.03 
92.18 
91.49 
95.47 
99.04 
90.88 
81.08 
86.24 
92.36 
90.58 
86.72 
99.89 
87.63 
95.19 
88.13 
83.44 
77.56 
80.26 

115.06 

115.73 
94.04 
83.15 

105.10 
72.28 

82.81 
89.92 
71.50 
81.90 

55.62 

42.45 
48.66 

78.18 



Mar. 
1961 



$ 
95.88 
98.47 
79.44 

105.15 
94.22 
62.33 

110.73 
86.75 

80.36 

86.18 
75.30 
72.99 
83.30 
67.31 
77.43 
67.03 
98.30 
74.47 
81.39 
53.90 
51.39 
64.14 
60.58 
60.46 
71.35 
50.42 
50.24 
51.88 
48.88 
69.37 
72.18 
65.60 
62.06 
94.17 

102.05 
75.27 
86.99 
90.90 
92.94 
93.60 
80.65 
78.87 
84.40 
88.02 

105.07 
89.00 
90.76 
90.12 
96.44 
99.44 
88.76 
79.47 
79.76 
91.87 
89.69 
85.31 
99.78 
86.95 
93.99 
87.56 
83.14 
76.97 
80.83 

117.24 

117.89 
94.14 
83.39 

105.50 
72.40 

82.03 

88.87 
70.85 
82.14 

55.04 

42.10 
47.92 

77.64 



£48 



THE LABOUR GAZETTE • AUGUST 796 J 



TABLE C-5.-HOURS AND EARNINGS BY INDUSTRY 

(Hourly-Rated Wage-Earners) 

Source: Man-Hours and Hourly Earnings, D.B.S. 

(The latest figures are subject to revision) 



Industry 



Mining 

Metal mining 

Gold 

Other metal 

Fuels 

Coal 

Oil and natural gas 

Non-metal 

Manufacturing 

Durable goods 

Non-durable goods 

Food and beverages 

Meat products 

Canned and preserved fruits and vegetables 

Grain mill products 

Bread and other bakery products 

Distilled liquors 

Malt liquors 

Tobacco and tobacco products 

Rubber products 

Leather products 

Boots and shoes (except rubber) 

Other leather products 

Textile products (except clothing) 

Cotton yarn and broad woven goods 

Woollen goods 

Synthetic textiles and silk 

Clothing (textile and fur) 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Knit goods 

*Wood products 

Saw and planing mills 

Furniture 

Other wood products 

Paper products 

Pulp and paper mills 

Other paper products 

Printing, publishing and allied industries 

•Iron and steel products 

Agricultural implements 

Fabricated and structural steel 

Hardware and tools 

Heating and cooking appliances 

Iron castings 

Machinery, industrial 

Primary iron and steel 

Sheet metal products 

Wire and wire products 

•Transportation equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Motor vehicles 

Motor vehicle parts and accessories 

Railroad and rolling stock equipment 

Shipbuilding and repairing 

•Non-ferrous metal products 

Aluminum products 

Brass and copper products 

Smelting and refining 

•Electrical apparatus and supplies 

Heavy electrical machinery and equipment. 

Telecommunication equipment 

Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners and appli 
ances 

Wire and cable 

Miscellaneous electrical products 

•Non-metallic mineral products 

Clay products 

Glass and glass products 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Chemical products 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. . 

Acids, alkalis and salts 

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries 

Construction 

Building and general engineering 

Highways, bridges and streets 

Electric and motor transportation 

Service 

Hotels and restaurants 

Laundries and dry cleaning plants 

•Durable manufactured goods industries. 



Average Weekly 


Average Hcurly 


Average Weekly 




Hours 






Earnings 




Wages 




Apr. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Apr. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Apr. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


1961 


1961 


1960 


1961 


1961 


1960 


1961 


1961 


1960 


no. 


no. 


no. 


$ 


S 


% 


$ 


$ 


$ 


41.3 


41.6 


41.2 


2.13 


2.14 


2.12 


87.94 


89.18 


87.37 


41.3 


42.6 


41.4 


2.21 


2.20 


2.19 


91.27 


93.76 


90.78 


41.5 


43.8 


41.9 


1.71 


1.69 


1.67 


71.00 


74.15 


69.96 


41.3 


42.1 


41.2 


2.40 


2.41 


2.39 


99.27 


101.45 


98.58 


39.9 


38.2 


38.7 


1.96 


2.03 


2.00 


77.97 


77.56 


77.52 


40.6 


34.3 


38.1 


1.72 


1.73 


1.74 


69.91 


59.28 


66.36 


38.7 


42.3 


39.5 


2.37 


2.29 


2.33 


91.49 


96.65 


91.92 


42.6 


41.6 


42.9 


1.97 


1.99 


1.88 


84.10 


82.65 


80.60 


40.6 


40.3 


40.5 


1.84 


1.83 


1.79 


74.52 


73.64 


72.37 


40.8 


40.4 


40.9 


1.99 


1.99 


1.94 


81.20 


80.16 


79.21 


40.3 


40.2 


40.1 


1.70 


1.68 


1.64 


68.40 


67.70 


65.60 


40.5 


40.6 


40.4 


1.66 


1.65 


1.60 


67.16 


67.12 


64.47 


40.1 


41.5 


39.9 


1.90 


1.89 


1.85 


76.35 


78.66 


73.97 


39.4 


38.6 


38.9 


1.49 


1.46 


1.43 


58.60 


56.37 


55.50 


42.2 


41.9 


41.9 


1.75 


1.74 


1.69 


73.73 


72.94 


70.77 


41.8 


42.2 


42.1 


1.47 


1.48 


1.44 


61.47 


62.26 


60.77 


40.3 


39.7 


39.0 


2.09 


2.09 


2.02 


84.22 


82.79 


78.62 


39.4 


39.3 


39.3 


2.33 


2.35 


2.23 


91.58 


92.31 


87.54 


39.9 


38.4 


40.0 


1.90 


1.78 


1.80 


75.67 


68.48 


72.06 


41.1 


40.5 


40.6 


1.86 


1.85 


1.82 


76.34 


74.96 


74.11 


39.7 


40.1 


37.4 


1.23 


1.23 


1.20 


49.05 


49.28 


45.01 


39.2 


40.0 


36.5 


1.18 


1.18 


1.16 


46.34 


47.14 


42.38 


40.8 


40.5 


39.2 


1.35 


1.34 


1.30 


55.05 


54.28 


50.93 


41.9 


41.9 


41.8 


1.37 


1.37 


1.33 


57.40 


57.44 


55.84 


40.4 


40.2 


40.4 


1.40 


1.40 


1.35 


56.43 


56.23 


54.62 


43.1 


43.0 


42.2 


1.28 


1.28 


1.24 


55.23 


54.92 


52.48 


43.1 


43.9 


43.1 


1.45 


1.45 


1.43 


62.30 


63.91 


61.52 


38.2 


38.4 


38.0 


1.18 


1.18 


1.14 


45.12 


45.37 


43.16 


37.6 


38.6 


37.7 


1.18 


1.19 


1.14 


44.40 


45.81 


42.86 


37.5 


37.1 


36.9 


1.25 


1.26 


1.21 


47.08 


46.61 


44.76 


40.6 


39.9 


39.9 


1.10 


1.09 


1.06 


44.58 


43.57 


42.38 


41.3 


40.7 


40.9 


1.63 


1.62 


1.58 


67.13 


65.88 


64.63 


41.0 


40.5 


40.3 


1.75 


1.73 


1.70 


71.59 


70.05 


68.47 


41.6 


41.0 


41.7 


1.46 


1.46 


1.43 


60.91 


59.95 


59.46 


42.0 


41.9 


42.1 


1.35 


1.35 


1.32 


56.75 


56.47 


55.62 


41.6 


40.7 


41.3 


2.17 


2.15 


2.03 


90.21 


87.53 


83.93 


41.8 


40.8 


41.4 


2.34 


2.32 


2.18 


98.01 


94.85 


90.21 


40.9 


40.5 


40.9 


1.69 


1.67 


1.63 


69.15 


67.85 


66.81 


38.7 


39.0 


39.3 


2.21 


2.21 


2.17 


85.72 


86.22 


85.28 


40.6 


40.4 


40.7 


2.13 


2.12 


2.07 


86.67 


85.73